Knowledge Gardening


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Gardening in a knowledge federation. Slides presented at Knowledge Federation 2008.

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Knowledge Gardening

  1. 1. Gardening in a Knowledge Federation Jack Park SRI International, Menlo Park, California And Knowledge Media Institute, Open University, Milton Keynes, U.K. Knowledge Federation 2008 Dubrovnik, Croatia 20-22 October, 2008 Image copyright Paul Bourke and Gayla Chandler used with permission.
  2. 2. “ We are what we eat, and we think what we practice.” Geoffrey C. Bowker, Memory Practices in the Sciences , p. 229 Let’s talk about practice
  3. 3. Collective Sensemaking Knowledge Gardening Blooming and buzzing ideas that need collection, deliberation, and organization
  4. 4. Knowledge gardening is… Collaborative problem solving in rugged fitness landscapes Images: Focusing on details and working together Understanding big pictures
  5. 5. Gardening Practices <ul><li>Tagging—Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraging, filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annotating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting addressable ideas out of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connecting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking ideas with coherence relations, storytelling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contesting assertions, asking/answering questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Federation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining a well-organized universe of discourse </li></ul></ul>Image copyright Alan Jaras, used with permission, /
  6. 6. Knowledge gardening is… Facilitating large-scale discourse <ul><li>Towards a cultivated ecosystem… </li></ul>ordered gardens wild borders ordered gardens wild borders Structured but emergent networks of claims and arguments Informally expressed claims and arguments, awaiting ‘proper linkage’ Source: Simon Buckingham Shum
  7. 7. Knowledge Gardening as Federated Human Knowledge Subject Domains Related to Global Issues Learning Cultures Politics History Religion Simulation Wellness Nutrition Addictions Aging Cancer Knowledge Garden
  8. 8. Federation <ul><li>Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use with any ontology (formal or otherwise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain ontological diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Merge information from diverse universes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain same subjects together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain audit trails of federation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preserve individual world views in merged subjects—no information loss during merge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create wormholes between different world views </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Federation with Subject Maps <ul><li>Topic Maps Reference Model (TMRM) </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract model with no syntax or data model </li></ul><ul><li>The same subject can have multiple ways to be identified, one by each community. </li></ul><ul><li>A rose by any other name…is still a rose! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Subject Map: Subjects <ul><li>Subjects : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>anything that can be discussed in conversation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subjects are represented by collections of Subject Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Properties are collected in Subject Proxies </li></ul>Name=“роза” language=“RU” Subject Proxy Locator=“rose” Name=“rose” language=“EN” language=“FR” language=“DE” subOf=“#flower”
  11. 11. Subject Map: Subject Proxies <ul><li>One, and only one proxy exists for any particular subject in a subject map. </li></ul><ul><li>Proxies serve as binding points for all that is known about a subject </li></ul><ul><li>Proxies marshal properties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships with other subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other properties of the subject </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Subject Map: Subject Properties <ul><li>Properties are key/value pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Property Keys are references to other subjects disclosed* in the map </li></ul><ul><li>Property values can be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>References to other proxies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literals </li></ul></ul>* More on disclosure following
  13. 13. Subject Map: Disclosure <ul><li>TMRM specifies the requirement for a legend . </li></ul><ul><li>Legend authors disclose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merging rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Property types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legends govern the ontological commitments that can made by a proxy author </li></ul>
  14. 14. Subject Identity Example 1 <ul><li>Looking for “Diced Tomatoes” </li></ul><ul><li>Is the name/URI enough? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, some have added sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(bad for diabetics) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lesson: Must compare the properties of subjects to determine identity </li></ul>Source: Patrick Durusau
  15. 15. Example 1 Extended <ul><li>Keys of the diced tomatoes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition information : all list sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ingredients : some list sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So which to consider? Nutrition or Ingredients? </li></ul><ul><li>Keys alone are not enough </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must know which subject each key represents </li></ul></ul>Source: Patrick Durusau
  16. 16. Subject Identity Summary <ul><li>Properties identify subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Properties = key/value pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Keys are references to subject proxies </li></ul><ul><li>Values may be references to subject proxies or literals such as numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Properties represent ontological commitments of the author </li></ul>
  17. 17. Gardening Scenarios <ul><li>Tag and Connect Sensemaking </li></ul><ul><li>Hypermedia discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Adding structure to stories </li></ul>
  18. 18. Knowledge Gardening Scenario Phase I <ul><li>Humans use traditional Web Search to locate information </li></ul><ul><li>Humans use a Knowledge Garden (tools of foraging, filtering, and hypermedia discourse with a topic map) to interact with discovered information </li></ul>
  19. 19. Meet Joe <ul><li>Med student in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in Immune Responses to Bacterial Infection </li></ul><ul><li>Surfs the web starting with a query on “immune response bacteria” </li></ul>
  20. 20. Joe’s Web Query
  21. 21. Joe’s Selected Web Page
  22. 22. Joe’s Thoughts “ Thus, if a bacterial infection occurs …, macrophages will produce reactive oxygen to counteract the infection…” Reactive oxygen also known as “free radicals” Important idea
  23. 23. Joe’s Gardening Activities Immune Response Bacterial Infection Macrophage Free Radical Reactive Oxygen macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria Bookmark page with these tags Annotate page with this idea
  24. 24. Joe’s State of Mind Learn something new every day. Gotta remember that for the test.
  25. 25. Meet Sarah <ul><li>Healthy lifestyle, lives in the U.K. </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in reducing Free Radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Surfs the web starting with a query on “free radicals” </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sarah’s Web Query
  27. 27. Sarah’s Selected Web Page
  28. 28. Sarah’s Thoughts “ Antioxidants are molecules which can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged” Important idea
  29. 29. Sarah’s Gardening Activities Antioxidant Free Radical Bookmark page with these tags antioxidants kill free radicals Annotate page with this idea
  30. 30. Sarah’s State of Mind Spiffy! I’ll just take lots of antioxidant supplements.
  31. 31. State of the Garden <ul><li>We now have the seeds of a knowledge base that could support a discovery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tagged information resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some overlapping tags </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some important ideas lifted out of those resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that Joe and Sarah’s universes of discourse overlap: </li></ul>Free Radical Sarah Joe
  32. 32. Knowledge Gardening Scenario Phase II <ul><li>Humans interact with the Knowledge Garden to learn new (to them) concepts and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Humans interact with the Knowledge Garden to discover new (to the Garden) concepts and ideas </li></ul>
  33. 33. Meet Angel <ul><li>Cancer patient living in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Visits the garden </li></ul><ul><li>Does a query on “bacterial infection”, a recurring problem for him </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes curious about “Free Radicals” </li></ul><ul><li>Views “Free Radical” tag </li></ul>“ Black Swan” Event* * Taleb, Nassim Nicholas (2007). The Black Swan: The impact of the Highly Improbable. New York: Random House.
  34. 34. “ Free Radical” Tag macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria antioxidants kill free radicals Tag view restricted to ideas related to the tag. Two somewhat conflicting ideas are now in view. Free Radical Example of tags used as associative indexes into information resources
  35. 35. Angel’s State of Mind ¡Ay, caramba! What’s this all about? Sounds like I should not take any more antioxidant pills! Need to say something about that in the Garden
  36. 36. Angel’s Gardening Activity antioxidants kill free radicals Must Avoid macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria Add a new Connection between the two ideas A “Black Swan” event resulted in a discovery .
  37. 37. State of the Garden <ul><li>Now has a new Connection </li></ul><ul><li>People who are interested in new connections will receive notice of that new connection </li></ul><ul><li>Some people will react to the new connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successive refinement of the garden begins with new gardening activities centered on the new finding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people might challenge connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hypermedia discourse tools and methods facilitate dealing with contested ideas on the Web </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Meet Olivia <ul><li>Medical Doctor living in Manila </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in Immune Response gardening subjects </li></ul><ul><li>Received notice of the new connection </li></ul><ul><li>Starts refining the idea </li></ul>
  39. 39. Olivia’s State of Mind antioxidants kill free radicals Must Avoid macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria Need to restate this information “ Must Avoid” doesn’t really convey a proper sense of reality
  40. 40. Olivia’s Gardening Activity antioxidants kill free radicals Contraindicates macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria Bacterial Infection Antioxidants Because Create a new set of representations by connecting the two core concepts and explaining the connection Olivia gets bonus points for justifying her assertion.
  41. 41. State of the Garden <ul><li>Two core concepts have been connected with a new relation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antioxidants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The new connection has been justified by presentation of the two key ideas that resulted in the earlier, naïve, connection </li></ul><ul><li>More people are notified of the new connections </li></ul>
  42. 42. Add Hypermedia Discourse <ul><li>A user views a connection </li></ul><ul><li>That user contests the assertion made </li></ul>
  43. 43. More Gardening Activities Contraindicates Bacterial Infection Antioxidants Someone starts a dialogue about the new connection Assertions made in a knowledge garden can be contested. Here is an instance of the Contraindicates connection being contested.
  44. 44. The Dialogue Begins A naïve response A thoughtful response but needs elaboration
  45. 45. Following the Dialogue “ Compromised host” as a new concept to be represented in the garden “ Compromised host” also known as “Immunocompromised host”
  46. 46. Further Gardening Activities antioxidants kill free radicals Contraindicates macrophages use free radicals to kill bacteria Bacterial Infection Antioxidants Because Appropriate For Compromised Host
  47. 47. Gardening Continues… <ul><li>Another person, an osteoarthritis patient, notices an idea </li></ul><ul><li>A question is posed to other gardeners </li></ul><ul><li>Thus begins another cycle of collective research… </li></ul>Antioxidants antioxidants kill free radicals
  48. 48. Gardening Further Continues <ul><li>Imagine a software agent in a health care clinic that subscribes to the garden. </li></ul><ul><li>That agent applies a template to the garden and matches some variables (?A, ?B, ?C, and ?D) with data in the garden. </li></ul>Contraindicates ?D ?A Because Appropriate For ?C ?B
  49. 49. Clinic Agent Action <ul><li>Agent matches a pattern in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>The pattern template includes a rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IF Pattern Matches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THEN find all patients who match ?C (e.g. Compromised Host)* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND THEN find the doctors of those patients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND THEN notify those doctors to warn of the contraindicated conditions specified by ?A and ?B </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors now have the opportunity to notify appropriate patients of a contraindicated situation </li></ul></ul>* Assumes semantic interoperability between clinic database and garden
  50. 50. Finding Structure in Stories After Jeff Conklin: http:// =pxS5wUljfjE Teasing structure out of linear text
  51. 51. Example: An OpEd
  52. 52. Issue Map of an OpEd
  53. 53. Subjects Entailed by a node in the OpEd We read the OpEd issue map and imagine a range of subjects covered in the OpEd. We imagine many ways in which those subjects relate to each other. Topic mapping helps us discover and represent those subjects and relationships. A node in the issue map
  54. 54. A Federation Architecture
  55. 55. TopicSpaces Architecture
  56. 56. Tagging and Annotating Bookmarking with Tagomizer facilitates Tagging and Annotating. An annotation is fully addressable, editable, and can be tagged or annotated.
  57. 57. Connecting with Cohere
  58. 58. Dialogue with DebateGraph
  59. 59. GENIS: GEN + GEIS + Other Stakeholders GEN Members: Energy-related experts GEIS Other Stakeholders Contributes To Supports Supports Maintains
  60. 60. A Social CMS Garden Portal
  61. 61. Web Services to TopicSpaces
  62. 62. Review <ul><li>We defined Federation as bringing information together in a subject-centric way without bias </li></ul><ul><li>We looked at scenarios that engage sensemaking activities in a federated knowledge garden </li></ul><ul><li>We looked at platforms for capturing sensemaking gestures to be federated </li></ul><ul><li>We looked at an architecture for a federation </li></ul>
  63. 63. Questions About Federation <ul><li>What is a consensus definition of federation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the use cases and scenarios for fabrication and maintenance of federations? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the ontological commitments necessary for federation architectures? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bonus points for semantic interoperability among federations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are the best practices of applied knowledge gardening? </li></ul>
  64. 64. Questions? [email_address]