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Prentice6 ppt ch04

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Prentice6 ppt ch04

  1. 1. Chapter 4: Developing Cardiorespiratory Fitness McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2012 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. 4-2 Why is cardiorespiratory fitness important for you? • Cardiorespiratory endurance is the ability to perform whole-body activities for an extended period of time without fatigue • Some level of cardiorespiratory fitness is required in order to perform daily activities • May also greatly reduce the chances of cardiovascular disease
  3. 3. 4-3 What is the difference between aerobic vs. anaerobic activities? • Anaerobic metabolism: – Kicks in when short bursts of energy are required – Does not involve the use of oxygen • Aerobic metabolism: – Occurs when activity is prolonged – Involves the use of oxygen • In most activities both systems function simultaneously
  4. 4. 4-4 How does exercise affect the function of the heart? • Cardiovascular system’s four components: – Heart – Lungs – Blood vessels – Blood • Improvements in endurance are the results of improvements in these 4 components Figure 4-2
  5. 5. 4-5 • As you exercise, the heart must pump more in order to transport oxygenated blood to the muscles • The heart adapts via three mechanisms: –Increased heart rate –Increased stroke volume –Increased cardiac output
  6. 6. 4-6 What determines how efficiently the body is using oxygen? • Aerobic capacity/maximum aerobic capacity – Greatest rate at which oxygen can be taken in and used during exercise – Largely, genetically determined range – More active individuals will tend to have higher levels and training tends to enhance aerobic capacity within an individual’s range
  7. 7. 4-7 • Range of maximal aerobic capacity, determined by muscle fiber type – Fast-twitch fibers • Fast contracting fibers which are not as dependent on oxygen and tire rapidly • Responsible for speed and power – Slow-twitch fibers • Slow contracting fibers that are fatigue resistant and require large amounts of oxygen • More useful for long duration, endurance activities
  8. 8. 4-8 – If you have a greater percentage of slow twitch fibers you will tend to have a higher aerobic capacity – Aerobic capacity vs. workload and relative percentages of maximum capacity Figure 4-3
  9. 9. 4-9 How do you know what your aerobic capacity is? • Accurate testing is done in the laboratory setting: – Involves treadmill running or cycling at a given intensity while monitoring heart rate and oxygen consumption • Impractical for average person • Heart rate monitoring is an indirect method for monitoring oxygen uptake
  10. 10. 4-10 The FIT Principle • Basic principles of what is necessary to gain a training effect from an exercise program • FIT: – Frequency of activity – Intensity of activity – Time or duration of activity
  11. 11. 4-11 What training techniques can be used to improve cardiorespiratory endurance? • Types of training – Continuous or sustained training – Interval training – Fartlek • Amount of improvements is largely determined by initial fitness levels
  12. 12. 4-12 Continuous Training • Exercises performed at the same level of intensity for long periods of time • FIT principle should be incorporated to training • Type: Must be aerobic • Determining intensity by monitoring heart rate: – Heart rate can be checked on the thumb side of the wrist (radial artery), and in the neck (carotid) – Heart rate monitors can also be utilized to measure heart rate and effort
  13. 13. 4-13 • Target Heart Rate – Determine maximum heart rate: • 220-age = HRmax • Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) – Difference between resting HRrest and HRmax • Karvonen Equation – Exercise HR = % of target intensity(HRmax – HRrest) + Hrrest • Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) Figure 4-5
  14. 14. 4-14 Time or duration of activity • Unfit individuals should engage in no less than 20 minutes of continuous exercise to improve cardiorespiratory endurance • For healthy, fit individuals: – 30 minutes of moderate intensity activity 5 days a week OR – 20 minutes of vigorous intensity activity 3 days a week
  15. 15. 4-15 Advanced Training Methods • Interval training – Alternating periods of intense activity with periods of active rest – Allows for more work to be done at more intense workloads, over a longer period of time • Fartlek training – Similar to interval training in the fact activity occurs over a specific period of time but pace and speed are not specified – Consists of varied terrain which incorporates varying degrees of hills – Dynamic form of training
  16. 16. 4-16 Good Aerobic Activities for Improving Cardiorespiratory Endurance• Walking • Running • Swimming • Aerobic exercise – Floor, step, circuit, water, or kickboxing • Cycling • Spinning • In-line skating • Hiking or backpacking • Rock climbing Figure 4-6
  17. 17. 4-17 What is your level of cardiorespiratory endurance? • Multiple tests can be done to assess fitness – Monitoring of maximum aerobic capacity and oxygen use • Maximum aerobic capacity can be predicted or estimated by measuring heart rate at varying workloads