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Csd 210 articulation disorders - fall 2010


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Csd 210 articulation disorders - fall 2010

  1. 1. Articulation Development, Differences and Disorders COMSDIS 210: Survey of Communication Disorders
  2. 2. Articulation disorder <ul><li>A speech sound disorder resulting from difficulty with the physical production of one or more phonemes. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Comparing and contrasting articulation and phonology <ul><li>Both are examples of “speech sound disorders”. </li></ul><ul><li>Phonology: the sound system of a language and the rules that govern the sound combinations. (ASHA, 1993) </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological disorders result from lack of awareness and/or use of the linguistic rules governing the use and combination of speech sounds. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ASHA Definition of Articulation Disorder <ul><li>“ An articulation disorder is the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortions that may interfere with phonology.” (ASHA, 1993) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Facts and figures Incidence and prevalence <ul><li>Articulation disorders most commonly occurring communication disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>May affect children and adults; can be result of congenital or acquired etiologies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10-15% of preschoolers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6% of school-age children </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Almost 91% of speech-language pathologists in schools indicated that they served individuals with phonological/articulation disorders (ASHA, 2006) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of articulation errors <ul><li>Substitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Omissions </li></ul><ul><li>Distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Additions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Substitutions <ul><li>One phoneme (the target phoneme) is replaced with another. </li></ul><ul><li>Common substitutions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Omissions <ul><li>A phoneme which has an obligatory context is omitted/deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
  9. 9. Distortions <ul><li>Use of a non-standard allophonic variation of a phoneme in replacement of the target phoneme. </li></ul><ul><li>Diacritic symbols </li></ul>
  10. 10. Additions <ul><li>A phoneme is added to a word for which no obligatory context exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul>
  11. 11. Articulation development <ul><li>What is normative data ? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it gathered? </li></ul><ul><li>How is it used? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Articulation normative data <ul><li>Vowels mastered before consonants. </li></ul><ul><li>Vowels mastered by age 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Normative data on mastery of consonants. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Mastery of consonants may vary by word-position. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual AND cultural differences exist. </li></ul>
  14. 14. A note about articulation differences <ul><li>Distinction between articulation disorder and articulation difference </li></ul>
  15. 15. Causes of articulation disorders (Etiologies) <ul><li>Structural impairments of the articulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomical deviations (congenital or acquired) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Craniofacial anomalies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dental/orthodontic issues </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Functional impairments of the articulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular impairments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness, paralysis, spasticity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral motor impairments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral motor discoordination </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Myofunctional disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tongue thrust” (“reverse swallow”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairment (transient and chronic) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual/discrimination impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Mental retardation/cognitive disabilities </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Unknown etiologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual errors </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Disorder-specific components of the articulation evaluation <ul><li>Assessment of articulation skills at the word level . </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of articulation skills in connected speech . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversational speech level </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Assessment of effects of co-articulation/ facilitating contexts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextual testing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assessment of stimulability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulability: the degree to which a client can modify their phoneme production given cues provided by the examiner </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Assessment of ability to auditorily discriminate between accurate and inaccurate productions of the phoneme. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory discrimination </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Treatment of articulation disorders <ul><li>A variety of treatment approaches available. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Traditional Approach to Articulation Therapy” (Van Riper, 1939) continues to be widely used for clients exhibiting residual errors. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Goal of TAAT: increase production accuracy of the target phoneme in various word positions across the “linguistic hierarchy”. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Linguistic hierarchy <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>(nonsense) Syllable level </li></ul><ul><li>Word level </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase level </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence level </li></ul><ul><li>Reading level </li></ul><ul><li>Conversational speech level </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ways to help a child with an articulation disorder <ul><li>Be a good speech model. </li></ul><ul><li>Be a knowledgeable referral source. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand developmental & cultural norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make referral to SLP for evaluation & diagnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never tease/ridicule. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on the message, not the manner. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Reinforce accurate productions. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave intervention to the SLP. </li></ul><ul><li>Realize that treatment is a process. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes time and skill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many factors relate to speed at which goals are accomplished. </li></ul></ul>