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Consumer attitude and attitude change

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personality, self concept, physographics

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Consumer attitude and attitude change

  1. 1. CONSUMER ATTITUDE AND ATTITUDE CHANGE(S L GUPTA- CP 8) <ul><li>WHAT IS AN ATTITUDE: IS LEARNED PREDISPOSITION TO RESPOND IN A CONSISTENTLY FAVOURABLE AND UNFAVOURABLE MANNER WITH RESPECT TO A GIVEN STIMULI. </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULI: COULD BE A PRODUCT, PRODUCT CATOGARY, BRAND, PEOPLE RELATED TO THE PRODUCT ETC. </li></ul>
  2. 2. EXAMPLE OF STIMULI <ul><li>YOU WANT TO CONDUCT: CONSUMER RESEARCH. STUDY THE CONSUMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS GLOBAL CAR MANUFACTURERS IN INDIA. </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULI: YOU WILL STUDY: FIAT, DAEWOO, HONDA, FORD ETC. </li></ul>
  3. 3. LEARNED PREDISPOSITION <ul><li>ATTITUDE ARE FORMED FROM VARIETY OF SOURCES OF INFORMATION INCLUDING: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPERIENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPOSURE TO MEDIA ETC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO IT IS MORE OF ACQUIRED ATTITUDE  MOMENTUM TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND IS NOT BEHAVIOUR ITSELF. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 3 RD IMPORTANT: CONSISTENCY <ul><li>CONSISTENCY ======= PERMANANCY. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: BREAD IS NOW A PART OF INDIAN BREAKEFAST. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT IF THE PRICE INCREASE HIGH  MAY STOP USING IT. </li></ul><ul><li>SO MIGHT CHANGE IN PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS SUBSTITUTE PRODUCTS. </li></ul>
  5. 5. MODELS AND TEORIES OF ATTITUDE <ul><li>1. TRICOMPONENT ATTITUDE MODEL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 COMPONENTS: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COGNITION COMPONENT: KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION ACQUIRED BY PEOPLE  BELIEFS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFFECT COMPONENT: FEELING  ABOUT PRODUCT OR BRAND  FAVOURABLE OR UNFAVOURABLE FEELING. POSITIVE OR NEGETIVE. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONATION COMPONEN: LIKELIHOOD OR THE PROBABILITY OF THE CONSUMER TO TAKE A DEFINITE ACTION WITH REGARD TO THE ATTITUDE OBJECT, WHICH MAY BE ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR  ALSO CALLED BUYER`S INTENTION. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. COGNATION AFFECT CONATION INTERPLY OF THESE THREE GIVE US AN IDEA ABOUT THE BUYER`S ATTITUDE.
  7. 7. BEHAVIOUR INTENTION MODEL <ul><li>THE MODEL DOES NOT PREDICT THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE CONSUMER, BUT THE INTENTION TO BEHAVE IN A PARTICULAR WAY. </li></ul><ul><li>MODEL SAY  BEHAVING IN A PARTICULAR WAY WILL RESULT IN A PARTICULAR CONSEQUENCE. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3 rd : THEORY OF TRYING TO CONSUME <ul><li>DESIGNED  TO ACCESS  SITUATION  WHERE OUTCOME IS UNCERTAIN BUT THERE IS AN EFFORT FROM CONSUMER`S SIDE TO PURCHASE. </li></ul><ul><li>THEORY HIGHLIGHTS: CONSTRAINING FACTORS WHICH PROHIBIT THE CONSUMER FROM CONVERTING THE ATTITUDE INTO ACTUAL PATTERN. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 4. ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE AD MODEL. EXPOSURE TO AN AD JUDGEMENTS ABOUT THE Ad ( COGNITION) BELIEFS ABOUT THE BRAND ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE BRAND ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE Ad FEELING FROM THE Ad(affect) RELATION AMONG ELEMENTS IN AN ATTITUDE-TOWARDS THE Ad MODEL
  10. 10. LETS SEE HOW IT WORKS: CONSUMER  Ad  HIS EXPOSURE  HE IS AFFECTED  HE STARTS REACTING TO THE Ad BY FEELING AND APPLYING THE MIND(COGNITION) AFTER SEEING THE Ad. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE TOWARDS Ad  SAME TOWARDS BRAND/PRODUCT. FORMATION OF CONSUMER ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE BRAND: ONE IS JUDGEMENTAL EVALUATION ( WHETHER THE Ad WAS INFORMATIVE, VAGUE, HOLISTIC ETC AND FEELING THE CONSUMER GOT FROM THE Ad  SATISFIED, CURIOUS, BORED, HAPPY THIS WILL FORM HIS INVOLVEMENT( HIGH OR LOW): AS A MARKETER SEE THIS BOTH ARE IM PORTANT
  11. 11. ATTITUDE FORMATION <ul><li>DIVIDED INTO 2 BROAD AREAS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SOURCES OF INFLUENCE ON ATTITIDE FORMATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE IMPACT OF PERSONALITY ON ATTITUDE FORMATION. </li></ul></ul>1. SOURCES: INFORMATION, EXPOSURE, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, ENVIRONMENT, NEED/WANT SATISFACTION  VOLTAS: “ YEH VOLTAS REFRIGERATOR HAI JANAB, JO VOLTAS MAIN HAI WHO DOOSRON MEIN NAHIN”
  12. 12. CONTINUE… <ul><li>THE NEED IS TO HAVE REFRIGERATOR.. MESSAGE IS ONLY VOLTAS CAN TRULY SATISFY YOUR NEED. </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY INFLUENCE: IT SAYS PERSONALITY WISE CONSUMER GET INFLUENCE: PEOPLE IS SENSITIVE AND IMAGINATIVE AND TAKE HELP OF RIGHT BRAIN  POSITIVE ATTITUDE IF Ad IS CONVEYED THROUGH THAT ROUTE. </li></ul><ul><li>IF PERSONALITY: LOGICAL ONE: ATTRACTED TOWARDS THAT Ad WHICH GIVES LOT OF FACTUAL INFORMATION SO DEVELOP HIS ATTITUDE. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CHANGE IN ATTITUDE(SL GUPTA CP 8) <ul><li>DEFINE: “ a finding that at a given time, a significantly higher or lower proportion of the population holds certain attitude that at a earlier time: </li></ul><ul><li>Factors responsible for attitude formation are also attitude change: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONGRUENT CHANGE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INCONGRUENT CHANGE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CONTINUE.. <ul><li>EXAMPLE: WAR KARGIL: SOME WANT TO JOIN/DOUBLE MINDED FOR ARMY: </li></ul><ul><li>SO MUCH MEDIA ATTENTION  FORMED A DEFINITE ATTITUDE TO JOIN THE ARMY.( CALLED CONGRUENT CHANGE : attitude change in a direction that reinforces the present attitudinal position.) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Continue….. <ul><li>TEACHING WAS CONSIDERED “ NOBLE PROFESSION” NO LONGER. </li></ul><ul><li>CHILDREN OF TEACHERS WHICH HAVE SEEN THE PRESENT STATE WANT TO SHIFT TOWARDS CORPORATE SECTOR: SO CHANGE TO TOTALLY OPPOSITE TO WHAT GOING ON IS CALLED: INCONGRUENT CHANGE. </li></ul>
  16. 16. EXAMPLE: AN Ad TO CHANGE CONSUMER ATTITUDE TOWATRDS PLAIN MILK BY REGARDING MILK AS GLAMOROUS AS WELL AS HEALTHY FRIENDLY DRINK. <ul><li>MILK SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED AS A PRODUCT SATISFYING ONLY THE PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED. </li></ul>
  17. 17. MARKETER STRATEGIES: FOR ATTITUDINAL CHANGE <ul><li>LAST SLIDE WAS THE FIRST STARTEGY ADOPTED MY MARKETERS TO BRING ATTITUDIAN CHANGE: </li></ul><ul><li>THIS IS CALLED CHANGE CONSUMER MOTIVATIONAL FUNCTION: SOMETIME CONSUMER FORMS A HABBIT. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: MILK FOR EVERY ONE, NOT ONLY FOR CHILDREN, OLD PEOPLE, PATIENTS BUT FOR YOUG PEOPLE ALSO. </li></ul><ul><li>NDDB( NATIONAL DAIRY DEVELOPMENT BOARD)  “ PI SAKTE HO ROZ GLASS FULL” AND “ GARMI MEIN DALO DUDH MEIN ICE, DUDH BAN GAYA VERY NICE”. </li></ul>
  18. 18. CRUX…… <ul><li>IF MARKETER IS ABLE TO MAKE NEED PROMINENT, THEN CONSUMER WILL NOT BUY BECAUSE OF HABBIT FORMATION. </li></ul><ul><li>2. ASSOCIATE WITH THE ADMIRED GROUP OR EVENT/CAUSE. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: wills associated with loved leisurely and stylish sporting event(event marketing), if related; benefit will pass on to blind relief or old age homes( cause marketing) </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3. Attitute change by resolving conflicting attitudes. <ul><li>Example: I am too fat to wear a western outfil. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrow: zero calorie outfit </li></ul><ul><li>So resolve the conflict; </li></ul><ul><li>I will not go to Mc Donald in Nay ratras: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mcdonald came with pure vegetarian week. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: sugar free option. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 4. STRATEGY OF ALTERING ATTITUDE OF PRODUCT OR BRAND. <ul><li>SO CHANGE BY ALTERING BELIEF OF PRODUCT. </li></ul><ul><li>CANON: SELLS XEROX MACHINE: NOW CHANGING  BY PROJECTING IT NOT ONLY BRING REGULAR BLACK STUFF BUT OBJECTS OF ART “ COMPARABLE TO LIVE IMAGES” </li></ul><ul><li>HDFC: NOT ONLY HOUSE LOAN BUT MUCH MORE THAN THAT.( EDUCATION, ETC). </li></ul><ul><li>SO CHANGE BY BRINGING SOME VALUE ADDITION  COGNITIVE CHANGE. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Personality and Self Concept(Srivastava: Galgotia Publication, S L gupta, Shiffmann) <ul><li>MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY: Differ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M otivation  are emerging and directing force that drives consumer behaviour and give it direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality  which guides and directs the behaviour chosen to accomplish goals in different situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So when we talk of motivation and personality it walks hand in hand. Maslows need hierarchy and Motives/needs move along. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality basically long term lasting. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. NATURE/DEFINE PERSONALITY. <ul><li>IS THE COMPOSITE SUM OF AN INDIVIDUAL`S PSYCHOLOGICAL TRAITS, CHARACTERISTICS, MOTIVES, HABITS,ATTITUDE, BELIEFS AND OUTLOOK. </li></ul><ul><li>IS AN INTERNALIZED SYSTEM WHICH INCLUDES ALL THOSE ASPECTS OF A PERSON THAT ARE INHERITED AS WELL AS THOSE THAT ARE LEARNED. </li></ul>
  23. 23. PERSONALITY AND BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>GENETIC DETERMINANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PRENATAL DETERMINANTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERIENTIAL DETERMINANTS </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPMENT OF STABLE PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOUR DICTATED BY INTERNALIZED SYSTEM </li></ul>SOURCE TRAITS BEHAVIOUR OUTCOME
  24. 24. PERSONALITY AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>PERSONALITY MAY BE VERY GOOD WAY TO JUDGE A PERSON BEHAVIOUR IN MOST OF TIME IF NOT EVERY TIME. </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLE: SELECTION OF GREETING CARD, WHICH REPRESENTS PERSONAL MESSAGE AND THEREFORE EXTENSION OF ONE`S PERSONALITY . </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2 BROAD VIEWS ON DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITY. <ul><li>STATE APPROACH TO PESONALITY. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It says an individual should be understood as a whole. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore understanding individual`s response under variety of conditions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT REMEMBER AS A MARKETER YOU HAVE TO SEGMENT ON GROUP BASE AND NOT ONLY ON INDIVIDUAL BASE so GROUP TRAIT TO TAKE TOGETHER SO GO FOR 2 APPROACH. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Continue.. <ul><li>2. Traits approach to Personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers  understand  more through  traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits are consistent tendencies to respond to a given situation in certain ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Trait theory says: All individuals share the same traits, though they are exibited at different levels for different groups, resulting in DIFFERENT PERSONALITIES. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Certain Personality Traits may Be more related to C.B than Others. <ul><li>OPTIMAL STIMULATION LEVEL(OSL). </li></ul><ul><li>Example: People prefer activities with less arousing, avoid too much excitement: Example GOLF </li></ul><ul><li>People likely to seek activities that are higly exciting(RIVER RAFTING) So higher OSL </li></ul><ul><li>AS a MARKETER YOU HAVE TO DESIGN Ad or PROMOTION AS PER THE TRAIT GROUP YOU ARE FOCUSSING. </li></ul><ul><li>v </li></ul>
  28. 28. 2. DOGMATISM <ul><li>CONSUMER VARY: HOW OPEN or CLOSED MINDED THEY ARE. </li></ul><ul><li>DOGMATIC CONSUMER: are likely to be more resistant to new marketing practises, individual products, promotions and advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Need for Cognition: higher N F C would like knowledgable ads and VICE VERSA. </li></ul>
  29. 29. 3. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO INFLUENCE <ul><li>Some have greater desire to enhance their image as observed by others and are therefore willing to be influenced or Guided by them </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to other consumer with lower social and information processing confidence tend to be more influences by ads relative to higher self confidence. </li></ul>
  30. 30. 4. SELF MONITORING BEHAVIOUR <ul><li>DEGREE TO WHICH YOU LOOK TO OTHERS FOR CUES TO BEHAVE. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH SELF MONITORS ARE TYPICALLY SENSTIVE TO THE DESIRES AND INFLUENCES OF OTHERS TO GUIDE THEIR OWN BEHAVIOUR AND LOW SELF MONITORS ARE GUIDED BY THEIR OWN PREFERENCES AND DESIRES. SO THEIR DIFFER IN RESPECT TO THE Ad. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. MARKETERS PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>1.Marketer use personality traits to first differentiate individuals, and than only group them according to their behavioural similarity. </li></ul><ul><li>2. As marketer cannot change personality so he has to appeal to the relevant personality traits inherent in target customer group. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Through continuous learning personality gets influence. </li></ul><ul><li>4. To remember: personality is one of the important determinant and not the only. </li></ul>
  32. 32. How its helps marketer <ul><li>Positioning brand as per his personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Target less known brands and technological innovations to consumers with high level of self esteem and self confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid targetting innovative products to rigid consumers and consumers with low tolerance for ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the extent to which consumer of the product category are prone to discounts/rebates and how value consciuos they are; then market accordingly. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>CRUX : FIGURE SAYS  SELF CONCEPT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SELF CONCEPT IS BROADLY DIVIDED IN FOUR BASIC PARTS. </li></ul></ul>S C: IS A NARROWER DIMENSION OF PERSONALITY  TO INVESTIGATE POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN(ON ONE HAND) HOW INDIVIDUAL PERCEIVE THEMSELVES AND (ON OTHER HAND) HOW THEY BEHAVE AS CONSUMERS. DIMENSION ACTUAL SELF CONCEPT IDEAL SELF CONCEPT PRIVATE SELF HOW I ACTUALLY SEE MYSELF HOW I WOULD LIKE TO SEE MYSELF SOCIAL SELF HOW OTHERS ACTUALLY SEE ME HOW I WOULD LIKE OTHERS TO SEE ME
  34. 34. ROLE OF SELF CONCEPT IN MARKETING <ul><li>TO make marketing startegies. </li></ul><ul><li>Self concept if formed through interaction with parents, peers, teachers and others. </li></ul><ul><li>One`s self concept is valuable to oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>S c is valuable, an individual always strives to enhance it. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain products serves as social symbols and communicate social meaning to those who own and use such product. </li></ul>
  35. 35. BRAND PURCHASED MUST MATCH THE SELF CONCEPT OF THE CONSUMER TO RESULT IN SATISFACTION. SELF CONCEPT AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR PRODUCT: BRAND IMAGE CONSUMER: SELF CONCEPT SATISFACTION: PURCHASE CONTRIBUTES TO DESIRED SELF CONCEPT BEHAVIOUR: SEEK PRODUCTS AND BRANDS THAT IMPROVE/MAINTAIN SELF CONCEPT RELATIONASHIP: BETWEEN SELF CONCEPT AND BRAND IMAGE REINFORCEMENT OF SELF CONCEPT
  36. 36. REVISION <ul><li>Nature of Personality: it guides and directs the behaviour chosen to accomplish goals in different situations. Its long lasting, so important to marketer. </li></ul><ul><li>PERSONALITY TRAITS: 2 ways to under stant 1. state aproach and other trait approach. State view understanding the individual in a holistic way. The trait approac sees people as having commen approac to differing degrees. More useful the study of personality traits to marketers to position. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Continue.. <ul><li>Emotion: are strong relatively uncontrollable feeling that affect our behaviour. Based on situation emotions come like: increased perspiration, eye pupil dilation, increased heart and breath arte and BP. Marketers design and position to both arouse and reduce emotions. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Continue.. <ul><li>Self concept: is one`s beliefs and about ones`s self. There are 4 types of self-concept: actual private self concept, actual social self concept, ideal private self concept and ideal social self concept. </li></ul><ul><li>MARKETERS ARE INTERESTED IN SELF CONCEPT: CONSUMERS PURCHASE AND USE PRODUCTS TO EXPRESS , MAINTAIN AND ENHANCE THEIR SELF CONCEPTS. </li></ul>
  39. 39. PSYCHOGRAPHICS(galgotia publications, K K Srivastava) PSYCHOGRAPHICS RESEARCH MAINLY FOCUS ON A I O(ACTIVITIES, INTEREST AND OPINIONS) IT INVOLVES DESCRIBING PEOPLE IN TERMS OF DAY TO DAY ACTIVITIES,INTEREST, OPINIONS, PERSONALITIES AND PERSONAL VALUES.
  40. 40. WHAT PSYCHOGRAPHICS DO. <ul><li>THEY PUT STATEMENTS TO CONSUMER OR SAY HOW WELL A STATEMENT DESCRIBE A PARTICULAR PERSON. </li></ul><ul><li>SO CAPTURE INDIVIDUAL`S STAND ON A VARIETY OF STATEMENTS. </li></ul>THESE STATEMENTS ARE PRODUCT OR BRAND SPECIFIC
  41. 41. SO WHAT IT INVOLVES <ul><li>A I O or HIS LIFESTYLE, PERSONALITIES AND DEMOGRAPHICS: WHY FOR MAKING MARKETING STRATEGIES. LIKE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEGMENTING CUSTOMERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSITIONING PRODUCTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DESIGNING MEDIA STRATEGY ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. DEMOGRAPHICS PERSONALITY PSYCHOGRAPHICS CONSUMER LIFESTYLE <ul><li>LIFE STYLE AND PSYCHOGRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>DEMOGRAPHICS </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA HABBITS </li></ul><ul><li>BENEFIT SOUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>BRAND ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS </li></ul><ul><li>PURCHASE BEHAVIOUR ETC </li></ul>P U R C H A S E PSYCHOGRAPHICS IN MARKETING
  43. 43. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES: help marketers locate their target market. </li></ul><ul><li>PSYCHOGRAPHIC Variables: provide them with more insights about the segment. It is an analysis of values, personality, and lifestyle as reflected through persons activities,interest and opinions . A psychographic study consist of a long list of statements designed to capture relevent dimensions of a consumer profile, like buying motive, interest, attitude, beliefs, values etc. </li></ul>

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