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Xenorhabdus Nematophilus


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Xenorhabdus Nematophilus

  1. 1. Xenorhabdus nematophilus
  2. 2. X.nematophilus <ul><li>Overview: what disease. </li></ul><ul><li>History. </li></ul><ul><li>Key attributes. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>X. Nematophilus Lifecycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent research. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Overview X. Nematophilus infects insects’ larvae and causes septicemia * Taxology +Class: Gamma- proteobacteria +Order: Enterobateriales + Family: Enterobacteriaceae + Genus: Xenorhabdus - Species: nematophilus
  4. 4. History In 1965, X. Nematophilus was discribed by Gerald Thomas and Gorge Poinar – University of California, Berkeley-. In1979, was classified as an Enterobacteriaceae.
  5. 5. Key attributes <ul><li>X. Nematophilus </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistic relationship with Steinernema carpocapsae. </li></ul><ul><li>Pathogenic relationship with various types of insect. </li></ul><ul><li>Gram- negative </li></ul><ul><li>Rod- shaped </li></ul><ul><li>Non- spore forming </li></ul><ul><li>Peritrichous Flagella </li></ul>
  6. 6. X. Nematophilus Structure X. Nematophilus under electron microscopy
  7. 7. Transmission <ul><li>X. Nematophilus live mutually inside the nematode - S.carpocapsae- anterior intestine in specialized vesicles. </li></ul><ul><li>The bacteria help its vector to create suitable conditions to reproduces. </li></ul><ul><li>The vector helps the bacteria to infect the host by penetrate to the its hemocoel cavity through its mouth and anus . </li></ul>
  8. 8. X. Nematophilus Lifecycle
  9. 9. CpxR controls mutualism and pathogenicity genes. Gene Regulations
  10. 10. Recent Research * Bowen DJ, Ensign JC got a patent for the use of the Xenorhabdus’s toxins as a bio- pesticide in 2002