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Greek, Etruscan, Roman Lecture

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ART 110: Intro to Art

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Greek, Etruscan, Roman Lecture

  1. 1. The Greek World 2
  2. 2. Dark Age of Greece <ul><li>Downfall of Mycenaeans </li></ul><ul><li>loss of knowledge </li></ul>
  3. 3. Figure 5-2 Geometric krater, from the Dipylon cemetery, Athens, Greece, ca. 740 BCE. 3’ 4 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 7 Geometric Art <ul><li>Human Figure </li></ul><ul><li>Abstraction </li></ul><ul><li>Storytelling </li></ul>
  4. 4. Figure 5-4 Mantiklos Apollo , statuette of a youth dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo, from Thebes, Greece, ca. 700–680 BCE. Bronze, 8” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 11 Orientalizing Period
  5. 5. Figure 5-8 Kouros, ca. 600 BCE. Marble, 6’ 1/2” high. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. 18 Archaic Period <ul><li>Kouros </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian-like </li></ul>
  6. 7. Figure 5-10 Kroisos, from Anavysos, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 6’ 4” high. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. 20 <ul><li>More naturalistic than New York Kouros </li></ul>Kouros Evolution
  7. 9. Figure 5-11 Peplos Kore , from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 530 BCE. Marble, 4’ high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. 21 Kore
  8. 11. Figure 5-22 ANDOKIDES PAINTER, Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game (Athenian bilingual amphora), from Orvieto, Italy, ca. 525–520 BCE. Black-figure side ( left ) and red-figure side ( right ). 1’ 9” high. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. 34 Vase Painting <ul><li>Red Figure vs. Black Figure </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual vases </li></ul>
  9. 12. Classical Greek Culture <ul><li>Golden/Classical Age </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Intellect and Physical </li></ul>3
  10. 13. Figure 5-34 Kritios Boy , from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, ca. 480 BCE. Marble, 2’ 10” high. Acropolis Museum, Athens. 50 Kritios Boy <ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>No Archaic smile </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalistic </li></ul>
  11. 15. Figure 5-39 MYRON, Diskobolos ( Discus Thrower ). Roman marble copy of a bronze original of ca. 450 BCE, 5’ 1” high. Museo Nazionale Romano—Palazzo Massimo alle Terme. 53 Myron, Diskobolos <ul><li>Roman Copy </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen Action </li></ul><ul><li>No Facial Expression </li></ul><ul><li>Turned from viewer </li></ul>
  12. 16. Figure 5-40 POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer) . Roman marble copy from Pompeii, Italy, after a bronze original of ca. 450–440 BCE, 6’ 11” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Naples. 54 Doryphoros (Spear Thrower) <ul><li>Contrapposto </li></ul><ul><li>Harmony of opposites </li></ul>
  13. 17. Figure 5-30 Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE. 46 Greek Architecture
  14. 18. Figure 5-44 IKTINOS and KALLIKRATES, Parthenon, (Temple of Athena Parthenos, looking southeast), Acropolis, Athens, Greece, 447–438 BCE. 58 Parthenon <ul><li>Perfect Proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Deviant horizontals and verticals </li></ul>
  15. 20. Figure 5-60 PHIALE PAINTER, Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos (Athenian white-ground calyx krater), from Vulci, Italy, ca. 440–435 BCE. 1’ 2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 74 White-Ground Vase Painting <ul><li>White-Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Colors that survive kiln heat </li></ul>
  16. 21. Late Classical Period <ul><li>Peloponnesian War </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander the Great </li></ul><ul><li>4th century BC change in cultural philosopy </li></ul>
  17. 22. Figure 5-62 PRAXITELES, Aphrodite of Knidos . Roman marble copy of an original of ca. 350–340 BCE. 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 77 <ul><li>Completely Nude </li></ul><ul><li>Not Erotic </li></ul>Aphrodite of Knidos
  18. 23. Hellenistic Period <ul><li>Conquest of Near East and Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>Lasted 3 centuries </li></ul>
  19. 24. Figure 5-83 ALEXANDROS OF ANTIOCH-ON-THE-MEANDER, Aphrodite ( Venus de Milo ), from Melos, Greece, ca. 150–125 BCE. Marble, 6’ 7” high. Louvre, Paris. 102 Venus De Milo <ul><li>Sexual </li></ul>
  20. 26. Figure 5-88 ATHANADOROS, HAGESANDROS, and POLYDOROS OF RHODES, Laocoön and his sons, from Rome, Italy, early first century CE Marble, 7’ 10 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 107 <ul><li>Dramatic </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Sensuous </li></ul>Laocoon and his Sons
  21. 27. Italy in Etruscan Times 2
  22. 28. Figure 9-2 Fibula with Orientalizing lions, from the Regolini-Galassi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy, ca. 650–640 BCE. Gold, 1’ 1/2” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 6 Fibula with Orientalizing Lions <ul><li>Lion-Oriental motif </li></ul>
  23. 29. Figure 9-3 Model of a typical sixth-century BCE Etruscan temple, as described by Vitruvius. Istituto di Etruscologia e di Antichità Italiche, Università di Roma, Rome. 8 Etruscan Architecture <ul><li>Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Terracotta </li></ul>
  24. 30. Figure 9-4 Apulu (Apollo), from the roof of the Portonaccio temple, Veii, Italy, ca. 510–500 BCE. Painted terracotta, 5’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome. 10 Etruscan Sculpture <ul><li>Terracotta </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Archaic Korai </li></ul>
  25. 32. Figure 9-11 Capitoline Wolf , from Rome, Italy, ca. 500–480 BCE. Bronze, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 20 Capitoline Wolf <ul><li>Best known of late Etruscan statuary </li></ul><ul><li>Legend of Romulus </li></ul>
  26. 33. Figure 9-12 Chimera of Arezzo , from Arezzo, Italy, first half of fourth century BCE. Bronze, 2’ 7 1/2” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence. 21 Chimera of Arezzo <ul><li>Composite Beast </li></ul><ul><li>Defined Musculature </li></ul>
  27. 34. Figure 9-16 Aule Metele ( Arringatore) , from Cortona, near Lake Trasimeno, Italy, early first century BCE. Bronze, 5’ 7” high. Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Florence. 25 Aule Metele <ul><li>Life-size bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Total Dominance of Romans </li></ul>
  28. 35. The Roman World 2
  29. 36. Figure 10-2 Model of the city of Rome during the early fourth century CE. Museo della Civiltà Romana. 1) Temple of Portunus,, 2) Circus Maximus. 3) Palatine Hill, 4) Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, 5) Pantheon, 6) Column of Trajan, 7) Forum of Trajan, 8) Markets of Trajan, 9) Forum of Julius Ceasar, 10) Forum of Augustus, 11) Forum Romanum, 12) Basilica Nova, 13) Arch of Titus, 14) Temple of Venus and Roma, 15) Arch of Constantine, 16) Colossus of Nero, 17) Colosseum. 7 Model of 4th Century AD Rome
  30. 37. Figure 10-18 Dionysiac mystery frieze, Second Style wall paintings in Room 5 of the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii, Italy, ca. 60–50 BCE. Fresco, frieze 5’ 4” high. 26 Roman Painting <ul><li>3-Dimensional World </li></ul>
  31. 39. Figure 10-7 Head of an old man, from Osimo, mid-first century BCE. Marble, life-size. Palazzo del Municipio, Osimo. 12 Republican Portraiture <ul><li>Portraiture </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocrats </li></ul><ul><li>Old </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly Men </li></ul><ul><li>Veristic </li></ul>
  32. 40. Figure 10-27 Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy, early-first-century CE copy of a bronze original of ca. 20 BCE. Marble, 6’ 8” high. Musei Vaticani, Rome. 36 New Roman Portraiture <ul><li>Young leader </li></ul><ul><li>Godlike </li></ul>
  33. 41. Augustus as General <ul><li>Pose of Doryphoros </li></ul><ul><li>Raised Arm-Aule Metele </li></ul><ul><li>Political Message </li></ul>
  34. 45. Figure 10-6 Roman concrete construction. (a) barrel vault, (b) groin vault, (c) fenestrated sequence of groin vaults, (d) hemispherical dome with oculus (John Burge). 6 Roman Concrete Construction <ul><li>Barrel Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Groin Vault </li></ul><ul><li>Hemispherical Dome </li></ul>
  35. 46. Figure 10-36 Aerial view of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater), Rome, Italy, ca. 70–80 CE. 45 Roman Architecture
  36. 47. Colosseum <ul><li>Largest/Most Famous Amphitheater </li></ul>
  37. 48. Figure 10-49 Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118 – 125 CE. 60 Pantheon <ul><li>Temple of all gods </li></ul>
  38. 49. Figure 10-51 Interior of the Pantheon, Rome, Italy, 118–125 CE. 62 Pantheon’s Oculus <ul><li>Oculus </li></ul><ul><li>Coffers </li></ul>
  39. 50. Figure 10-59 Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, from Rome, Italy, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, 11’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 71 Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius <ul><li>Break with tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Equestrian portraiture </li></ul>
  40. 51. Late Empire <ul><li>Rome weakening </li></ul><ul><li>Uprising of Christianity </li></ul>
  41. 52. Figure 10-70 Battle of Romans and barbarians ( Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus ), from Rome, Italy, ca. 250–260 CE. Marble, 5’ high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome. 81 Battle of Romans and Barbarians <ul><li>Burial very widespread </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental transformation in Roman art </li></ul>
  42. 53. New Rome and Constantine <ul><li>Tetrarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Constantinople </li></ul><ul><li>End of Antiquity/Beginning of Middle Ages </li></ul>
  43. 54. Figure 10-73 Portraits of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople, ca. 305 CE. Porphyry, 4’ 3” high. Saint Mark’s, Venice. 85 Tetrarchic Portraiture <ul><li>Not individualized </li></ul><ul><li>Equals </li></ul><ul><li>No Emotions </li></ul>
  44. 55. Figure 10-77 Portrait of Constantine, from the Basilica Nova, Rome, Italy, ca. 315–330 CE. Marble, 8’ 6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome. 90 Colossus of Constantine <ul><li>Eternal Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Not Nervous Glance </li></ul>

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