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Biodiesel use in Indian Railways


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This presentation shows the chemical reaction involved in preparation of biodiesel (ie. transesterification of long chained fatty acids). Jatropha is the most popular and most suitable oil seed in India for producing Biodiesel. This presentation shows Jatropha availability in India. Further, it also shows the test results of different biodiesel blends on 3100 HP locomotive engine that was performed in Research Designs and Standards Organization(RDSO), Lucknow.

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Biodiesel use in Indian Railways

  1. 1. Biodiesel
  2. 2. Biodiesel • Biodiesel , a fuel composed of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from variety of vegetable oils and animal fats, designated as B-100, and conforming to different quality standards e.g. ASTM D 6751, EN14214 or IS 15607.
  3. 3. Biodiesel The biodiesel processor mainly consists of • 1. Transesterfication vessel • 2. Sodium or potassium methoxide mixing pot • 3. Stirring arrangement • 4. Settling arrangement • 5. Bubble wash arrangement.
  4. 4. • In this process triglyceride oils are converted under heat to methyl or ethyl esters and glycerine by alcohol and a strong base catalyst (eg., hydroxide or lye).
  5. 5. 1 triglyceride + 3 alcohol catalyst • Transesterification Reaction O = O O O = O O = Triglyceride 3 MeOH KOH Catalyst 3 ester alcohol + 1 glycerine Glycerol Me Me Me O O O O = O = O = HO HO HO Biodiesel (Methyl Ester Alcohol)
  6. 6. Crude glycerine Crude Biodiesel Glycerine Biodiesel Oil Pretreatment Transesterification Glycerine refining Refining Methanol + catalyst Methanol recovery Vegetable oil
  7. 7. Feed Stocks for India
  8. 8. Feed stocks used in different Countries Feedstock Countries Rape seed , Sunflower EU Soya bean U.S.A. Palm Oil Malaysia Coconut Philippines Linseed & Olive oil Spain Cotton Seed Oil Greece Jatropha Curcas Oil Nicaragua Used Cooking Oil Japan Beef Tallow Ireland , USA Used frying Oil Australia
  9. 9. WHY JATROPHA THE SUITABLE CHOICE ? • Thrives on any type of soil • Needs minimal inputs or management
  10. 10. Target Output per Hectare Estimated Biodiesel production per Hectare = 3,000 litres/700Gal Potential yields of 12 tonnes per hectare and 55% oil Extraction are also attainable 2500 trees per hectare produces Seed 6.9 tonnes Seedcake 4.2 tonnes Vegetable Oil 2.7 tonnes Glycerol 0.27 tonnes
  11. 11. Anti-Erosive Properties Reduces wind and water erosion of soil Improved absorption of water by soil
  12. 12. Quality seedling preparation •10 x 20 cm bag •Germination -3 days •3-6 months old seedlings
  14. 14. Intercropping with Jatropha
  15. 15. Available potential of tree-borne oilseeds in India Sr. No. TBOs Seed yield (lakh tonnes) Oil content (%) Oil yield (lakh tonnes) 1. Sal (Shorearobusta) 62.0 12 7.44 2. Mahua (Madhucaindica) 5.2 35 1.82 3. Neem (Azadirachtaindica) 5.0 20 1.0 4. Rubber (Heveabrasiliensis) 0.79 45 0.35 5. Karanja (Pongamiapinnata) 1.11 27 0.30 6. Kusum (Schleicheraoleosa) 0.45 33 0.15 7. Khakan (Salvadoraoleoides) 0.44 33 0.14 8. Undi (Calophyllaminophyllu m) 0.11 60 0.07 9. Dhupa (Vateriaindica) 0.13 19 0.02 10. Other* 2.0 Total 77.34
  16. 16. Indian Biodiesel Program • Name of Biodiesel started making appearance at Indian Conferences, Workshops & Seminars in 1999 • ͚‘eport of the Coŵŵittee oŶ DevelopŵeŶt of Biofuel͛ – Planning Commission, GOI in 2003 • Stage I ͚DeŵoŶstratioŶ Project͛ use Jatropha curcas oŶ 400,000 ha (0.5 MMT BD) Nation-wide investment $ 300mn • Stage II – 11 mill ha (13 MMT biodiesel) for 20% blend. • Demonstration project started with initial grant of $11mn for nursery raising rest is expected to be sanctioned late this year • First 10,000 TPA plant in Hyderabad about to start production • Garware100,000 TPA DMT plant modified for biodiesel production • A 250,000 TPA plant is being setup in Vishakhapatnam , A.P. • A 100,000 TPA plant is coming up in Kakinada , A.P.
  17. 17. Land requirement for different blending percentages
  18. 18. Product Quality • Product quality is important – modern diesel engines are very sensitive to fuel. • It is not biodiesel until it meets Quality Standards. • Reaction must be >98% complete. • Acid number – for degrading, oxidized fuel • Flashpoint – for residual methanol • Water & sediment – fuel fouling, deposits • Sulfated ash – for residual catalyst • Total glycerin – for incomplete conversion, detects residual mono, di and tri glycerides • Free glycerin – inadequate fuel washing
  19. 19. Testing In RDSO • Bio diesel was teste d on the test bed at Engine Development Directorate of RDSO 3100 hp engine under test at RDSO
  20. 20. Characterization of ALCO and EMD engines with different biodiesels at RDSO. Following biodiesels have been chosen for Engine Characterisation: - • WFFAME (Waste Fish fatty acids Methyl Esters) • WCFAME (Waste Cottonseed fatty acids Methyl Esters) • MFAME (Mahua fatty acids Methyl Esters) • PFAME (Pongamia fatty acids Methyl Esters) • JFAME (Jatropha fatty acids Methyl Esters) • CPFAME (Crude Palm oil fatty acids Methyl Esters)
  21. 21. Test Procedure • Necessary instrumentation was provided for measuring the exhaust gas temperature, engine oil temperature, fuel consumption and various other engine parameters. • The performance of biodiesel was evaluated in terms of fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, and power. • Fuel consumption and power was measured for each of the engine operating notch. • The engine was run for a sufficiently long duration to ensure thermal stabilization before taking the specific fuel consumption and the emission measurements.
  22. 22. Performance studies on different blends of biodiesel on 3100 hp ALCO Engine
  23. 23. Summary of results for critical parameters at 8th Engine Notch Biodiesel blends with Normal HSD PARAMETERS Normal High Speed Diesel B10 B20 B50 B100 Horsepower(HP) 3105 3114 3117 3104 3109 BSFC(gm/bhp-hr) 153.48 155.49 157.62 162.04 170.43 Exhaust gas temperature (°C) 409.45 402.22 418.16 405.28 406.01 Firing pressure (bar) 112.99 111.71 111.59 113.36 107.52
  24. 24. • The engine maintained full horsepower with all the biodiesel blends including pure biodiesel, i.e. B100. • The specific fuel consumption increased from 153.48 gm/bhp-hr to 170.43 gm/bhp-hr, an increase of 11 %. This is in agreement with the lower heating value of biodiesel, about 10-11%. • The exhaust gas temperature in general showed a downward trend. This will be discussed graphically also. • The firing pressure did not change significantly and are therefore not discussed. • Since testing was carried out at different ambient temperatures, this may have affected the test results to some extent.
  25. 25. • There is no change in power for various blends of biodiesel. Even B100 i.e. pure biodiesel is capable of developing full horsepower on the ALCO DLW engine. • In general the bsfc showed an increased trend with higher blends of biodiesel. No optimisation of injection timing was carried out, but from previous experience it can be said that the bsfc can be reduced with optimised timing. • The NOx emissions in general increase with higher blends of biodiesel. • The hydrocarbon emissions also revealed a decreasing trend with higher blends of biodiesel with as much as 44 % reduction with B100 as compared to Normal HSD. • The CO emissions also showed a decreasing trend with higher blends of biodiesel with as much as 89.3 % reduction with B100 as compared to Normal HSD.
  26. 26. • The Smoke Opacity of the exhaust also showed a decreasing trend with higher blends of biodiesel with as much as 20 % reduction with B100 as compared to Normal HSD. • Average Cylinder head exhaust temperatures are lesser than Normal HSD for B10 blend and highest for B20 blends. B20 tests were carried out at the highest ambient temperatures. However all the temperatures are below the upper limit of 450°C. Exhaust gas temperatures for B100 blend are very close to the plain diesel. • Based on above results, it is concluded that WFFAME and its blends upto B100 can be used as a fuel on ALCO DLW diesel engines. Some adjustments to the injection timings and change of natural rubber component parts to synthetic rubber and bronze parts to stainless steel parts may be required.
  27. 27. Engine development studies Brake Specific Fuel Consumption with biodiesel blends Thermal Efficiency with biodiesel blends NOx emissions with biodiesel blends
  28. 28. Summary  Biodiesel is an renewable fuel for diesel engines that can be made from virtually any oil or fat feedstock.  Biodiesel with a potential consumption of 15000 million litres can have a retail turnover of more than US$ 9000 mn per year  It can provide huge rural employment potential of 40 to 50 million families and transform the rural economy  Remote village electrification and power for agriculture application – Energy grown & used by village.  The technology choice is a function of desired capacity, feedstock type and quality, alcohol recovery, and catalyst recovery.
  29. 29. Summary  The dominant factor in biodiesel production is the feedstock cost which around 70%, with capital cost contributing only about 7 % of the product cost. Therefore high FFA, lower quality feedstock should be promoted for biodiesel production in India.  For meeting energy security and electricity for all, it is necessary to develop and commission small to medium capacity biodiesel unit at village & community level..  Maintaining product quality is also essential for the growth of the biodiesel industry in India.
  30. 30. Thank You all for your precious time