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Critical Approaches 2014
Audiences
In media terms the audience is any group of people
who receive a media text, and not just people who
are togethe...
Audiences
All media texts are produced with an
audience in mind – that is to say a
group of people who will receive the
te...
Audience Research
A media producer has to know who is the
potential audience, and as much about them
as possible.
The thre...
Demographics
A common and traditional method of audience
research is known as demographics.
This defines the adult populat...
NRS Classifications
Socioeconomic Grades
• A- Higher managerial, administrative, professional e.g.
Chief executive, senior...
Which category would they fall into?
Which media products do they consume?
A
B
C1
C2
D
E
Criticisms
It does not tell the media producers some things
they would like to know, such as how much money
each group has...
Demographics
An alternative demographic measure of a person may include
information such as:
– Area of Residence (Rural/Ci...
Psychographics
This is a way of describing an audience by
looking at the behaviour and personality
traits of its members.
...
Young and Rubicam
Young and Rubicam created a theory that
looked at the brands people brought and how
people felt about th...
The 4Cs
Resigned. Rigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented to
the past and to Resigned roles. Brand ch...
The 4Cs cont…
Succeeder. Strong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation
... support status quo, stability. ...
ENLIGHTENMENT
Reformer. Freedom from restriction, personal growth,

CONTROL
Succeeder. Strong goal orientation,
confidence...
Succeeder
Mainstream
Resigned
Reformer
Explorer
Aspirer
Struggler
Hierarchy of Needs
An American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, suggested that we
all have different layers of needs.
We have...
Psychographics
An alternative psychographic measure of a person might
include:
– Interests
– Activities
– Opinions
– Behav...
Research Organisations
There are many different research organisations that produce
audience reports for the media industr...
Find out the latest research facts and
figures
Write a short report
Post onto your Blog
Primary Research
Original information, gathered by the researcher.
Such as:
• Observations
• Interviews
• Questionnaires o...
Your own
photographs

Visits to
galleries,
exhibitions
or museums

Questions
(Surveys)

Primary
Research
Drawings

Sketche...
Secondary Research
Summary, collection or gathering of existing information.
Such as:
Newspapers, Magazines and Books
Audi...
Libraries
TV and
other
formats

Websites

Leaflets

Photocopies

Secondary
Research
Magazines

Prints

Collected
Items

Bo...
Audiences 2014
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Audiences 2014

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Unit 6 Critical Approaches
Year 2 - Ext Dip Creative Media Production

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Audiences 2014

  1. 1. Critical Approaches 2014
  2. 2. Audiences In media terms the audience is any group of people who receive a media text, and not just people who are together in the same place. Radio listeners, Television viewers, Newspaper and magazine readers, Web traffic on web sites.
  3. 3. Audiences All media texts are produced with an audience in mind – that is to say a group of people who will receive the text and make some sort of sense out of it.
  4. 4. Audience Research A media producer has to know who is the potential audience, and as much about them as possible. The three main methods of Audience Research that you should be aware of are: 1. Demographics 2. Psychographics 3. Research Organisations
  5. 5. Demographics A common and traditional method of audience research is known as demographics. This defines the adult population largely by the work that they do. It breaks the population down into 6 groups, and labels them by using a letter code to describe the income and status of the members of each group.
  6. 6. NRS Classifications Socioeconomic Grades • A- Higher managerial, administrative, professional e.g. Chief executive, senior civil servant, surgeon • B - Intermediate managerial, administrative, professional e.g. bank manager, teacher • C1- Supervisory, clerical, junior managerial e.g. shop floor supervisor, bank clerk, sales person • C2 - Skilled manual workers e.g. electrician, carpenter • D- Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers e.g. assembly line worker, refuse collector, messenger • E - Casual labourers, pensioners, unemployed e.g. pensioners without private pensions and anyone living on basic benefits
  7. 7. Which category would they fall into? Which media products do they consume?
  8. 8. A B C1 C2 D E
  9. 9. Criticisms It does not tell the media producers some things they would like to know, such as how much money each group has to spend each week. Some skilled manual workers, like electricians, earn more money each week than say a teacher, but they probably do not spend it in the same way. Also demographics is only about the main earner in a household so young people at home – for example, are not included.
  10. 10. Demographics An alternative demographic measure of a person may include information such as: – Area of Residence (Rural/City) – Mobility – Age – Gender – Sexual Orientation – Place of Origin (Ethnicity) – Religion – Disabilities/Health – Languages
  11. 11. Psychographics This is a way of describing an audience by looking at the behaviour and personality traits of its members. Psychographics labels a particular type of person and makes an assessment about their viewing and spending habits.
  12. 12. Young and Rubicam Young and Rubicam created a theory that looked at the brands people brought and how people felt about them. 4Cs is an acronym - short for Cross Cultural Consumer Characterisation. They put the audience into groups with labels that suggest their position in society.
  13. 13. The 4Cs Resigned. Rigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented to the past and to Resigned roles. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarity and economy. (Older) Struggler. Alienated, Struggler, disorganised - with few resources apart from physical/mechanical skills (eg car repair). Heavy consumers of alcohol, junk food and lotteries, also trainers. Brand choice involves impact and sensation. Mainstream. Domestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual. Part of the mass, favouring big and well-known value for money ‘family’ brands. Almost invariably the largest 4Cs group. (Average demos) Aspirer. Materialistic, acquisitive, affiliative, oriented to extrinsics ... image, appearance, charisma, persona and fashion. Attractive pack more important than quality of contents. (Younger, clerical/sales type occupation)
  14. 14. The 4Cs cont… Succeeder. Strong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation ... support status quo, stability. Brand choice based on reward, prestige the very best . Also attracted to ‘caring’ and protective brands ... stress relief. (Top management) Explorer. Energy - autonomy, experience, challenge, new frontiers. Brand choice highlights difference, sensation, adventure, indulgence and instant effect - the first to try new brands. (Younger - student) Reformer. Freedom from restriction, personal growth, social awareness, value for time, independent judgement, tolerance of complexity, antimaterialistic but intolerant of bad taste. Curious and enquiring, support growth of new product categories. Select brands for intrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity, small is beautiful. (High education)
  15. 15. ENLIGHTENMENT Reformer. Freedom from restriction, personal growth, CONTROL Succeeder. Strong goal orientation, confidence, work ethic, organisation ... support status quo, stability. Brand choice based on reward, prestige - the very best . Also attracted to ‘caring’ and protective brands ... stress relief. Top mngmnt SECURITY Mainstream. Domestic, conformist, conventional, sentimental, passive, habitual. Part of the mass, favouring big and well-known value for money ‘family’ brands. Almost invariably the largest 4Cs group. Average demos SURVIVAL Resigned. Rigid, strict, authoritarian and chauvinist values, oriented to the past and to traditional roles. Brand choice stresses safety, familiarity and economy. Older social awareness, value for time, independent judgement, tolerance of complexity, anti-materialistic but aware of ‘good ta Curious and enquiring, support growth of new product categories Select brands for intrinsic quality, favouring natural simplicity. ( High education) DISCOVERY Explorer. Energy - autonomy, experience, challenge, new frontiers. Brand choice highlights difference, sensation, adventure, indulgence, instant effect. The first to try new brands. Younger - studen STATUS Aspirer. Materialistic, acquisitive, affiliative, oriented to extrinsics ... image, appearance, charisma, persona and fashion. Attractive pack more important than quality of conte (Younger, clerical/sales type occupation) ESCAPE Struggler. Alienated, aimless, disorganised – with few resources apart from physical/mechanical skills Heavy consumers of alcohol, junk food and lotteries, also trainers. Brand choice involves impact and sensation.
  16. 16. Succeeder Mainstream Resigned Reformer Explorer Aspirer Struggler
  17. 17. Hierarchy of Needs An American psychologist, Abraham Maslow, suggested that we all have different layers of needs. We have to achieve certain needs before going on to the next layer. His Hierarchy of Needs suggests that once people have their basic needs met like housing, food, safety, shopping, technology, and a job they can then go on to satisfy successively ‘higher needs’ that occupy a set hierarchy or system of ranking.
  18. 18. Psychographics An alternative psychographic measure of a person might include: – Interests – Activities – Opinions – Behavioural Patterns – Habits – Lifestyle – Perceptions – Hobbies
  19. 19. Research Organisations There are many different research organisations that produce audience reports for the media industries. Some of these are: • RAJA (Radio) • BARB (Broadcast, TV) • ABC (Magazines, Newspapers, Journals) • CAA (Cinemas) • ELSPA (Gaming) • ChartTrack (Music, Video, Software) • MCV (Games)
  20. 20. Find out the latest research facts and figures Write a short report Post onto your Blog
  21. 21. Primary Research Original information, gathered by the researcher. Such as: • Observations • Interviews • Questionnaires or Surveys
  22. 22. Your own photographs Visits to galleries, exhibitions or museums Questions (Surveys) Primary Research Drawings Sketches Observations
  23. 23. Secondary Research Summary, collection or gathering of existing information. Such as: Newspapers, Magazines and Books Audio-Visual Products, Audio Products, Visual Products The Internet, Websites
  24. 24. Libraries TV and other formats Websites Leaflets Photocopies Secondary Research Magazines Prints Collected Items Books Clippings

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