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Onershiip and film

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Onershiip and film

  1. 1. Unit 1: Industries, Texts & Audiences 1.1:How the Media Industry is structured.
  2. 2. What Makes Up The Media Industries? Broadcasting Press Cinema Advertising New Media
  3. 3. How The Media Industry is Structured. <ul><li>Overview / Background history </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns what? </li></ul><ul><li>Scope and objectives of operations. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulations of the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Range of products - within and across organisations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Horizontal Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The acquisition of competitors in the same section of the industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical Integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ownership of every stage of the production process (i.e.: Production + distribution + exhibition), thereby ensuring complete control of a media product) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>www.mediachannel.org/ownership/chart.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>www.mediachannel.org/ownership/granville.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>www.thenation.com/special/bigten.html </li></ul><ul><li>www.thenation.com/special/2006_entertainment.pdf </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Film Industry
  7. 7. The Film Industry <ul><li>Golden Age of Hollywood & Studio System </li></ul><ul><li>Big Six </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers & Monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical/horizontal integration </li></ul>
  8. 8. Golden Age of Hollywood <ul><li>1920s-1950s - The Studio System </li></ul><ul><li>Film companies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing movies primarily on their own film lots with creative staff on long term contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pursuing ‘vertical integration’ through ownership/control of distribution & Theatres. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>8 Major Studios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MGM, Paramount, RKO, Warner, Fox, United Artists, Columbia, Universal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paramount Case 1948 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studio System scheme was in violation of the Antitrust (Competition) laws of America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced separation of movie production and exhibition companies. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Six Majors in Film <ul><li>20th Century Fox </li></ul><ul><li>Time Warner </li></ul><ul><li>Beuna Vista Motion Pictures (owned by Walt Disney) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pixar, Miramax, Touchstone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Paramount (owned by Viacom) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamworks, United International Pictures[joint venture with Universal Studios] MTV, Nickelodeon. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>NBC Universal (owned by General Electric & Vivendi) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal International Pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Title [London] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sony Pictures Entertainments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbia Tristar, Jim Henson, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MGM (Metro Goldwyn Mayer) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Warner Bros <ul><li>“ A fully integrated, broad-based entertainment company…” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A global leader in the creation, production, distribution, licensing & marketing of all forms of creative content across all current and emerging media and platforms… </li></ul><ul><li>“ Standing at the forefront of every aspect of the entertainment industry from feature film , TV, & home entertainment production and worldwide distribution to DVD, digital distribution to, animation, comic book s, licensing , international cinemas and broadcasting.” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Established by the 4 Warner brothers in 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>1st synchronized sound feature film “The Jazz Singer” - 1927 </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiary of AOL Time Warner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue $31.8 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Divisions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion Picture, TV, Home Entertainment Group, Consumer Products, DC Comics, Theatre, Cinema. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. AOL TIME WARNER
  15. 15. REGULATION: Film Industry <ul><li>United States antitrust law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prohibits anti-competitive behavior (monopoly) and unfair business practices. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Production Code of America (Hays Code) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Production_Code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 Principals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to lower moral standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present correct standards of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law should not be ridiculed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abandoned in 1967; replaced by MPAA Film Classifications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>G. PG. PG-13. 17. NC-17 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.mpaa.org/FlmRat_Ratings.asp </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Newspapers <ul><li>Local National </li></ul><ul><li>Tabloid Broadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Dailies Sundays </li></ul>
  18. 18. NEWS INTERNATIONAL <ul><li>Industry: Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>UK Brands: </li></ul>
  19. 19. News International <ul><li>4 National Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>1 local newspaper - ‘The London Paper’ </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Company: News Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue $13.5 billion </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. News Corporation
  21. 21. REGULATION: Press <ul><li>Self Regulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary code - PCC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.pcc.org.uk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legal control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Libel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jepordise State Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Prejudice a Fair Trial’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campaign for Press & Broadcasting Freedom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.cpbf.org.uk </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Competition Commission <ul><li>Role of the CC </li></ul><ul><li>The Competition Commission (CC) is one of the independent public bodies which help ensure healthy competition between companies in the UK for the benefit of companies, customers and the economy. The CC replaced the Monopolies and Mergers Commission in 1999. </li></ul>

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