Paraphrasing & Summarizing

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Paraphrasing & Summarizing

  1. 1. PARAPHRASING & SUMMARIZINGIn your own words…
  2. 2. What’s the need for both? On many occasions you have to write or rewrite shortened versions of materials that you have read
  3. 3. How to avoid plagiarismIf you don’t, then you are a criminal!That is plagiarism!There are two methods of doing this:paraphrasing and summarizing.They give you the facility to write or saythings close to the original but stilldifferent from it.
  4. 4. What is a paraphrase?The paraphrase is telling in yourown words what the author issaying.It simplifies a selection but doesnot necessarily shorten it. Likenote taking, the paraphraserecords essential information,captures the tone or attitude of the
  5. 5. How do I paraphrase?Here are the steps to observe in writinga paraphrase:1. Locate the main idea2. List the supporting details3. Determine the tone4. Rethink the vocabulary – rememberto use your own words in your attemptto simplify the material5. Reread and make revisions
  6. 6. Technique 1 - SynonymsThe hardest language to learn isMandarin.The most difficult language to learn isMandarin.The most difficult language to master isMandarin.Mandarin is one of the most difficult
  7. 7. Technique 2 - AntonymsThe man is tall.The man is not short.The school is far away fromthe city.The school is not near to thecity.
  8. 8. Phrasal verbShe discarded her usedlipstick case in the trashcan.She threw away her usedlipstick case.
  9. 9. General VerbsThe factory manufacturescorrugated boxes.The factory producescorrugated boxes.The factory makescorrugated boxes.
  10. 10. PhrasesMany people in Canada arebilingual.Many people in Canadaspeak two languages.
  11. 11. What is a summary?The summary (also called aprécis) shortens a passageand condenses the originalmaterial without sacrificingits basic meaning.It is usually shorter than aparaphrase.
  12. 12. How do I summarize?In summarizing, use the followingsteps as guides:1. Reread the selection as yousearch for the main idea.2. Summarize the selection byrewriting it in your own words. Omitunnecessary details.3. Reread your summary.
  13. 13. Other forms of summaries:1. Precis – general form of a shortened or condensed version of the original.2. Synopsis – a summary of a book.3. Abstract – a summary of a research paper.4. Concept paper – a summary of a proposal.
  14. 14. The End

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