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Effective project management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme

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Topic 1: Overview of the Project Management Landscape
 Definition of project, project portfolio and program
 Classification of projects
 Fundamental of project management
- Topic 2: Traditional Project Management (TPM)
 What is Traditional Project Management?
 Classification of TPM models
 Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Management Landscape
- Topic 3: Agile Project Management
- Topic 4: Extreme Project Management
- Topic 5: Comparison of TPM – Agile – Extreme Project Management

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Effective project management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme

  1. 1. REE 513 Presentation Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme Long Pham “Managing Complexity in the Face of Uncertainty”
  2. 2. REE 513 Presentation List of Topic - Topic 1: Overview of the Project Management Landscape  Definition of project, project portfolio and program  Classification of projects  Fundamental of project management - Topic 2: Traditional Project Management (TPM)  What is Traditional Project Management?  Classification of TPM models  Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Management Landscape - Topic 3: Agile Project Management - Topic 4: Extreme Project Management - Topic 5: Comparison of TPM – Agile – Extreme Project Management
  3. 3. REE 513 Presentation Topic 1: Project Management Landscape - What is a Project?  Definition of project, project portfolio and program - Classification of projects - Fundamentals of Project Management (PMBOK Guide)  Five Process Groups and Ten Knowledge Areas in PMBOK  Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups
  4. 4. REE 513 Presentation Project Definition - Projects arise out of unmet needs:  Find a solution to a critical business problem  Take advantage of an untapped business opportunity - PMBOK definition: “A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities that have one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification.” Activity A Activity C Activity B Activity D Activity E What’s missing from this definition? Answer: The definition isn’t focused on the purpose of a project: to deliver value to client / organization.
  5. 5. REE 513 Presentation Project Definition  The sequence of the activities is based on technical requirements, not on management prerogatives • “Jack will work on activity B as soon as he finishes A” (what if Jack wasn’t available at all?) • Artificial relationships between activities should be avoid. Resource decisions come later in project planning.  Project must have single goal. Large/complex projects should be divided into subprojects. • Pros: better management control: simplify scheduling of resources, reduce interdepartmental communication • Cons: projects are interdependent. (however, interdependency is easier to handle than many goals)  Projects are finite. Processes are continuous. Senior management wants a deadline.  Project manager can’t change budget/resources; Only senior management can do.  Specifications satisfaction accounts for a large percentage of project failures. Specs can be changed due to: requirements is not completely defined by client at the beginning, business situation changes, etc. - A Business-focused Definition of a Project:  A project is a sequence of finite dependent activities whose successful completion results in the delivery of the expected business value that validated doing the project.
  6. 6. REE 513 Presentation Program & Project Portfolio - A program is a collection of related projects that share a common purpose. Projects may have to be completed in a specific order for the program to be considered complete. - Unlike projects, programs can have many goals but align toward a larger goal.  The NASA space program included several dozen projects in the form of scientific experiments. Except for the fact that they were all aboard the same spacecraft, the experiments were independent of one another and together defined a program. - Project portfolio is a collection of projects that share some common link to one another. The link could take many forms:  R&D Project portfolio, infrastructure maintenance project portfolio, process improvement project portfolio, etc. - Portfolio of portfolios  A project-based model of enterprise  How projects related to and align with the strategic plan of the enterprise.
  7. 7. REE 513 Presentation Project Characteristics - Typical characteristic of projects: level of risk , business value, length, complexity, technology used, number of departments affected, Cost, etc. - Characteristics of the Contemporary Projects: High speed, high change, lower cost, increasing levels of complexity, more uncertainty  Faster time-to-market means greater value to the business  The window of opportunity is narrowing and constantly moving  Projects requirements sometimes can not clearly defined at the project planning stage.
  8. 8. REE 513 Presentation Classification of Projects - Project management must adapt to the characteristics of the projects. “One size fits all” approach to every projects is just asking for trouble. - A classification rule can help choosing suitable approach to project management. - Projects can be broadly classified based on: Goal and Solution
  9. 9. REE 513 Presentation What is Project Management? - Project management is a set of tools, templates, and processes designed to answer the following six questions:  What business situation is being addressed by this project? A problem, an untapped opportunity.  What does the business need to do? A solution ( known, partially known, unknown). Objective statement.  What will you do? Project Overview Statement (POS)  How will you do it? Detail approach to the project.  How will you know you did it? Deliver business value (IRACIS): Increase Revenue (IR), Avoid Costs (AC), Improved Services (IS)  How well did you do? - PMBOOK definition: “The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.” - Improved definition: “Project management is an organized common-sense approach that utilizes the appropriate client involvement in order to deliver client requirements that meet expected incremental business value.”  Project management is organized common sense. If it doesn’t make sense, don’t do it.
  10. 10. REE 513 Presentation Fundamentals of Project Management - The PMBOK Guide has become the de facto standard for the practice of project management world wide. The five process groups and ten knowledge areas defined in the book are the basic of all project management models. - Five process groups: Scoping (or initiating), Planning, Launching (or Executing), Monitoring and Controlling, Closing. - Ten Knowledge Areas: Integration management, Scope Management, Time Management, Cost Management, Quality Management, Human Resource Management, Communication Management, Risk management, Procurement Management, Stakeholder Management “The PMI PMBOK Process Groups are not a project management life cycle; they are the building blocks of every project management life cycle” Robert K. Wysocki, PhD, President, EII Publications, LLC
  11. 11. REE 513 Presentation Mapping Knowledge Areas to Process Groups
  12. 12. REE 513 Presentation Topic 2: Traditional Project Management (TPM) - Traditional Project Management (TPM) is a set of tools, templates, and processes for managing projects whose goal and solution are both clearly understood.  The required knowledge for PMP certification exams: • Five processes groups • Ten knowledge areas - There are two categories of TPM Models:  Linear: • Standard Waterfall Model • Rapid Development Waterfall Model  Incremental: • Staged Delivery Waterfall Model • Feature Driven Development (FDD) Model
  13. 13. REE 513 Presentation Example of Process Group1: Scoping a Project - The most difficult & most sloppily executed out of the five Process Groups. Scoping is where most of the project failure originated - Effective project scoping is as much an art as it is a science  Science: Tools, templates, process for scoping are precisely defined & documented  Art: knowing your client, organization’s environment, market situation to adapt tools, templates, and process - Tools, Templates, & Processes Used to Scope a Project:  Conditions of Satisfaction  Project Scoping Meting  Requirements Elicitation  Brainstorming  Facilitated Group Sessions  Interviews  Prototyping  Requirements Workshops  Project Overview Statement  Approval to Plan the Project
  14. 14. REE 513 Presentation Project Scoping Tool: Condition of Satisfaction (COS) - COS establishes a language of communication and understanding between project manager and client - What your client wants may not be what your client needs. Your job is to make sure that what they want is what they need and that you will deliver what they need.  Pay attention to the disconnection between what client says they want and what they really need. Client wants tend to be associated with a solution to a problem that they envision. Needs tend to be associated with the actual problem.  Tips: ask the client why they want what they want  Sometimes, client doesn’t really know what they need. TPM forces client to specify what they need. Agile & Extreme discover the need through doing the project. - It’s depended on the complexity and uncertainty of project that project scope meeting is required or not. - Project Overview Statement (POS) is the output of project scoping process WANTS NEEDS
  15. 15. REE 513 Presentation What the customer really need
  16. 16. Example of POS
  17. 17. REE 513 Presentation Two categories of TPM Models - Linear PMLC Models:  Standard Waterfall Model  Rapid Development Waterfall Model - Incremental PMLC Models:  Staged Delivery Waterfall Model  Feature Driven Development (FDD) Model
  18. 18. REE 513 Presentation Linear PMLC Models - Definition:  A Linear PMLC model consists of a number of dependent phases that are executed in a sequential order with no feedback loops. The complete solution is not released until the final phase. - Characteristics:  Complete and clearly defined goal, solution, requirements, functions, and features  Few expected scope change requests  Routine and repetitive activities  Use established templates
  19. 19. REE 513 Presentation Linear PMLC Models Strengths  Entire project is scheduled up front  Resource requirements are known  Does not require the most skilled resources  Team members do not have to be co-located Weaknesses  Does not accommodate change very well  Costs too much  Takes too long before any deliverables are produced  Requires complete and detailed plans  Must follow a rigid sequence of processes  Is not focused on client value When to Use  Projects that are repetitive  Simple, short duration projects  Projects contained totally within a single department and use no outside resources Linear PMLC Models:  Standard Waterfall Model  Rapid Development Waterfall Model
  20. 20. REE 513 Presentation Linear PMLC Model 1: The Standard Waterfall
  21. 21. REE 513 Presentation Linear PMLC Model 2: Rapid Development Waterfall Considerations in Choosing a Variation  Decomposing the project into parallel and independent swim lanes  Swim lane cohesiveness  Increased risk
  22. 22. REE 513 Presentation Incremental PMLC Models Definition:  An Incremental PMLC model consists of a number of dependent phases repeated in sequential order with no feedback loops Characteristics:  Same as Linear PMLC model  Need to release deliverables against a more aggressive schedule
  23. 23. REE 513 Presentation Incremental PMLC Models Strengths  Produces business value early in the project  Enables you to better schedule scarce resources  Can accommodate minor scope change requests between increments  Offers a product improvement opportunity  More focused on client value than the Linear PMLC model Weaknesses  The team may not remain intact between increments  Requires hand-off documentation between increments  Must follow a defined set of processes  Must define increments based on function and feature dependencies rather than business value  Requires more client involvement than Linear PMLC models  An Incremental PMLC model takes longer than the Linear PMLC model  Partitioning the functions and features may be problematic When to Use  To get to a partial product or service to market sooner  To get partial solution to the end user sooner Incremental PMLC Models:  Staged Delivery Waterfall Model  Feature-Driven Development Model
  24. 24. REE 513 Presentation Incremental PMLC Model 1: The Staged Delivery Waterfall Model
  25. 25. REE 513 Presentation Incremental PMLC Model 2: Feature Driven Development (FDD) Model NOTE: The feature sets are prioritized based on technical dependencies in order to determine the build sequence.
  26. 26. REE 513 Presentation Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Management Landscape
  27. 27. REE 513 Presentation Research and Development
  28. 28. REE 513 Presentation Understanding the source of change
  29. 29. REE 513 Presentation Topic 3: Agile Project Management - Agile Project Management is a set of tools, templates and processes for managing projects whose goal is clearly defined but whose solution ranges from partially unknown to almost totally unknown.  Agile Project address new problems/business opportunities with high complexity & uncertainty but their success are critical to the business. - PMLC models can be used for Agile Projects can be broadly classified in to 2 categories:  Interative: (used when most of the solution has been discovered) • Prototyping, Evolutionary Development Waterfall, Rational Unified Process (RUP), Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM), Adaptive Software Development (ASD), Scrum.  Adaptive: (used when most of the solution is unknown) • Adaptive Project Framework (APF) PMLC: Project Management Life Cycle
  30. 30. REE 513 Presentation Agile Manifesto
  31. 31. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Models Definition:  An Iterative Project Management Life Cycle (PMLC) model consists of a number of phases that are repeated in groups with a feedback loop after each group is completed. At the discretion of the client the last phase in a group may release a partial solution. Characteristics:  The solution is known but not to the expected depth (i.e., features are not complete)  Often uses iconic or simulated prototypes to discover the complete solution  Scope Phase: Implementation of intermediate solutions can be problematic. Final solution cannot be defined at the start of the project  Plan Phase: Complete plan for building the known solution & Partial plan for the high priority functions
  32. 32. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Models Strengths  Client can review current partial solution for suggested improvements  Scope changes can be processed between iterations  You can adapt it to changing business conditions Weaknesses  Requires a more actively involved client than Linear and Incremental PMLC models require  Requires co-located teams  Implementation of intermediate solutions can be problematic  Final solution cannot be specified at the start of the projectWhen to Use  Most but not all of the solution is clearly known  You might otherwise have chosen the Incremental PMLC model but have a strong suspicion that there will be more than a minimum number of scope change requests  You might otherwise have chosen an Adaptive PMLC model but are concerned about lack of client involvement Iterative PMLC Models:  Prototyping Model  Evolutionary Development Waterfall Model  Rational Unified Process (RUP) Model  Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)  Adaptive Software Development (ASD) Model  Scrum
  33. 33. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 1: Prototyping
  34. 34. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 2: Evolutionary Development Waterfall Model
  35. 35. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 3: Rational Unified Process (RUP) Model
  36. 36. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 4: Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM) Jennifer Stapleton “DSDM: Dynamic Systems Development Method” Addison-Wesley, 1997
  37. 37. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 5: Adaptive Software Development (ASD)
  38. 38. REE 513 Presentation Iterative PMLC Model 6: Scrum “Scrum is not an acronym; it is a term taken from rugby. Scrum involves the team as a unit moving the ball down field in what would appear to be an ad hoc or even chaotic manner. Of all the iterative approaches, Scrum would seem to define a chaotic development environment.”
  39. 39. REE 513 Presentation Adaptive PMLC Models Definition:  Adaptive PMLC models are those that proceed from iteration to iteration based on very limited specification of solution. Each cycle learns from the proceeding ones and redirects the next cycle in an attempt to converge on an acceptable solution. At the discretion of the client a cycle may release a partial solution.. Characteristics:  Iterative structure  Just-in-time planning  Critical mission projects  Thrives on change through learning and discovery  Continuously reviewed and adapted to changing conditions
  40. 40. REE 513 Presentation Adaptive PMLC Models Strengths  Continuously realigns the project management process to accommodate changing conditions  Does not waste time on non-value-added work  Avoids all management issues processing scope change requests  Does not waste time planning uncertainty  Provides maximum business value within the given time and cost constraints Weaknesses  Must have meaningful client involvement  Cannot identify exactly what will be delivered at the end of the project When to Use  Have you or a trusted colleague had successful adaptive project experience with this client before?  If this is the first adaptive experience for this client, have you assured yourself that they will be meaningfully involved throughout the entire project?  Has the client appointed a qualified and respected co- project manager for this project? Variations of Iterative PMLC Model:  Adaptive Project Framework
  41. 41. REE 513 Presentation Adaptive PMLC Model: Adaptive Project Framework
  42. 42. REE 513 Presentation Topic 4: Extreme Project Management - Extreme Project Management is a set of tools, templates, and processes for managing projects whose goal expresses an ideal state but whose solution for reaching that goal is unknown or unlikely. - Extreme projects are searching for goals and solutions where none have been found before  To converge on a goal and solution with business value is often a hunt in a dark room for something that doesn’t exist in that room but might in another room, if you knew where to find that other room.  One of the major challenges in xPM projects is to terminate the chosen direction at the earliest point where future failure is almost a certainty  The vast majority of these projects are research projects. - There are two types of PMLC:  Extreme Project Management Life Cycle (xPM): a model appropriate for projects that have a goal in search of a solution  Emertxe (pronounced ee-MURT-see) Project Management Life Cycle (MPx): a model appropriate for projects that have a solution in search of a goal
  43. 43. REE 513 Presentation Extreme PMLC Model Definition  Extreme PMLC models consist of a sequence of repeated phases with each phase based on a very limited understanding of the goal and solution. Each phase learns from the preceding ones and redirects the next phase in an attempt to converge on an acceptable goal and solution. At the discretion of the client, a phase may release a partial solution. Characteristic:  High Speed  High Change  High Uncertainty Strengths:  Keeps options open as late as possible  Offers an early look at a number of partial solutions Weaknesses:  May be looking for solutions in all the wrong places  No guarantee that any business value will result from the project
  44. 44. REE 513 Presentation Extreme PMLC Model: INSPIRE
  45. 45. REE 513 Presentation Emertxe PMLC Model - Emertxe project is an Extreme project, but done backwards - The Emertxe PMLC model looks exactly the same as the Extreme PMLC model - The differences have to do with the intent of the project:  The Extreme PMLC model starts with a goal that has great business value and searches for a way (a solution) to deliver that business value. Not long into the project, you and the client come to the conclusion that a complete solution to the problem as stated doesn’t seem too likely. Then perhaps the next question should be this: What problem can you solve? (These projects are normally research projects.)  The Emertxe PMLC model starts with a solution and no goal. You are considering how a great new technology provides business value to your organization.
  46. 46. REE 513 Presentation Topic 6: Comparison of TPM, Agile, Extreme: Technology & Requirements
  47. 47. REE 513 Presentation Comparison of TPM, Agile, Extreme: Solution Business Value
  48. 48. REE 513 Presentation Project Management Life Cycle
  49. 49. REE 513 Presentation The Scope Triangle
  50. 50. REE 513 Presentation The Scope Triangle
  51. 51. REE 513 Presentation TPM vs. Agile Mindset Newtonian Mindset Quantum Mindset Stability is the norm Chaos is the norm The world is linear and predictable Uncertainty reigns It's controllable Murphy's law rules Minimize change Welcome change Increase the feeling of security by adding rigor to the process Increase the feeling of security by relaxing controls Newtonian Hat Quantum Hat Deliver on the planned result Discover the desired result Use the plan to drive results Use results to drive planning Aim, Aim, fire Fire. Then, redirect the bullet Establish stronger procedures and policies Agree on guidelines, principles and values Keep tight control on the process Keep the process loose Correct to the baseline Correct to what's possible Be a task master Be a relationship manager Get it right the first time Get it right the last time
  52. 52. REE 513 Presentation Resources Main Resource: Robert K. Wysocki, “Effective Project Management: Traditional, Agile, Extreme,” 7th Edition, Dec. 2, 2013. Available: http://www.amazon.com/Effective-Project-Management-Traditional- Extreme/dp/1118729161 Other Resource: http://www.projectconnections.com/articles/070901-decarlo.html http://cnx.org/contents/530197e9-8bd7-45ab-afb9-0e098bad3056@1.7 http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/engineering-systems-division/esd-36-system-project-management-fall- 2012/ http://www.amazon.com/Essential-Scrum-Practical-Addison-Wesley-Signature/dp/0137043295 http://www.slideshare.net/montemontoya/agile-scrum-essentials-for-project-management http://scrumtrainingseries.com/
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Topic 1: Overview of the Project Management Landscape  Definition of project, project portfolio and program  Classification of projects  Fundamental of project management - Topic 2: Traditional Project Management (TPM)  What is Traditional Project Management?  Classification of TPM models  Complexity and Uncertainty in the Project Management Landscape - Topic 3: Agile Project Management - Topic 4: Extreme Project Management - Topic 5: Comparison of TPM – Agile – Extreme Project Management

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