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Xenorhabdus Nematophilus

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Xenorhabdus Nematophilus

  1. 1. Xenorhabdus nematophilus http://ucdnema.ucdavis.edu/imagemap/nemmap/ent156html/slides/fromCD/1939/64B.GIF
  2. 2. X.nematophilus <ul><li>Overview: what disease. </li></ul><ul><li>History. </li></ul><ul><li>Key attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>X. Nematophilus Lifecycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent research. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview X. Nematophilus infects insects’ larvae and causes septicemia * Taxology +Class: Gamma- proteobacteria +Order: Enterobateriales + Family: Enterobacteriaceae + Genus: Xenorhabdus - Species: nematophilus
  4. 4. History In 1965, X. Nematophilus was discribed by Gerald Thomas and Gorge Poinar – University of California, Berkeley-. In1979, was classified as an Enterobacteriaceae.
  5. 5. Key attributes <ul><li>X. Nematophilus </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistic relationship with Steinernema carpocapsae. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic relationship with various types of insect. </li></ul><ul><li>Gram- negative </li></ul><ul><li>Rod- shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Non- spore forming </li></ul><ul><li>Peritrichous Flagella </li></ul>http://www.ambafrance-au.org/france_australie/spip.php?article2367
  6. 6. X. Nematophilus Structure http://mic.sgmjournals.org/cgi/content/full/150/5/1439 X. Nematophilus under electron microscopy
  7. 7. Transmission http://www.xenorhabdus.org/ <ul><li>X. Nematophilus live mutually inside the nematode - S.carpocapsae- anterior intestine in specialized vesicles. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria help its vector to create suitable conditions to reproduces. </li></ul><ul><li>The vector helps the bacteria to infect the host by penetrate to the its hemocoel cavity through its mouth and anus . </li></ul>
  8. 8. X. Nematophilus Lifecycle http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/118541936/HTMLSTART
  9. 9. CpxR controls mutualism and pathogenicity genes. Gene Regulations http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/73/24/7826
  10. 10. Recent Research * Bowen DJ, Ensign JC got a patent for the use of the Xenorhabdus’s toxins as a bio- pesticide in 2002

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