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Scaffolding

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Scaffolding
components, procedure, precautions, legal compliance, checkpoints

Scaffolding

  1. 1. Training conducted at EERC Theramx Ltd. On 24 & 25 Sep 2012 BY Mr. V N Parbhu
  2. 2. SCAFFOLD:“A temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen, materials, or both" in the construction or repair of buildings an d other large structures.
  3. 3. Types of scaffolds Categories  Suspended  Supported, tubular  Rolling Tubular scaffolding are further divided in 3 groups:  Pipe & coupler ( Clamp)  H frame  Cuplock
  4. 4. Tubular scaffolding Frequently used in construction work. TUBE & COUPLER SCAFFOLD: “A scaffold constructed of steel tubing that serves as standards, ledgers, transoms, braces, a nd ties and specially designed scaffold couplers that serve to connect the various members”.
  5. 5. Independent Guard Rail (Approx 1.0 m high) Brick Guard Tied Intermediate guard rail (Max gap of 470 mm) Scaffold END OF Toe Board (Min 150 mm high) SCAFFOLD Scaffolding Planks (Deck area min of 600 mm wide) Transom Facade Brace LargeThrough Tie Ledger Brace Eye Bolt Reveal Tie Couplers at joints Ledger Standard Eye Bolt and Strap Base Plates Sole Plates
  6. 6. VARIOUS PARTS OFSCAFFOLDS STANDARD: “Vertical scaffold tube that bears the weight of the Scaffold”. LEDGER: “A lengthwise horizontal scaffold tube that extends from standard to standard, that supports the transoms and that forms a tie between the standards”. TRANSOM: “A horizontal transverse scaffold member, that may support platform units, and which is supported by at least two ledgers or connected directly to at least two standards”. COUPLER: “A component or device used to fix scaffold tubes together”. PLANK: “An individual timber board or fabricated component that serves as a flooring member of a platform”. HANDRAIL: “A barrier consisting of pipes erected to prevent workers from falling off an elevated work area”. TOE BOARD: A barrier min 150 mm height to prevent slip/fall of material from platform. MID RAIL MUDSILL(SOLE PLATE): IT IS A WOODEN PLATE THAT IS USED TO DISTRIBUTE THE SCAFFOLDING LOAD OVER A SUITABLE GROUND AREA. BASE PLATE: DIAGONAL BRACING ACCESS LADDER
  7. 7. MUDSILL(SOLE PLATE) IT IS A WOODEN PLATE THAT IS USED TO DISTRIBUTE THE SCAFFOLDING LOAD OVER A SUITABLE GROUND AREA. THE SIZE OF MUDSILL IS DETERMINED BY THE LOAD CARRIED OVER A PARTICULAR GROUND AREA, AND BY THE NATURE OF THE SOIL SUPPORTING THESE SILLS.
  8. 8. BASE PLATE IT SPREADS CROSS- SECTIONAL AREA OF THE STANDARD TO LARGE AREA. IT PREVENTS SINKING OF STANDARDS. IT PREVENTS OVERTURNING OF SCAFFOLD. IT CARRIES THE WEIGHT OF SCAFFOLD.
  9. 9. Guardrail & Midrail“These barriers used to prevent fall of any persons from platform.” General Requirements for guardrail & midrail:- NOMINAL DIA.- AT LEAST 1.5 INCHES. SPACING OF POSTS- NOT MORE THAN 8 FEET. MUST BE CAPABLE OF WITHSTANDING A LOAD OF 200 POUNDS WHEN APPLIED FROM ANY DIRECTION & AT ANY POINT ON THE TOP RAIL. THE HEIGHT OF TOP RAILSHOULD BE 42 INCHES FROM THE TOP OF RAIL TO PLATFORM LEVEL. MIDRAIL TO BE PLACED HALF WAY.
  10. 10. TOEBOARD HEIGHT OF TOE BOARD SHOULD BE AT LEAST 4 INCHES. TO BE MOUNTED WITHIN ¼ INCHES OF THE WORKING PLATFORM. PURPOSE IS TO STOP SUDDEN TRAVEL OF A PERSON ON SCAFFOLD PLATFORM AFTER SLIPPING.
  11. 11.  MANY FATAL ACCIDENTS HAVE OCCURRED WHEN PERSONS HAVE FALLEN DOWN FROM A SCAFFOLD DURING THE PROCESS OF CLIMBING OR WHILE GETTING DOWN. MUST PROVIDE SAFE ACCESS TO SCAFFOLD & SCAFFOLD PLATFORM. THE BOTTOM STEP OR RUNG OF LADDER ( hook-on ladder , attachable ladder or stairway type ladder whichever the case may be ) MUST NOT BE MORE THAN 24 INCHES ABOVE OR BELOW THE SCAFFOLD SUPPORTING LEVEL. FOR SUPPORTED SCAFFOLDS OF MORE THAN 35 FEET HEIGHT , PROVIDE A REST PLATFORM AT 35 FEET HEIGHT. PROVIDE A REST PLATFORM EVERY 12 FEET IN CASE OF STAIRWAY TYPE ACCESS LADDER Rungs should be round type only.
  12. 12. ACCESS LADDER
  13. 13. 5 MAJOR MISHAPS.1. Person falling while climbing up or coming down.2. Person falling from the working platform / deck.3. Objects falling from a scaffold on to someone below.4. Object falling from above on to a worker on the scaffold.5. Tilting of scaffold or collapse of scaffold.
  14. 14. TAGS Types:-  a) Caution Tag  b)Danger Tag  c)Ok Tag Important Features of Tags-  Abrasive and chemical resistance  Water Proof(salt water/steam resistance)  Ultraviolet radiation  High visibility  Made as per privilege standard  Reusable feature  Color as per the message  Size & thickness of letters as per standard
  15. 15.  Standard components of Tags:-  Name of company  Message  Maximum weight to be kept on platform  Name & signature of competent person  Date of signing  Inspection date  According to BOCW Act tags & warning signs must be in local language.  According to Factory Act:- All notices required by or under this Act to be displayed in a factory shall be in English and in a language understood by the majority of the workers in the factory, and shall be displayed at some conspicuous and convenient place
  16. 16. Applicable Act’s:- BOCW ACT 1996 &FACTORIES ACT 1948
  17. 17. BOCW ACT 1996 Chapter XXIII  Scaffold 215. Scaffold construction 216. Supervision by a responsible person 217. Maintenance 218. Standards, ledger, putlogs 219. Working platform 220. Board, plank and decking 221. Repair of damaged scaffold 222. Opening 223. Guardrails
  18. 18. BOCW ACT 1996 224. Scaffold used by building workers of different employers 225. Protection against electric power line 226. Screening net and wire-nets 227. Tower scaffold 228. Gear for suspension of scaffold 229. Trestle scaffold and cantilever scaffold:- 230. Scaffold supported by building 231. Use of winches and climbers for suspended scaffold 232. Safety devices for suspended scaffold
  19. 19. FACTORIES ACT 1948 Under Section 32:- (c) when any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, provision shall be made, so far as is reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise, to ensure the safety of the person so working. {Here Act clearly indicates there must be “Prevent fall” rather than additional provision’s like safety ne etc.}
  20. 20. Inspection Points Scaffold must be inspected and should be documented at start of each shift or after modifications by a competent person . Do a Visual Inspection for Obvious Issues: . Access . Full Planking . Guardrails . Plumbness
  21. 21.  Competent Person Checklist: 1. When was the last time the scaffold was inspected? 2. Were the planks looked at? (checked for saw cuts, fungi, dents, face breaks, and splits) 3. Is there a ladder? (obstructed access, three feet above, within two feet of the bottom, built in) 4. Who trained the erecting & dismantling crew? 5. Last time the users were trained? 6. What is the maximum intended load of this scaffold? 7. What is the maximum load you intend to put on it? 8. Plum, square, level? 9. Base plates, mudsills?.(what is the foundation like) 10. Working levels fully planked? (holes, max. 9 1/2.) 11. Extensions of planks over the end frame? (6.-12.) 12. Fall protection? (when & what) 13. Securing the scaffold at 4:1? (width of frame) Maintain clearance near ALL power lines Scaffolding must be fully Planked

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