CLOUD COMPUTING By Mr. Jagdeesha Kulal J ContentsSL.NO TITLE 01. Meaning 02. Origins 03. History 04. Overview 05. Advantage of using public cloud 06. What does a shift towards cloud computing mean? Characteristics 07. Service models 08. Types of cloud 09. Cloud storage advantages 10. Cloud computing and small business 11. Recent developments 12. Top10 companies 13. Disadvantage of cloud computing 14.
Public CloudMeaning:A public cloud is established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek toshare infrastructure so as to appliance. In addition, it can be economically attractive as theresources (storage, workstations) utilized and shared in the community are already exploited.This is the cloud computing model where service providers make their computing resourcesavailable online for the public. It allows the users to access various important resources oncloud, such as: Software, Applications or Stored data. One of the prime benefits of using publiccloud is that the users are emancipated from performing certain important tasks on theircomputing machines that they cannot get away with otherwise, these include: Installation ofresources, their configuration; and Storage.Origins:Before cloud file sharing and collaboration software, most collaboration was limited to moreprimitive and less effective methods such as email and FTP among others. These did not workparticularly well, and so the need emerged for a simple to use, yet feature rich cloudcollaboration solution.Very early moves into cloud computing were made by Amazon Web Services who, in 2006,began offering IT infrastructure services to businesses in the form of web service. Cloudcomputing only began to come to real prominence in 2007 when Google decided to move partsof its email service to a public cloud. It was not long before IBM and Microsoft followed suit withLotus Live and Business Productivity Online Standard Suite (BPOS) respectively. With anincrease in cloud computing services, cloud collaboration solutions were able to evolve. Since2007, many new, innovative firms have entered the industry offering new features and a morecomplete cloud collaboration system, filling ps in the market left by less adaptable large existingsoftware firms.Many analysts explain the rise of cloud collaboration by pointing to the increasing use byworkers of non-authorized websites and online tools to do their jobs. This includes the use ofinstant messaging and social networks. In a survey taken in early 2011, 22% of workersadmitted to having used one or more of these external non-authorized websites. Cloudcollaboration packages provide the ability to collaborate on documents together in real time,making the use of non – authorized instant messaging redundant. IT managers can nowproperly regulate internet based collaboration with a system tailor made for theHistory:The origin of the term cloud computing is obscure, but it appears to derive from the practice ofusing drawings of stylized clouds to denote networks in diagrams of computing and
communications systems. The word cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on thestandardized use of a cloud-like shape to denote a network on telephony schematics and laterto depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlyinginfrastructure it represents. The cloud symbol was used to represent the Internet as early as1994.In the 1990s, telecommunications companies who previously offered primarily dedicated point-to-point data circuits, began offering Virtual Private Network(VPN) services with comparablequality of service but at a much lower cost. By switching traffic to balance utilization as they sawfit, they were able to utilize their overall network bandwidth more effectively. The cloud symbolwas used to denote the demarcation point between that which was the responsibility of theprovider and that which was the responsibility of the users. Cloud computing extends thisboundary to cover servers as well as the network infrastructure.Overview:Cloud collaboration brings together new advances in cloud computing and collaboration that arebecoming more and more necessary in firms operating in an increasingly globalised world.Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide software, data access, andstorage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location andconfiguration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawnwith the electricity grid, where end-users consume power without needing to understand thecomponent devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.Collaboration, in this case, refers to the ability of workers in a company to work togethersimultaneously on a particular task. In the past, most document collaboration would have to becompleted face to face. However, collaboration has become more complex, with the need towork with people all over the world in real time on a variety of different types of documents,using different devices. While growth in the collaboration sector is still growing rapidly, it hasbeen noted that the uptake of cloud collaboration services has reached a point where it is lessto do with the ability of current technology, and more to do with the reluctance of workers tocollaborate in this way. A report by Erica Regulates mapped out five reasons why workers arereluctant to collaborate more. These are: • People resist sharing their knowledge. • Users are most comfortable using e-mail as their primary electronic collaboration tool. • People do not have incentive to change their behavior. • Teams that want to or are selected to use the software do not have strong team leaders who push for more collaboration. • Senior management is not actively involved in or does not support the team collaboration initiative.Advantages of using Public Cloud:
• Efficient storage and computing services • Inexpensive, since all the virtual resources whether application, hardware or data are covered by the the service provider. • Allow for easy connectivity to servers and information sharing. • Assures appropriate use of resources as the users are required to pay only for the services they require. • Highly reliable and redundant. • Widespread availability irrespective of geographical precincts. • Sets the business people free from the hassles of buying, managing and maintaining all the virtual resources at their own end, the cloud server does it all. • Public cloud, in today’s advanced workplace, empowers employees and enables them to become productive even when outside the office. The SaaS model ensures that corporations save on IT expenditures while delivering the flexibility of productivity software on the cloud.What does a shift towards cloud computing mean?A paradigm shift to cloud computing will affect many different sub-categories in computerindustry such as software companies, internet service providers (ISPs) and hardwaremanufacturers. While it is relatively easy to see how the main software and internet companieswill be affected by such a shift in Gingers chunky nuggets, it is more difficult to predict howcompanies in the internet and hardware sectors will be affected. Most of the major companieshave launched their product. IBM launched their new Smart Cloud data center in Japan in 2011.Characteristics: Agility improves with users ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs. Cost is claimed to be reduced and in a public cloud delivery model capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. This is purported to lower barriers to entry, as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and fewer IT skills are required for implementation (in-house). The e-FISCAL projects state of the art repository contains several articles looking into cost aspects in more detail, most of them concluding that costs savings depend on the type of activities supported and the type of infrastructure available in-house. Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). As
infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet, users can connect from anywhere. Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. Multitenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: o Centralization of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.) o Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load- levels) o Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Scalability and elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine- grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Security could improve due to centralization of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels. Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. However, the complexity of security is greatly increased when data is distributed over a wider area or greater number of devices and in multi-tenant systems that are being shared by unrelated users. In addition, user access to security audit logs may be difficult or impossible. Private cloud installations are in part motivated by users desire to retain control over the infrastructure and avoid losing control of information security. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each users computer and can be accessed from different places. Service modelsCloud computing providers offer their services according to three fundamental models:Infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and software as a service(SaaS) where IaaS is the most basic and each higher model abstracts from the details of thelower modelsInfrastructure as a service (IaaS): In this most basic cloud service model, cloud providers offer computers, as physical or moreoften as virtual machines, and other resources. The virtual machines are run as guests by ahypervisor, such as Xen or KVM. Management of pools of hypervisors by the cloud operationalsupport system leads to the ability to scale to support a large number of virtual machines. Otherresources in IaaS clouds include images in a virtual machine image library, raw (block) and file-based storage, firewalls, load balancers, IP addresses, virtual local area networks (VLANs), andsoftware bundles. IaaS cloud providers supply these resources on demand from their large
pools installed in data centers. For wide area connectivity, the Internet can be used or in carrierclouds dedicated virtual private networks can be configured.To deploy their applications, cloud users then install operating system images on the machinesas well as their application software. In this model, it is the cloud user who is responsible forpatching and maintaining the operating systems and application software. Cloud providerstypically bill IaaS services on a utility computing basis, that is, cost will reflect the amount ofresources allocated and consumed.IaaS refers not to a machine that does all the work, but simply to a facility given to businessesthat offers users the leverage of extra storage space in servers and data centers. Examples: Amazon Cloud Formation (and underlying services such as Amazon EC2), Rackspace Cloud, Google Engine and Right Scale.Platform as a service (PaaS): In the PaaS model, cloud providers deliver a computing platform typically including operatingsystem, programming language execution environment, database, and web server. Applicationdevelopers can develop and run their software solutions on a cloud platform without the costand complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. Withsome PaaS offers, the underlying computer and storage resources scale automatically to matchapplication demand such that cloud user does not have to allocate resources manually.Examples: Amazon Elastic Beanstalk, Heroku, Engine Yard, Mendix, Google App Engine,Microsoft Azure and Orange Scape.Software as a service (SaaS): In this model, cloud providers install and operate application software in the cloud and cloudusers access the software from cloud clients. The cloud users do not manage the cloudinfrastructure and platform on which the application is running. This eliminates the need toinstall and run the application on the cloud users own computers simplifying maintenance andsupport. What makes a cloud application different from other applications is its elasticity. Thiscan be achieved by cloning tasks onto multiple virtual machines at run-time to meet thechanging work demand. Load balancers distribute the work over the set of virtual machines.This process is inconspicuous to the cloud user who sees only a single access point. Toaccommodate a large number of cloud users, cloud applications can be multitenant, that is, anymachine serves more than one cloud user organization. It is common to refer to special types ofcloud based application software with a similar naming convention: desktop as a service,business process as a service, test environment as a service, communication as a service.The pricing model for SaaS applications is typically a monthly or yearly flat fee per user.Examples: Google Apps, Quickbooks Online, Salesforce.com and Microsoft Office 365.Types of cloud:
Public cloud: Public cloud applications, storage, and other resources are made available to thegeneral public by a service provider. These services are free or offered on a pay-per-use model.Generally, public cloud service providers like Amazon AWS, Microsoft and Google own andoperate the infrastructure and offer access only via Internet (direct connectivity is not offered).Community cloud: Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations froma specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whethermanaged internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spreadover fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the costsavings potential of cloud computing are realized.Hybrid cloud: Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community orpublic) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multipledeployment models.By utilizing "hybrid cloud" architecture, companies and individuals are able to obtain degrees offault tolerance combined with locally immediate usability without dependency on internetconnectivity. Hybrid Cloud architecture requires both on-premises resources and off-site(remote) server based cloud infrastructure.Hybrid clouds lack the flexibility, security and certainty of in-house applications. Hybrid cloudprovides the flexibility of in house applications with the fault tolerance and scalability of cloudbased services.Private cloud: Private cloud is cloud infrastructure operated solely for a single organization,whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. Undertaking aprivate cloud project requires a significant level and degree of engagement to virtualize thebusiness environment, and it will require the organization to reevaluate decisions about existingresources. When it is done right, it can have a positive impact on a business, but every one ofthe steps in the project raises security issues that must be addressed in order to avoid seriousvulnerabilities.They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" andthus do not benefit from less hands-on management, essentially "[lacking] the economic modelthat makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".Cloud storage advantages: • Companies need only pay for the storage they actually use as it is also possible for companies by utilizing actual virtual storage features like thin provisioning. • Companies do not need to install physical storage devices in their own datacenter or offices, but the fact that storage has to be placed anywhere stays the same (maybe localization costs are lower in offshore locations). • Storage maintenance tasks, such as backup, data replication, and purchasing additional storage devices are offloaded to the responsibility of a service provider, allowing organizations to focus on their core business, but the fact stays the same that someone has to pay for the administrative effort for these tasks
• Cloud storage provides users with immediate access to a broad range of resources and applications hosted in the infrastructure of another organization via a web service interface.Cloud storage can be used for copying virtual machine images from the cloud to on-premiselocations or to import a virtual machine image from an on-premise location to the cloud imagelibrary. In addition, cloud storage can be used to move virtual machine images between useraccounts or between data centersCloud Computing and Small Business:For a small and medium size business (SMB), the benefits of cloud computing is currentlydriving adoption. In the SMB sector there is often a lack of time and financial resources topurchase, deploy and maintain an infrastructure (e.g. the software, server and storage).In cloud computing, small businesses can access these resources and expand or shrinkservices as business needs change. The common pay-as-you-go subscription model isdesigned to let SMBs easily add or remove services and you typically will only pay for what youdo use.Recent developments: • Recently, cloud collaboration has seen rapid evolution. In the past, cloud collaboration tools have been quite basic with very limited features. Newer, packages are now much more document-centric in their approach to collaboration. More sophisticated tools allow users to "tag" specific areas of a document for comments which are delivered real time to those viewing the document. In some cases, the collaboration software can even be integrated into Microsoft Office, or allow users to set up video conferences. • Furthermore, the trend now is for firms to employ a single software tool to solve all their collaboration needs, rather than having to rely on multiple different techniques. Single cloud collaboration providers are now replacing a complicated tangle of instant messengers, email and FTP. • Cloud collaboration today is promoted as a tool for collaboration internally between different departments within a firm, but also externally as a means for sharing documents with end-clients as receiving feedback. This makes cloud computing a very versatile tool for firms with many different applications in a business environment. • A 2011 report by Gartner outlines a five stage model on the maturity of firms when it comes to the uptake of cloud collaboration tools. A firm in the first stage is said to be "reactive", with only email as a collaboration platform and a culture which resists information sharing. A firm in the fifth stage is called "pervasive", and has universal access to a rich collaboration toolset and a strong collaborative culture. The article argues that most firms are in the second stage, but as cloud collaboration becomes
more important, most analysts expect to see the majority of firms moving up in the model.Top 10 companies:10.Vm ware9. Microsoft8. Bluelock7. Citrix6. Joyent5. Verizon/Terremark4. Salesforce.com3. CenturyLink/Savvis2. Rackspace1.Amazon Web ServicesDisadvantages of Cloud Computing: • Possible downtime: Cloud computing makes your small business dependent on the reliability of your Internet connection. When its offline, youre offline. And even the most reliable cloud computing service providers suffer server outages now and again. • Security issues: How safe is your data? Cloud computing means Internet computing. So you should not be using cloud computing applications that involve using or storing data that you are not comfortable having on the Internet. That being said, established, reliable cloud computing vendors will have the latest, most sophisticated data security systems possible as they want your business and realize that data security is a big concern. Switching to the cloud can actually improve security for a small business, says Michael Redding, managing director of Accenture Technology Labs. "Because large cloud computing companies have more resources, he says, they are often able to offer levels of security an average small business may not be able to afford implementing on its own servers" • Cost: At first glance, a cloud computing application may appear to be a lot cheaper than a particular software solution installed and run in-house, but you need to be sure youre comparing apples and apples. Does the cloud application have all the features that the software does and if not, are the missing features important to you? You also need to be sure you are doing a total cost comparison. While many cloud computer vendors present themselves as utility-based providers, claiming that youre
only charged for what you use, Gartner says that this isnt true; in most cases, a company must commit to a predetermined contract independent of actual use. To be sure youre saving money, you have to look closely at the pricing plans and details for each application.• Inflexibility: Be careful when youre choosing a cloud computing vendor that youre not locking your business into using their proprietary applications or formats. You cant insert a document created in another application into a Google Docs spreadsheet, for instance. Also make sure that you can add and subtract cloud computing users as necessary as your business grows or contracts.• Lack of support: In These Issues Need to be Resolved Before Cloud Computing Becomes Ubiquitous, (OPEN Forum) Anita Campbell writes, "Customer service for Web apps leaves a lot to be desired -- All too many cloud-based apps make it difficult to get customer service promptly – or at all. Sending an email and hoping for a response within 48 hours is not an acceptable way for most of us to run a business".