Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience1


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Presentation to education on the application and usage of Dale\'s Cone in an educational setting

Edgar Dales Cone Of Experience1

  1. 1. Edgar Dale&apos;s Cone of Experience<br />Amanda Jacobson<br />Walden University<br />Richard W. Riley School of Education and Leadership<br />Ed.D Student<br />EDUC 8101 Section 3<br />
  2. 2. Questions to be Addressed:<br />Who is Edgar Dale?<br />What is the Cone of Experience?<br />Is the Cone of Experienced based on previous theories?<br />What are mis-conceptions of the Cone of Experience?<br />How can the Cone help instruction?<br />
  3. 3. Edgar Dale<br />Edgar Dale (1900-1985) served on The Ohio State University faculty from 1929 until 1970. He was an internationally renowned pioneer in the utilization of audio-visual materials in instruction. He also made major research contributions in the teaching of vocabulary and testing readability of texts. Jeanne S. Chall, an OSU Ph.D. graduate who went on to become a leading innovator in reading research. Perhaps Professor Dale&apos;s most famous concept was called the &quot;cone of experience,&quot; a graphic depiction of the relationship between how information is presented in instruction and the outcomes for learners.<br />- Take from the Ohio State University Website<br /> http://ehe.osu.edu/edtl/about/tradition.cfm#dale<br />
  4. 4. What is The Cone of Experience?<br />First introduced in Dale’s 1946 book, Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching<br />Designed to “show the progression of learning experiences” (Dale (1969) p. 108) from the concrete to the abstract<br />
  5. 5. Concrete vs. Abstract Learning<br />Concrete Learning <br />Abstract Learning<br />First-hand experiences<br />Learner has some control over the outcome<br />Incorporates the use of all five senses<br />Difficulty when not enough previous experience or exposure to a concept<br />Every level of the Cone uses abstract thinking in come way<br />
  6. 6. Influences on the Cone of Experience<br /><ul><li>Hoban, Hoban & Zisman’s Visual Media Graph
  7. 7. Value of educational technology is based on their degree of realism
  8. 8. Jerome Bruner’s Theory of Instruction
  9. 9. Three levels in the learning process
  10. 10. Enactive – direct experience
  11. 11. Iconic – representation of experience
  12. 12. Symbolic – words or visual symbols
  13. 13. The process of learning must begin in concrete experiences and move toward the abstract if mastery is to be obtained.</li></li></ul><li>Intentions of the Cone of Experience<br />Dale (1969) wrote that<br />May lead to a more useful way of thinking about audio visual materials and their application in the classroom<br />The levels of the Cone are interactive<br />As one moves up the Cone there is not necessarily an increase in difficulty but rather an increase in abstract thought<br />
  14. 14. Mis-Conceptions of the Cone<br />All teaching/learning must move from the bottom to the top of the Cone.<br />One kind of experience on the Cone is more useful than another<br />More emphasis should be put on the bottom levels of the Cone<br />The upper level of the Cone is for older students while the lower levels are for younger students<br />It overemphasizes the use of instructional media<br />
  15. 15. Misrepresentations of the Cone<br />web20guru.wikispaces.com/file/view/dalescone.gif<br />www.biij.org/2008/1/e16/fig4.gif<br />www.cals.ncsu.edu/agexed/sae/ppt1/img012.GIF<br />www.compstrategies.com/.../img002.gif<br />
  16. 16. Levels of the cone of experience<br /><ul><li>Enactive – direct experiences
  17. 17. Direct, Purposeful
  18. 18. Contrived
  19. 19. Dramatized
  20. 20. Iconic – pictorial experiences
  21. 21. Demonstrations
  22. 22. Study trips
  23. 23. Exhibits
  24. 24. Educational television
  25. 25. Motion pictures
  26. 26. Recordings, radio, still pictures
  27. 27. Symbolic – highly abstract experiences
  28. 28. Visual symbols
  29. 29. Verbal symbols</li></li></ul><li>Direct and Purposeful Experiences<br /><ul><li>Direct, first hand experiences
  30. 30. Have direct participation in the outcome
  31. 31. Use of all our senses
  32. 32. Examples:
  33. 33. Working in a homeless shelter
  34. 34. Tutoring younger children</li></li></ul><li>Contrived Experiences<br /><ul><li>Models and mock-ups
  35. 35. “editing of reality”
  36. 36. Necessary when real experience cannot be used or are too complicated
  37. 37. Examples
  38. 38. Use of a pilot simulator
  39. 39. Mock up of an auto plant to show the auto making process</li></li></ul><li>Dramatized Experiences<br /><ul><li>Reconstructed experiences
  40. 40. Can be used to simplify an event or idea to its most important parts
  41. 41. Divided into two categories
  42. 42. Acting – actual participation (more concrete)
  43. 43. Observing – watching a dramatization take place (more abstract)</li></ul>Monticello Students engaged in a mock trial<br />
  44. 44. Iconic Experiences on the Cone<br /><ul><li>Progressively moving toward greateruse of imagination
  45. 45. Successful use in a classroom depends on how much imaginative involvement the method can illicit from students
  46. 46. Involves:
  47. 47. Demonstrations
  48. 48. Study trips
  49. 49. Exhibits
  50. 50. Motion pictures
  51. 51. Educational television
  52. 52. Radio, recordings, and still pictures</li></li></ul><li>Demonstrations<br />Visualized explanation of an important fact, idea, or process<br />Shows how certain things are done<br />Examples: <br />How to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich<br />How to play the piano<br />How to lift a fingerprint<br />www.ttr.com/model1.html<br />Flame Salt Test Demonstration- You Tube (right click to open link)<br /><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YFqq1rL8PjQ</li></li></ul><li>Study Trips<br /><ul><li>Watch people do things in real situations
  53. 53. Observe an event that is unavailable in the classroom
  54. 54. Examples:
  55. 55. Civil War Re-enactment
  56. 56. Old World Wisconsin
  57. 57. Class trip to Washington D.C.</li></li></ul><li>Exhibits<br /><ul><li>Something seen by a spectator
  58. 58. Two types
  59. 59. Ready made
  60. 60. Museum
  61. 61. Career fair
  62. 62. Home-made
  63. 63. Classroom project
  64. 64. National History Day competition</li></li></ul><li>Educational Television and Motion Pictures<br />Television <br />Motion Pictures<br /><ul><li>Bring immediate interaction with events from around the world
  65. 65. Edit an event to create clearer understanding than if experienced actual event first hand
  66. 66. Example:
  67. 67. TV coverage of 9/11
  68. 68. Can omit unnecessary or unimportant material
  69. 69. Used to slow down a fast process
  70. 70. Viewing, seeing and hearing experience
  71. 71. Can re-create events with simplistic drama that even slower students can grasp</li></li></ul><li>Recordings, Radio, and Still Pictures<br /><ul><li>Can often be understood by those who cannot read
  72. 72. Helpful to students who cannot deal with the motion or pace of a real event or television
  73. 73. Examples:
  74. 74. Time Life Magazine
  75. 75. Listening to old radio broadcasts
  76. 76. Listening to period music</li></ul>copyservices.tamu.edu/clipart/clip09/index.html<br />
  77. 77. Symbolic Experiences<br /><ul><li>Very little immediate physical action
  78. 78. Difficult only if one doesn’t have enough direct experience to support the symbol
  79. 79. Used at all levels of the Cone in varying importance
  80. 80. Involves:</li></ul>Visual symbols<br />Verbal symbols<br />
  81. 81. Visual Symbols<br /><ul><li>No longer involves reproducing real situations
  82. 82. Chalkboard and overhead projector the most widely used media
  83. 83. Help students see an idea, event, or process
  84. 84. Examples:
  85. 85. Chalkboard
  86. 86. Flat maps
  87. 87. Diagrams
  88. 88. charts</li></ul>http://pro.corbis.com<br />http://419.bittenus.com/6/6ballgameslottery/geography.gif<br />
  89. 89. Verbal Symbols<br />Two types<br />Written words – more abstract<br />Spoken words – less abstract<br />Examples:<br />Discussion<br />Explanation/lecture<br />
  90. 90. Concrete or Abstract Learning?<br />How could Dale’s Cone of Experience have changed this lesson for Calvin? <br />What instructional media could his teacher have used to have helped Calvin find meaning in this lesson?<br />
  91. 91. What does the Cone mean for instruction?<br /><ul><li>Dale (1938) taught teachers that they should help their students learn how the media effects us, and to critically evaluate it.
  92. 92. Teachers must evaluate the benefit of the learning vs. the amount of time required in the lesson
  93. 93. How to effectively use instructional media to helping students move from concrete to abstract thought</li></ul>http://elzeeyed.com/ydome/wpcontent/uploads/2007/08/teacher_cartoon.gif<br />
  94. 94. Other Instructional Technology Learning Theories <br /><ul><li>Anchored Instruction
  95. 95. Developed by John Bransford at Vanderbilt University
  96. 96. Principles:
  97. 97. 1. Learning and teaching activities should be anchored around a case-study or problem
  98. 98. 2. Curriculum materials should allow students to explore a lesson through instructional media
  99. 99. Elaboration Theory
  100. 100. Charles Reigeluth (Indiana University) and his colleagues in the late 1970s
  101. 101. Elaboration theory is an instructional design theory that emphasizes the creation of a learning sequence from simple to more complex content in order to create deeper understanding.</li></li></ul><li>Questions to Ponder:<br />How do you use technology in your instruction?<br />Does the use of technology enhance learning?<br />Do today’s technology savvy students require greater usage of technology than in the past?<br />How can you use technology to create learning experiences?<br />
  102. 102. Conclusion:<br /><ul><li>The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media
  103. 103. The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences
  104. 104. The literal interpretation of the Cone has resulted in misconceptions of its use
  105. 105. The Cone has practical applications in classroom instruction </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cisco Systems, Incorporated. (2008). Multimodal learning through media: What the research says. Fadel, C., & Lemke, C. Retrieved from http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf on February 10, 2009.
  106. 106. Dale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching. New York: Dryden Press
  107. 107. Dooley, K. (2005). Advanced methods in distance education: Applications and practices for educators, administrators and learners. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.
  108. 108. Heinich, R., Molenda, M., & Russell, J. D. (1989). Instructional media and the new technologies of instruction. New York: Macmillan.
  109. 109. Molenda, M. (2003). Cone of Experience. In Kovalchick, A., & Dawson, K. (Eds.). Education and technology: An encyclopedia (p. 161-164). Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
  110. 110. Seels, B. (1997). The relationship of media and ISD theory: The unrealized promise of Dale’s cone of experience. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology. Albuquerque, New Mexico. (ERIC Document Reproducation Service No. ED409869)
  111. 111. Turner, G. (2000). Teaching young adults: A handbook for teachers in further education. Florence, KY: Routledge.
  112. 112. Elaboration Theory - http://www.learning-theories.com/elaboration-theory-reigeluth.html
  113. 113. Anchored Instruction - http://tip.psychology.org/anchor.html</li></ul>References<br />