1. Foundations of Computer Science – From Data
Manipulation to Theory of Computation,
By Behrouz A. Forouzan, 歐亞
「馮紐曼模式」（von Neumann Model）
(Arithmetic Logic Unit)
Processing Unit; CPU)
von Neumann model
The model defines a computer as four subsystems: memory,
arithmetic logic unit, control unit, and I/O
The data and program are stored as
Sequential execution of instructions
binary patterns in memory
Memory is where programs and data are
stored during processing.
The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is where
calculation and logical operations take place.
The control unit controls the operations of
memory, ALU, and the I/O subsystem.
The input subsystem accepts the input data
and program from outside the computer;
The output subsystem sends the result of
processing to the outside.
Program and data in memory
The main feature of the von Neumann
The programs are stored in
The program must be a sequence
of instructions, each instruction
operates on one or more data
The control unit fetches one
instruction from memory,
interprets it, and then executes it.
The instructions are executed
one after another