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  1. 1. Anyely Fernández Delis Soto Diana Paternina
  2. 2. Why do we use punctuation? <ul><ul><li>We use punctuation marks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To separate groups of meaning and emphasis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To convey an idea of the variations of pitch, volume, pauses, and intonation of speech. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To help avoid contextual ambiguity. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Punctuation
  4. 4. Apostrophe <ul><li>Indicates the possessive case of nouns and indefinite pronouns. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The boy’s mother / Sara’s house </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marks omission of letters in contracted words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. didn’t / o’clock / telephone – ’phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marks omission of digits in numbers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. class of ’83 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is often used to form plurals of letters, figures, punctuated abbreviations, symbols, and word referred to as words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Your plan is good, even if there are lots of but's in it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of the junior faculty have Ph.D’s. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Brackets <ul><li>To add clarification and information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. The witness said: &quot;He [the policeman] hit me.“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina]. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set off phonetics symbols and transcriptions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Punctuation [ˌpʌŋktjʊˈeɪʃən] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To add missing words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. It is [a] good question. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To add editorial o authorial comment. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. They will not be present [my emphasis]. </li></ul><ul><li>To modify a direct quotation: </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. He &quot;love[s] driving.&quot; (The original words were &quot;I love driving.&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>For nesting. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Square brackets can also be nested (using square brackets [like these] inside round brackets). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colon <ul><li>Introduces a clause or phrase that explains, illustrates, amplifies, or restates what has gone before. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The sentence was poorly constructed: it lacked both unity and coherence. </li></ul><ul><li>Directs attention to an appositive. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. He had only one pleasure: eating </li></ul><ul><li>Introduces a series. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Three abstained :England , France, and Belgium. </li></ul><ul><li>Separates titles and subtitles. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Era of the Civil War. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Colon <ul><li>Introduces lengthy quoted material set off from the rest of a text by indentation but not bu quotation marks. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. I quote from the text of Chapter One: </li></ul><ul><li>Separates elements in a page references, in bibliographical and biblical citations, and in set formulas used to express ratios and time. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. John 4:10 / a ratio of 3:5 / 8:30 a.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Follows the salutation in formal correspondence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Dear Sir: / Ladies and Gentlemen: </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuates headings in memorandums and formal correspondence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. TO: / SUBJECT: / REFERENCE: </li></ul>
  8. 8. Comma <ul><li>Use a comma between items in a serie or list. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. coffee, tea, sugar, milk, eggs, butter, salt. </li></ul><ul><li>My favourite sports are football, rugby, swimming, boxing and golf. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma between three or more adjectives or adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. I like the old, brown, wooden table. </li></ul><ul><li>He bought an old, red, open-top Volkswagen. </li></ul><ul><li>For two adjectives, use a comma where you could use “and”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. It was a short, simply film. (It was a short and simply film.) </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma for numbers over 999. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. 1,000 (one thousand) / $75, 050.75 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comma <ul><li>Use a comma for addresses, some dates, and titles following a name. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Los Angeles, California / November 4, 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma before of after direct speech. Do not use a comma for reported speech. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. He said, “I love you.” / “I love you”, he said. </li></ul><ul><li>He told her that he loved her. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma before coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) to join independent clauses. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. He didn't want to go, but he went anyway. </li></ul><ul><li>She is kind so she helps people. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a comma for parenthetical elements. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. John Miles, who is chairman of the company, is quite old. </li></ul><ul><li>Andy, my wife’s brother, cannot come. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Comma <ul><li>Use a comma after an introductory part. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Rushing to catch the flight, he forgot to take his phone. </li></ul><ul><li>By evening we were getting worried. </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence adverbs. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. However, Anthony did arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Anthony, however, did arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverbial clause. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. If I win the lottery, I will buy a castle / I will buy a castle if I win the lottery. </li></ul><ul><li>Set off contrasting and opposing expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. He changed his style, not his ethics. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Comma <ul><li>Separates a tag question from the rest of the sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. It’s a fine day, isn’t it? </li></ul><ul><li>Is used to avoid ambiguity that might arise from adjacent words. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. To Mary, Jane was someone special. </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuates an inverted name. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Morton, William. </li></ul><ul><li>Follows the salutation in informal letter. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Dear Mark, / Very truly yours, </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dash <ul><li>To show a pause or break in meaning in the middle of a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. My brothers—Richard and John—are visiting Hanoi. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 15th century—when of course nobody had electricity—water was often pumped by hand. </li></ul><ul><li>To show an afterthought. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. I attached the photo to my email—at least I hope I did! </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce a list. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Don’t forget to buy some food—eggs, bread, tuna and cheese. </li></ul><ul><li>To show that letters or words are missing. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. They are really f----d up. </li></ul><ul><li>Often precedes the attribution of a quotation. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. My foot is on my native heath.... </li></ul><ul><li>-Sir Walter Scott </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ellipsis <ul><li>Indicates the omission of one or more words within a quoted passage. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. In the little world in which children have their </li></ul><ul><li>existence,… there is nothing so finely perceived </li></ul><ul><li>and so finely felt as injustice.-Charles Dickens </li></ul><ul><li>Usually indicates omission of one or more lines of poetry when ellipsis is extended the length of the line. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. I think that I shall never see </li></ul><ul><li>A poem lovely as a tree </li></ul><ul><li>. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>Poems are made by fools like me, </li></ul><ul><li>But only God can make a tree. –Joyce Kilmer </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates halting speech or an unfinished sentence in dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. “I’d like to … that is … if you don’t mind ….” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Exclamation <ul><li>To indicate strong feelings or a raised voice in speech. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. “Help!” / “Stop!” </li></ul><ul><li>She shouted at him, “Go away! I hate you!” </li></ul><ul><li>Many interjections need an exclamation mark. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. “Hi! What’s new?” / “Ouch! That hurt.” </li></ul><ul><li>A non-question sentence beginning with “what” or “how” is often an exclamation. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. How pretty she looked in that dress! </li></ul><ul><li>Informal writing. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Met John yesterday. He is so handsome!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Remember, don’t be late!!! </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hyphen <ul><li>To join words to show that their meaning is linked in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Book-case / race-horse </li></ul><ul><li>To make compound modifiers before nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. A blue-eyed boy / The well-known actor </li></ul><ul><li>Prefixes. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. All-inclusive / Ex-wife / Self-control </li></ul><ul><li>non-English </li></ul><ul><li>When writing numbers 21 to 99, and fractions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Twenty-one / Two-thirds </li></ul><ul><li>To show that a word has been broken at the end of a line. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g . The directors requested that a more conven- </li></ul><ul><li>ient time be arranged. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. This rule applies only to 12-, 13- and 14-year olds. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Parentheses <ul><li>Ex plain or clarify. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Tony Blair (the former British prime minister) resigned from office in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate plural or singular. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Please leave your mobile phone(s) at the door. </li></ul><ul><li>Add a personal comment. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Many people love party (I don’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Define abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The matter will be decided by the IOC (International Olympic Committee) </li></ul><ul><li>Enclose numerals that confirm a written number in a text. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Delivery will be made in thirty (30) days. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Period <ul><li>Ends sentences or sentence fragments. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. I went to the store for groceries. / Not bad. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations and contractions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Dr. / A.D. / Jr. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is normally used with an individual’s initials. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. T.S. Elliot </li></ul><ul><li>Is used after numerals and letters in vertical enumerations and outlines. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Required skills are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Shorthand </li></ul><ul><li>B. Typing </li></ul><ul><li>C. Transcription </li></ul>
  18. 18. Quotation Mark (double and single) <ul><li>Title or name of a book, film, ship etc. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. ‘Titanic’ is a 1997 movie directed by James Cameron about the sinking of the ship ‘Titanic’ </li></ul><ul><li>The third chapter of Treasure Island is entitled “The Black Spot.” </li></ul><ul><li>We use a quotation marks around a piece of text that we are quoting or citing, usually from another source. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language , David Crystal argues that punctuation “plays a critical role in the modern writing system”. </li></ul><ul><li>Use quotation marks around dialogue or direct speech. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. It was a moonlit night. James opened the door and stepped onto the balcony, followed by Mary. They stood in silence for a few moments, looking at the moon. Then Mary turned to him and said: &quot;Do you love me, James?&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 19. Quotation Mark (double and single) <ul><li>Use quotation marks around a word or phrase that we see as slang or jargon. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. The police were called to a &quot;disturbance&quot;-which in reality was a pretty big fight. </li></ul><ul><li>Use quotation marks around a word or phrase that we want to make “special” in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Note that sometimes we use “italics” instead of quotation marks. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Semicolon <ul><li>We sometimes use a semi-colon instead of a full stop or period. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. George likes coffee; Mary likes tea. </li></ul><ul><li>You did your best; now let’s hope you pass the exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a semi-colon as a kind of “super comma”. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. ABC Investments has offices in five locations: Kensington, London; Brighton & Hove; and Oxford, Cambridge and Manchester. </li></ul><ul><li>Links clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb (such as consequently, furthermore, however). </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Speeding is illegal; furthermore, it is very dangerous. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Slash <ul><li>Separate alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Dear Sir/Madam. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary will eat cake and/or fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces the word to or and between related terms that are compounded. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. In the May/June issue. </li></ul><ul><li>The fiscal year 2009/2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Divides elements in dates and divides numerators and denominators in fractions. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Offer expires 5/10/2011 </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 (two-thirds) </li></ul><ul><li>Set off phonemes and phonemic transcription. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. /b/ as in but </li></ul>
  22. 22. Question Mark <ul><li>Ends a direct question. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. How are you?. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates the writer’s ignorance or uncertainty. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Lord Byron, English poet (1788?-1824) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Linking Devices <ul><li>Linking words or devices help you to build a logical </li></ul><ul><li>argument or thread in your assignment by linking one </li></ul><ul><li>statement to another. An assignment without linking words </li></ul><ul><li>reads like a series of unrelated statements with no flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Linking words can be used to: </li></ul><ul><li>Link the flow of ideas in your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide your reader towards the next stage of your argument. </li></ul><ul><li>Link paragraphs together. </li></ul>
  24. 24. References <ul><li>http:// www.englishclub.com/writing/punctuation.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition (1996) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Thanks </li></ul>