The Affects of Television on Children

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The Affects of Television on Children
Jaclyn Garcia
PSY492 UB

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  • Parents need to be made aware of the negative impact television has on their children. In order to better understand the affects of television on children it is important to review the studies that have been conducted. This article will explore the ideas and theories that are currently implied by researches in the field.
  • Television has become a major emphasis in children’s lives. In an effort to explain the impact television has had I will review the current information related to research and studies that have been conducted to learn what impact television has on a child’s mental and social development. Using information obtained from American Academy of Pediatrics, Brown RT, Freeman WS, Perrin JM, MT Stein, RW Amler, HM Feldman, K Pierce, and ML Wolraich., Christakis, Dimitri A. MD, Frederick J. Zimmerman, PhD, David L. Gigiuseppe, MS, and Carolyn A. McCarty, PhD Faber Taylor, Andrea, Frances E. Kuo, and William C. Sullivan, Faraone, Stephen V., Joseph Sergeant, Christopher Gillberge, and Josech Biederman, Johnson, Jeffery G. PhD; Patricia Cohen, PhD; Stephanie Kasen, PhD; Judith S. Brook, EdD , Johnson, Susan R M.D., Poplawski, Thomas, Wright JC, Huston AC, Murphy KC, M St. Peters, M PiÃton, R Scantlin and J Kotler, as well as Zuckerman, Diana M. and Barry S. Zuckerman, I will explore the adverse effects television has on children.
  • In the 2001 article, “Children, Adolescents and Television” in the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we explore the issues related to children and their television viewing. It is noted that the average child watches an average of three hours of television a day. The AAP states that there are many negative health effects established from watching television. Young children do not understand the difference between reality and television and are caught in the ideas that are projected such as violence and aggression, body concept and self image, dieting, and substance abuse. There is also a physical issue with watching too much television as children do not get enough physical activity by sitting in front of the television.
  • The article “Prevalence and Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Primary Care Settings”, written by Brown, etc. (2001), explains that ADD/ADHD may in fact be a medical issue because there is a noticeable difference in a child’s brain with ADD than a child at a normally developing attention span. This article does show that there have been a number of studies trying to determine the cause of ADD and yet there has been no known result.
  • “ Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attention Problems in Children”, by Christakis, etc. (2004), shows more negative affects that television has on children. Although there is no known link to ADHD, the study performed shows a correlation to the number of hours spent watching television and the child having ADD. This can be explained by stating that children with ADD have better behavior when allowed to watch television.
  • In the article “Coping with ADD the Surprising Connection to Green Play Settings” (2001), by Faber Taylor, etc., explain that there is a connection between using nature and having better attention span. Television can be seen as negative, because it does not encourage natural play and interaction for children. The article does go on to explain that ADHD could be caused from not having the appropriate interactions and developmental needs as a young child.
  • Faraone, etc.’s article “The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition”, shows how ADHD is more prevalent in the US than any other location. The study performed showed that only 1% of non-US participants had ADHD and nearly 11% of US children had ADHD. This a staggering difference. The correlation between the number of hours a child watches television and their probability of having ADHD had a positive correlation.
  • In “Extensive Television Viewing and the Development of Attention and Learning Difficulties During Adolescence”, written by Johnson, etc (2007), shows a clear connection between negative attention and learning abilities with children watching too much television. This article explained that children, who watch three or more hours of television per day, were at risk for attention problems. As we learned form the 2001 article “Children, Adolescents and Television” in the American Academy of Pediatrics, three hours a day is the average for an a-typical child.
  • “ Strangers in Our Homes: TV and Our Children’s Minds”, by Susan R Johnson (1999), shows a clear understanding of the negative affects that television has on children’s emotional and social development. Johnson proceeds to explain how important mental development is in the younger years and how television stops a child from interacting with the world. This article describes how children are very susceptible to the negative aspects that are also listed in the 2001 article “Children, Adolescents and Television” in the American Academy of Pediatrics
  • Poplawski, etc.’s article also shows the issues with television and a child’s developmental years in “Losing Our Senses" found in Renewal: A Journal for Waldorf Education (1998). Poplawski goes on to explain that thinking and speaking are directly connected. If a child is not in a speaking environment then they will not develop good speaking or thinking skills. It is important to understand that television takes away from a child’s interaction with others, both in speaking and playing. A child learns more with hands on experience than they will by watching it on television.
  • “ The Relations of Early Television Viewing to School Readiness and Vocabulary of Children from Low-Income Families: The Early Window Project”, written by Write, etc. (2003), shows the direct correlation between television and a child’s mental abilities. In this study we learn that children who watch more television have lower scores on testing than children who watch less television. This shows that a child who watches television is not increasing their knowledge or their ability to interact or problem solve. Children need interaction.
  • Zuckerman and Zuckerman (1985) also bring out some notable issues in their article “Television’s Impact on Children”. We learn that research has shown an association between television viewing and children’s aggressive behavior, racial and sex-role stereotypes, decreased interest in reading and school, as well as poor health habits and attitudes. As with many of the other articles it is easy to see how television can cause children to have an adverse view of the world around them. Parents should understand that television is for entertainment not education; however the two are not far separated in a child’s mind.
  • Considering the new information obtained from these articles the hypotheses: Children who watch three or more hours of television per day between birth and five years of age are more likely to have social and emotional issues than their counterparts who watch less than three hours of television a day, can be viewed as factual. The impact of television on children can be seen in physical, mental, and emotional situations. Parents should be made aware of these impacts. The most compelling argument that each article appears to agree with is that television viewing is not healthy for children. Television causes children to have a false idea of reality, increases tendency for violence and aggression, low body concept and self image, poor dieting habits, and a disturbing view of substance abuse. Each article states research that has shown the more television a child watches the lower their mental abilities are, as projected through grades and experiments. Although there are some positive aspects of television, when monitored and in moderation, the negative impacts appear to be more pertinent for children in today’s society.
  • I believe that if used in moderation, and monitored closely, television can be a useful educational tool. However, if left to their own devises children will be deterred and television will have negative repercussions for the child. Television should be handled the same way every other item is handled in a child’s life… it should be age appropriate and should not be the be-all and end-all to a child’s life. Children have to learn self control and balance in their life or they will carry on the negative traits as an adult.
  • Reference print out available if needed.
  • The Affects of Television on Children

    1. 1. The Affects of Television on Children Jaclyn Garcia PSY492 UB
    2. 2. Television has become a major emphasis in children’s lives. In an effort to explain the impact television has had I will review the current information related to research and studies that have been conducted to learn what impact television has on a child’s mental and social development.
    3. 3. Young children do not understand the difference between reality and television
    4. 4. There is a noticeable difference in a child’s brain with ADD than a child at a normally developing attention span
    5. 5. Studies have shown there is a correlation to the number of hours spent watching television and the child having ADD
    6. 6. Television does not encourage natural play and interaction for children
    7. 7. Studies have shown that only 1% of non-US participants had ADHD and nearly 11% of US children had ADHD
    8. 8. Children, who watch three or more hours of television per day are at risk for attention problems
    9. 9. The negative affects that television has on children’s emotional and social development.
    10. 10. Thinking and speaking are directly connected
    11. 11. <ul><li>Children need interaction </li></ul>
    12. 12. television is for entertainment not education
    13. 13. Television is to the brain as candy is to the body
    14. 14. Television should be handled the same way every other item is handled in a child’s life… it should be age appropriate and should not be the be-all and end-all to a child’s life
    15. 15. References: American Academy of Pediatrics (2001) Children, Adolescents, and Television Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/107/2/423?i jkey=464e5f2a1e7155ce955685b81a6012359451934e Brown RT, Freeman WS, Perrin JM, MT Stein, RW Amler, HM Feldman, K Pierce, and ML Wolraich. (2001)Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics . 2001;107(3). Retrieved May 12, 2010 from pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/3/e43 Christakis, Dimitri A. MD, Frederick J. Zimmerman, OhD, David L. Gigiuseppe, MS, and Carolyn A. McCarty, PPhD (2004) Early Television Exposure and Subsequent Attention Problems in Children. Pediatrics Vol. 113 No. 4 Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.aap.org/advocacy/releases/tvapril.pdf Faber Taylor, Andrea, Frances E. Kuo, and William C. Sullivan (2001) Coping with ADD The Surprising Connection to Green Play Settings. Environment and Behavior, Vol. 33 No. 1 54-77 Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.outdoorfoundation.org/pdf/ CopingWithADD.pdf Faraone, Stephen V., Joseph Sergeant, Christopher Gillberge, and Josech Biederman. (2003) The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: is it an American Condition? World Psychiatry 2(2): 104-113 Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1525089/ Johnson, Jeffery G. PhD; Patricia Cohen, PhD; Stephanie Kasen, PhD; Judith S. Brook, EdD . (2007). Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicince. . 161(5):480-486. Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/161/5/480?maxtoshow=&hits=10& RESULTFORMAT=1&andorexacttitle=and&andorexacttitleabs=and&fulltext=television+and+ADD&andorexactfulltext=and&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&sortspec=relevance&resourcetype=HWCIT Johnson, Susan R M.D. (1999) Strangers in Our Homes: TC and Our Children’s Minds Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.waldorflibrary.org/Journal_Articles/ Strangers%20in%20our%20Homes.pdf Poplawski, Thomas. (1998) “Losing Our Senses&quot;. Renewal: A Journal for Waldorf Education, Vol. 7, No. 2, Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www.waldorflibrary.org/waldorf%20journals%20project/resproject2.pdf Wright JC, Huston AC, Murphy KC, M St. Peters, M PiÃton, R Scantlin and J Kotler (2003) The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: the Early Window Project. Child Dev. 2001;72:1347-1366 Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118968699/abstract Zuckerman, Diana M. and Barry S. Zuckerman. (1985) Television's Impact on Children. Pediatrics, Vol. 75, No. 2 Retrieved May 12, 2010 from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/75/2/385 Pictures provided by Clip Art

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