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In relation to Brain Compatibility Research<br />IREX Program<br />Classroom Assessment Strategies<br />
Assessment as Tools<br />So, what is assessment? <br />Assessment is the process of observing a sample of a student’s beha...
Assessment as Tools<br />Assessment instruments do not dictate the decisions to be made. Teachers, administrators, governm...
Informal assessment <br />vs.<br />Formal assessment<br />Paper-pencil assessment<br />vs.<br />Performance assessment<br ...
Using Assessment for Different Purposes<br />Why do teachers assess students?<br />Two basic types of assessment (what are...
Important Qualities of Good Assessment<br />Remember RSVP:<br />Reliability<br />Standardization<br />Validity<br />Practi...
Reliability<br />There may be slight variation from time to time. eliability may fall onto teachers or students.<br />Stud...
Enhancing Reliability<br />Include several tasks in each instrument and look for consistency in students’ performance<br /...
Validity<br />Content Validity<br />This is the extent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks wi...
Validity<br />Predictive Validity<br />Extent to which the results of an assessment predict future performance<br />Often ...
Informal Assessment<br />Informal assessment occurs in our day-to-day interactions with students.<br />Advantages:<br />It...
Paper-Pencil Assessment<br />Paper-pencil assessment is often the first choice for formal assessment because of its practi...
General Guidelines for Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments<br />Define tasks clearly and unambiguously<br />Decide wheth...
Performance Assessment<br />Performance assessment can be used for measuring mastery of:<br />Playing a musical instrument...
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks<br />Four distinctions to help choose tasks most appropriate for the purpose<br />D...
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks<br />Restricted vs. extended performance<br />E.g., is  the student playing a few n...
Consider incorporating the assessment into normal instructional activities<br />Provide an appropriate amount of structure...
Strategies for Scoring Student Performance<br />Consider using checklists, rating scales, or both in your rubric<br />Deci...
Including Students in the Assessment Process<br />Including students in the process encourages them to self-assess.<br />T...
20<br />Assessment tools vs Assessment Measurement Instrument<br />As a teacher planning for assessment, you need to think...
Taking Students’ Diversity into Account<br />Some things to keep in mind:<br />Students often suffer from test anxiety.<br...
The “Big Picture” of Assessment<br />Our assessments will indirectly affect students’ learning and achievement.<br />Our i...
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Assessment Pp[1]

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Assessment Pp[1]

  1. 1. In relation to Brain Compatibility Research<br />IREX Program<br />Classroom Assessment Strategies<br />
  2. 2. Assessment as Tools<br />So, what is assessment? <br />Assessment is the process of observing a sample of a student’s behavior and drawing inferences about the student’s knowledge and abilities.<br />When we are looking at students’ behavior, we typically only use a sample of classroom behavior.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  3. 3. Assessment as Tools<br />Assessment instruments do not dictate the decisions to be made. Teachers, administrators, government officials, parents, and even students interpret assessment results and make decisions based on the results.<br />Assessments are tools.<br />Allow us to make informed decisions about how best to help our students learn and achieve<br />Assessment interpretation can be abused.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  4. 4. Informal assessment <br />vs.<br />Formal assessment<br />Paper-pencil assessment<br />vs.<br />Performance assessment<br />Traditional assessment <br />vs.<br />Authentic assessment<br />Standardized test <br />vs.<br />Teacher-developed assessment<br />ASSESSMENTs could be<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  5. 5. Using Assessment for Different Purposes<br />Why do teachers assess students?<br />Two basic types of assessment (what are they?)<br />Some assessments are formative and assess students’ knowledge before or during instruction.<br />Homework assignments, in-class assignments, quizzes<br />Some assessments are summative and assess students’ achievement after instruction.<br />Exams<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  6. 6. Important Qualities of Good Assessment<br />Remember RSVP:<br />Reliability<br />Standardization<br />Validity<br />Practicality<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  7. 7. Reliability<br />There may be slight variation from time to time. eliability may fall onto teachers or students.<br />Students change from day to day.<br />The physical environment may change.<br />Sometimes teachers are more clear in their instructions than others.<br />There is always subjectivity in scoring.<br />More likely when responses are scored on the basis of vague, imprecise criteria<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  8. 8. Enhancing Reliability<br />Include several tasks in each instrument and look for consistency in students’ performance<br />Define each task clearly so students know exactly what they are being asked to do<br />Identify specific, concrete criteria for evaluation<br />Try not to let expectations for students’ performance influence judgments<br />Avoid assessing students when they are obviously tired, ill, etc. <br />Administer assessments in similar ways and under similar conditions for all students<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  9. 9. Validity<br />Content Validity<br />This is the extent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks within the domain being assessed.<br />It assures that what we are testing truly represents what we have taught (the instructional objectives).<br />High content validity is essential in summative evaluations.<br />Teachers can use a table of specifications to enhance content validity.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  10. 10. Validity<br />Predictive Validity<br />Extent to which the results of an assessment predict future performance<br />Often take the form of aptitude tests<br />Constructive Validity<br />Extent to which an assessment accurately measures general, abstract characteristics<br />E.g., motivation, self-esteem, or intelligence<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  11. 11. Informal Assessment<br />Informal assessment occurs in our day-to-day interactions with students.<br />Advantages:<br />It provides continuing feedback about the effectiveness of instructional tasks and activities.<br />It helps determine the appropriateness and success of our formal assessments.<br />It is easily adjusted.<br />It provides valuable clues about social, emotional, and motivational factors affecting classroom performance.<br />Disadvantages:<br />It is not very reliable or valid.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  12. 12. Paper-Pencil Assessment<br />Paper-pencil assessment is often the first choice for formal assessment because of its practicality.<br />It may use recognition or recall tasks.<br />Recognition: Multiple choice, true-false, matching<br />Recall: Short-answer, essay, word problems<br />It often only measures lower-level skills; however,<br />they can be used to measure higher-level skills, but these questions take more time to write.<br />Also, essays are more often used to measure higher-level skills.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  13. 13. General Guidelines for Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments<br />Define tasks clearly and unambiguously<br />Decide whether students should have access to reference materials<br />Specify scoring criteria in advance<br />Place easier and shorter items at the beginning of the instrument<br />Set parameters for students’ responses<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  14. 14. Performance Assessment<br />Performance assessment can be used for measuring mastery of:<br />Playing a musical instrument<br />Performing a workplace routine<br />Engaging in a debate<br />Ideal for the assessment of complex achievements<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  15. 15. Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks<br />Four distinctions to help choose tasks most appropriate for the purpose<br />Decide whether to look at the products, the processes, or both<br />Is what you are assessing tangible (product) or a behavior (process)?<br />Determine if you need an individual or group performance<br />Dependent upon WHAT you are assessing<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  16. 16. Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks<br />Restricted vs. extended performance<br />E.g., is the student playing a few notes or an entire piano piece?<br />Should you use static or dynamic assessment?<br />Dynamic assessment applies the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  17. 17. Consider incorporating the assessment into normal instructional activities<br />Provide an appropriate amount of structure<br />Plan classroom management strategies for the assessment activity<br />Be continually aware of what the students are doing and make sure all students are busy and engaged<br />Planning and Administering Performance Assessments<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  18. 18. Strategies for Scoring Student Performance<br />Consider using checklists, rating scales, or both in your rubric<br />Decide whether analytic or holistic scoring better serves your purpose(s)<br />Analytic: Scoring a student’s performance by evaluating various aspects of it separately<br />Holistic: Summarizing a student’s performance with a single score<br />Limit the criteria to the most important aspects of the desired response<br />Describe the criteria as explicitly and concretely as possible<br />Make note of other significant aspects of a student’s performance that the rubric doesn’t address<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  19. 19. Including Students in the Assessment Process<br />Including students in the process encourages them to self-assess.<br />Teachers should:<br />Provide examples of “good” and “poor” products<br />Make evaluation criteria explicit<br />Allow students to compare self-ratings with teacher-ratings<br />Encourage self-reflection via the use of daily journal entries<br />Students may co-design scoring rubrics with the teacher.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Assessment tools vs Assessment Measurement Instrument<br />As a teacher planning for assessment, you need to think of these questions:<br />What do I need to measure?<br />What are the appropriate tools?<br />Are there any measurement instruments that match with these specific tools?<br />23<br />
  21. 21. Taking Students’ Diversity into Account<br />Some things to keep in mind:<br />Students often suffer from test anxiety.<br />Gender and ethnic differences may impact assessment performance independently of their actual learning and achievement.<br />Students intelligences are different and since we should differentiate in instruction, we should differntiate in assessments as well.<br />Assessment instruments must comply with the federal mandates regarding students with special needs.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />
  22. 22. The “Big Picture” of Assessment<br />Our assessments will indirectly affect students’ learning and achievement.<br />Our instruments and practices should match our instructional goals and objectives.<br />Remember RSVP.<br />Our scoring criteria should be as explicit as possible.<br />Students’ errors provide valuable information about where their difficulties lie.<br />We should continually evaluate our instruments.<br />Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.<br />

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