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In relation to Brain Compatibility Research IREX Program Classroom Assessment Strategies
Assessment as Tools So, what is assessment?  Assessment is the process of observing a sample of a student’s behavior and drawing inferences about the student’s knowledge and abilities. When we are looking at students’ behavior, we typically only use a sample of classroom behavior. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Assessment as Tools Assessment instruments do not dictate the decisions to be made. Teachers, administrators, government officials, parents, and even students interpret assessment results and make decisions based on the results. Assessments are tools. Allow us to make informed decisions about how best to help our students learn and achieve Assessment interpretation can be abused. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Informal assessment  vs. Formal assessment Paper-pencil assessment vs. Performance assessment Traditional assessment  vs. Authentic assessment Standardized test  vs. Teacher-developed assessment ASSESSMENTs could be Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Using Assessment for Different Purposes Why do teachers assess students? Two basic types of assessment (what are they?) Some assessments are formative and assess students’ knowledge before or during instruction. Homework assignments, in-class assignments, quizzes Some assessments are summative and assess students’ achievement after instruction. Exams Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Important Qualities of Good Assessment Remember RSVP: Reliability Standardization Validity Practicality Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Reliability There may be slight variation from time to time. eliability may fall onto teachers or students. Students change from day to day. The physical environment may change. Sometimes teachers are more clear in their instructions than others. There is always subjectivity in scoring. More likely when responses are scored on the basis of vague, imprecise criteria Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Enhancing Reliability Include several tasks in each instrument and look for consistency in students’ performance Define each task clearly so students know exactly what they are being asked to do Identify specific, concrete criteria for evaluation Try not to let expectations for students’ performance influence judgments Avoid assessing students when they are obviously tired, ill, etc.  Administer assessments in similar ways and under similar conditions for all students Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Validity Content Validity This is the extent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks within the domain being assessed. It assures that what we are testing truly represents what we have taught (the instructional objectives). High content validity is essential in summative evaluations. Teachers can use a table of specifications to enhance content validity. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Validity Predictive Validity Extent to which the results of an assessment predict future performance Often take the form of aptitude tests Constructive Validity Extent to which an assessment accurately measures general, abstract characteristics E.g., motivation, self-esteem, or intelligence Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Informal Assessment Informal assessment occurs in our day-to-day interactions with students. Advantages: It provides continuing feedback about the effectiveness of instructional tasks and activities. It helps determine the appropriateness and success of our formal assessments. It is easily adjusted. It provides valuable clues about social, emotional, and motivational factors affecting classroom performance. Disadvantages: It is not very reliable or valid. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Paper-Pencil Assessment Paper-pencil assessment is often the first choice for formal assessment because of its practicality. It may use recognition or recall tasks. Recognition: Multiple choice, true-false, matching Recall:  Short-answer, essay, word problems It often only measures lower-level skills; however, they can be used to measure higher-level skills, but these questions take more time to write. Also, essays are more often used to measure higher-level skills. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
General Guidelines for Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments Define tasks clearly and unambiguously Decide whether students should have access to reference materials Specify scoring criteria in advance Place easier and shorter items at the beginning of the instrument Set parameters for students’ responses Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Performance Assessment Performance assessment can be used for measuring mastery of: Playing a musical instrument Performing a workplace routine Engaging in a debate Ideal for the assessment of complex achievements Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks Four distinctions to help choose tasks most appropriate for the purpose Decide whether to look at the products, the processes, or both Is what you are assessing tangible (product) or a behavior (process)? Determine if you need an individual or group performance Dependent upon WHAT you are assessing Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks Restricted vs. extended performance E.g., is  the student playing a few notes or an entire piano piece? Should you use static or dynamic assessment? Dynamic assessment applies the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Consider incorporating the assessment into normal instructional activities Provide an appropriate amount of structure Plan classroom management strategies for the assessment activity Be continually aware of what the students are doing and make sure all students are busy and engaged Planning and Administering Performance Assessments Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Strategies for Scoring Student Performance Consider using checklists, rating scales, or both in your rubric Decide whether analytic or holistic scoring better serves your purpose(s) Analytic: Scoring a student’s performance by evaluating various aspects of it separately Holistic: Summarizing a student’s performance with a single score Limit the criteria to the most important aspects of the desired response Describe the criteria as explicitly and concretely as possible Make note of other significant aspects of a student’s performance that the rubric doesn’t address Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
Including Students in the Assessment Process Including students in the process encourages them to self-assess. Teachers should: Provide examples of “good” and “poor” products Make evaluation criteria explicit Allow students to compare self-ratings with teacher-ratings Encourage self-reflection via the use of daily journal entries Students may co-design scoring rubrics with the teacher. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
20 Assessment tools vs Assessment Measurement Instrument As a teacher planning for assessment, you need to think of these questions: What do I need to measure? What are the appropriate tools? Are there any measurement instruments that match with these specific tools? 23
Taking Students’ Diversity into Account Some things to keep in mind: Students often suffer from test anxiety. Gender and ethnic differences may impact assessment performance independently of their actual learning and achievement. Students intelligences are different and since we should differentiate in instruction, we should differntiate in assessments as well. Assessment instruments must comply with the federal mandates regarding students with special needs. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
The “Big Picture” of Assessment Our assessments will indirectly affect students’ learning and achievement. Our instruments and practices should match our instructional goals and objectives. Remember RSVP. Our scoring criteria should be as explicit as possible. Students’ errors provide valuable information about where their difficulties lie. We should continually evaluate our instruments. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.

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Assessment Pp[1]

  • 1. In relation to Brain Compatibility Research IREX Program Classroom Assessment Strategies
  • 2. Assessment as Tools So, what is assessment? Assessment is the process of observing a sample of a student’s behavior and drawing inferences about the student’s knowledge and abilities. When we are looking at students’ behavior, we typically only use a sample of classroom behavior. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 3. Assessment as Tools Assessment instruments do not dictate the decisions to be made. Teachers, administrators, government officials, parents, and even students interpret assessment results and make decisions based on the results. Assessments are tools. Allow us to make informed decisions about how best to help our students learn and achieve Assessment interpretation can be abused. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 4. Informal assessment vs. Formal assessment Paper-pencil assessment vs. Performance assessment Traditional assessment vs. Authentic assessment Standardized test vs. Teacher-developed assessment ASSESSMENTs could be Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 5. Using Assessment for Different Purposes Why do teachers assess students? Two basic types of assessment (what are they?) Some assessments are formative and assess students’ knowledge before or during instruction. Homework assignments, in-class assignments, quizzes Some assessments are summative and assess students’ achievement after instruction. Exams Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 6. Important Qualities of Good Assessment Remember RSVP: Reliability Standardization Validity Practicality Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 7. Reliability There may be slight variation from time to time. eliability may fall onto teachers or students. Students change from day to day. The physical environment may change. Sometimes teachers are more clear in their instructions than others. There is always subjectivity in scoring. More likely when responses are scored on the basis of vague, imprecise criteria Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 8. Enhancing Reliability Include several tasks in each instrument and look for consistency in students’ performance Define each task clearly so students know exactly what they are being asked to do Identify specific, concrete criteria for evaluation Try not to let expectations for students’ performance influence judgments Avoid assessing students when they are obviously tired, ill, etc. Administer assessments in similar ways and under similar conditions for all students Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 9. Validity Content Validity This is the extent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks within the domain being assessed. It assures that what we are testing truly represents what we have taught (the instructional objectives). High content validity is essential in summative evaluations. Teachers can use a table of specifications to enhance content validity. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 10. Validity Predictive Validity Extent to which the results of an assessment predict future performance Often take the form of aptitude tests Constructive Validity Extent to which an assessment accurately measures general, abstract characteristics E.g., motivation, self-esteem, or intelligence Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 11. Informal Assessment Informal assessment occurs in our day-to-day interactions with students. Advantages: It provides continuing feedback about the effectiveness of instructional tasks and activities. It helps determine the appropriateness and success of our formal assessments. It is easily adjusted. It provides valuable clues about social, emotional, and motivational factors affecting classroom performance. Disadvantages: It is not very reliable or valid. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 12. Paper-Pencil Assessment Paper-pencil assessment is often the first choice for formal assessment because of its practicality. It may use recognition or recall tasks. Recognition: Multiple choice, true-false, matching Recall: Short-answer, essay, word problems It often only measures lower-level skills; however, they can be used to measure higher-level skills, but these questions take more time to write. Also, essays are more often used to measure higher-level skills. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 13. General Guidelines for Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments Define tasks clearly and unambiguously Decide whether students should have access to reference materials Specify scoring criteria in advance Place easier and shorter items at the beginning of the instrument Set parameters for students’ responses Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 14. Performance Assessment Performance assessment can be used for measuring mastery of: Playing a musical instrument Performing a workplace routine Engaging in a debate Ideal for the assessment of complex achievements Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 15. Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks Four distinctions to help choose tasks most appropriate for the purpose Decide whether to look at the products, the processes, or both Is what you are assessing tangible (product) or a behavior (process)? Determine if you need an individual or group performance Dependent upon WHAT you are assessing Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 16. Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks Restricted vs. extended performance E.g., is the student playing a few notes or an entire piano piece? Should you use static or dynamic assessment? Dynamic assessment applies the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 17. Consider incorporating the assessment into normal instructional activities Provide an appropriate amount of structure Plan classroom management strategies for the assessment activity Be continually aware of what the students are doing and make sure all students are busy and engaged Planning and Administering Performance Assessments Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 18. Strategies for Scoring Student Performance Consider using checklists, rating scales, or both in your rubric Decide whether analytic or holistic scoring better serves your purpose(s) Analytic: Scoring a student’s performance by evaluating various aspects of it separately Holistic: Summarizing a student’s performance with a single score Limit the criteria to the most important aspects of the desired response Describe the criteria as explicitly and concretely as possible Make note of other significant aspects of a student’s performance that the rubric doesn’t address Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 19. Including Students in the Assessment Process Including students in the process encourages them to self-assess. Teachers should: Provide examples of “good” and “poor” products Make evaluation criteria explicit Allow students to compare self-ratings with teacher-ratings Encourage self-reflection via the use of daily journal entries Students may co-design scoring rubrics with the teacher. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 20. 20 Assessment tools vs Assessment Measurement Instrument As a teacher planning for assessment, you need to think of these questions: What do I need to measure? What are the appropriate tools? Are there any measurement instruments that match with these specific tools? 23
  • 21. Taking Students’ Diversity into Account Some things to keep in mind: Students often suffer from test anxiety. Gender and ethnic differences may impact assessment performance independently of their actual learning and achievement. Students intelligences are different and since we should differentiate in instruction, we should differntiate in assessments as well. Assessment instruments must comply with the federal mandates regarding students with special needs. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.
  • 22. The “Big Picture” of Assessment Our assessments will indirectly affect students’ learning and achievement. Our instruments and practices should match our instructional goals and objectives. Remember RSVP. Our scoring criteria should be as explicit as possible. Students’ errors provide valuable information about where their difficulties lie. We should continually evaluate our instruments. Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc.Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458All rights reserved.