Foundations of ICT In ELT

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Foundations of ICT In ELT

  1. 1. The Foundations of Information and Communication Technology in English Language Teaching a.k.a. I C T 4 E L T
  2. 2. ICT4 ELT <ul><li>definition </li></ul><ul><li>place of ICT in the modern world </li></ul><ul><li>place in language education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>early days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dichotomy of practical application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in class use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>out of class use </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. In class <ul><li>Student activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communicative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher demonstrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instead of handouts </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Out of class <ul><li>preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>worksheets, activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>course outlines, email </li></ul></ul><ul><li>professional development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>journals, discussion forums, lesson plans </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Language teaching <ul><li>Three fundamental areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic foundations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT point of view </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part 1. Linguistic principals <ul><li>Our understanding of language is being enhanced by computers </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the corpus </li></ul><ul><li>modern dictionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the place of vocabulary in LT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Lexical Approach (Michael Lewis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>modern grammars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>evidence of facts, patterns, choices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lexicogrammar, the Idiom Principle (John Sinclair, et.al.) </li></ul><ul><li>Data Driven Learning (Tim Johns) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Answering questions <ul><li>What contexts is sibling used in? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the standard order of knife , fork and spoon ? </li></ul><ul><li>When is the way how to do something used? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does the phrase to boldly go come from, and how is it used? </li></ul><ul><li>Do native speakers say that they go into the nature ? What words typically precede into the nature ? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Knowing a word <ul><li>Meanings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and/or uses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation, spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Collocation </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation </li></ul><ul><li>Complementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the grammar of vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain, Pragmatic Function, Semantic Prosody, Lexical Support </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for productive use of language </li></ul>
  9. 9. A word’s FRAME <ul><li>Making passive vocabulary active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Something has the potential to do something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adj + enough to + inf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>86% followed by reflexive pronoun </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MWUs: multi-word units <ul><li>phrasal verb : take off, step down, enter into </li></ul><ul><li>modals : be about to, had better, be bound to </li></ul><ul><li>compound noun : coffee table, step son, word family </li></ul><ul><li>compound preposition : away from, regardless of, in comparison with </li></ul><ul><li>fixed phrase : in the light of, open to suggestion, up up and away </li></ul><ul><li>collocation : vivid imagination, irresistible temptation, little imp </li></ul><ul><li>idiom : storm in a teacup, bull in a china shop </li></ul><ul><li>quotation : much ado about nothing, couldn’t give a damn </li></ul><ul><li>discourse marker : be that as it may, comparatively speaking, in other words </li></ul>
  11. 11. Domain <ul><li>interval in the theatre, </li></ul><ul><li>intermission in the cinema, </li></ul><ul><li>half-time at sporting matches </li></ul><ul><li>How is this word used? not What does this word mean? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Pragmatics <ul><li>communicative function of vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>really, admittedly, you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Cobuild Dictionary margin notes. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Learner Dictionaries <ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrative sentences </li></ul>
  14. 14. Corpus-based Grammars <ul><li>Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English </li></ul>
  15. 15. Error analysis <ul><li>especially via learner corpora </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cambridge Learner Corpus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>interlanguage can be defined </li></ul><ul><li>teacher expectations </li></ul><ul><li>useful to course writers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Data Driven Learning <ul><li>Training students to discover answers to their own questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strong synaptic connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tim Johns – Birmingham University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>kibbitzers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>an approach still in its infancy </li></ul><ul><li>TALC conference </li></ul><ul><li>The Compleat Lexical Tutor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Part 2: Language acquisition <ul><li>Native speaker vs. non-native speaker </li></ul>
  18. 18. Native Speaker <ul><li>NS has vast amounts of NS input </li></ul><ul><li>Silent period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the period during which children are processing HOW the language works – intake . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>first attempts maked when ready – output . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Non-native speaker <ul><li>different input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Silent period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>forced </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Replicate FLA in SLA <ul><li>Many attempts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Total Physical Response </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT provides facilities in areas of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>receptive skills (input) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internet – spoken and written language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactive exercises (intake) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>practice, immediate feedback, revision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discovery activities (intake) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDL: attested language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>production skills (output) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genuine communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Part 3. Pedagogical approaches <ul><li>Vygotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom </li></ul><ul><li>Task-Based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative Language Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The Lexical Approach </li></ul>
  22. 22. Computers and private study <ul><li>encourage a silent period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drilling-practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloze and text reconstruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosswords </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT in “normal” textbooks – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ New Opportunities” ( Jarek Krajka contributions). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Sentence Grammar <ul><li>unrelated sentences  not ideal input (not FLA) </li></ul><ul><li>Written discourse: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>articles, stories, reports, song lyrics, jokes, anecdotes, film synopses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>aural discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>songs, news items, short videos </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Software packages <ul><li>Free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hot Potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wida </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tens of thousands of interactive exercises etc on the web now. Make your own with: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Web-based tools and facilities: Information <ul><li>dictionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Compleat Lexical Tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Wordnet </li></ul><ul><li>lesson plans </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>language courses </li></ul><ul><li>film trailers </li></ul>
  26. 26. Facilitates <ul><li>remedial work </li></ul><ul><li>extension work </li></ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul><ul><li>independence </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration </li></ul>
  27. 27. Collaborative learning <ul><li>Not private study, par excellence </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is not the sage on the stage </li></ul><ul><li>The Philosophy as expressed in Moodle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructionism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Constructivism </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Collaborative learning (II) <ul><li>1. Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people actively construct new knowledge as they interact with their environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Constructionism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning is particularly effective when constructing something for others to experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Social Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a social group constructing things for one another, collaboratively creating a small culture of shared artefacts with shared meanings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all facilitate this knowledge sharing, while programs facilitate communication. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Web-based tools and facilities: Communication <ul><li>asynchronous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mailing lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learning management systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>synchronous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MSN, ICQ Skype – audio and visual </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Some examples <ul><li>Tandem learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Council of Europe ( off line ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ultimate No sage on the stage . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keypals – the e-version of penpals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer dependent on snail mail! Instant. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Webquests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>task-based learning – concrete outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul>
  31. 31. Learning Management Systems <ul><li>Nicenet </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Blackboard </li></ul><ul><li>WebCT </li></ul><ul><li>Ikarus </li></ul><ul><li>MU IS </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusion <ul><li>Four skills </li></ul><ul><li>Vocab and grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>Short history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much activity </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention
  34. 34. The END
  35. 35. Nicenet <ul><li>introduction </li></ul><ul><li>article in Nicenet </li></ul><ul><li>you can read their philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>free </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limitation – no uploading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enter free webspace e.g. Geocities, Sweb? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Administrative tool <ul><li>Contact with colleagues and students </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching assistants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicenet to organise this course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For me it is pref to Yahoo Groups, although there are things that YG can do that Nicenet can’t. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide students with links and documents </li></ul>
  37. 37. Teaching tool <ul><li>collaborative activities </li></ul><ul><li>sharing each other’s writing </li></ul>
  38. 38. Communication <ul><li>students need opportunities for genuine language output </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous vs. asynchronous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time to consider your output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowing that it is going to be read, and responded to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafting, spell checkers </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Group tasks <ul><li>to find errors in a text </li></ul><ul><li>discuss characters in a dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>write reaction to a newspaper article or a news item, an issue, film, new CD, computer game, snowboarding incident, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>brief exchanges about something of current, local, topical interest such as quality of school dinners (a hot topic in UK at the moment – good tautology) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Using Nicenet <ul><li>Home Page </li></ul><ul><li>Edit user info </li></ul><ul><li>Class schedule  assignments  Documents </li></ul><ul><li>Messages </li></ul>

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