SYSTEMS ANALYSISSYSTEMS ANALYSISin Educationin EducationPresented by: San Luis, Nemencio Jr.C.Presented by: San Luis, Nemencio Jr.C.Ma EdAd Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng MaynilaMa EdAd Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng MaynilaSubmitted to:Dr.Ceferina M.P.TaringtingSubmitted to:Dr.Ceferina M.P.TaringtingResource & Budget Management in Educ.Inst.Resource & Budget Management in Educ.Inst.
Prayer to St. John Baptist De La SallePrayer to St. John Baptist De La Sallepatron of educatorspatron of educatorsWell-known founder of the Congregation of theWell-known founder of the Congregation of theBrothers of the Christian Schools, orthodox andBrothers of the Christian Schools, orthodox andprayerful theologian, you realize the very greatprayerful theologian, you realize the very greatvalue of competent Christian educators. Howvalue of competent Christian educators. Howgreat your wholesome influences has been!great your wholesome influences has been!Make your followers continue to be Christ-likeMake your followers continue to be Christ-likemodels for all their students who in turn will edifymodels for all their students who in turn will edifyothers. Amen.others. Amen.
According to Lao TzuAccording to Lao TzuFounder of taoismFounder of taoism““ a journey of a thousand milesa journey of a thousand milesbegan with a single step”began with a single step”
Definition:Definition: Systems analysis defined as anSystems analysis defined as anactivity, procedure, method,activity, procedure, method,technique or business to determinetechnique or business to determinewhat must be accomplished and howwhat must be accomplished and howthe necessary operations may bestthe necessary operations may bestbe accomplished.be accomplished. *from the point of view of an*from the point of view of anengineerengineer
This is the study of the design,This is the study of the design,specifications, feasibility, costspecifications, feasibility, costand implementation of aand implementation of acomputer systems for business.computer systems for business. * from an IT analyst* from an IT analyst
Presenters point of viewPresenters point of view Putting up a business orPutting up a business orplanning to establish one is likeplanning to establish one is likeplanning to have a long journey.planning to have a long journey.In business we will encounterIn business we will encounterups and downs. The same thingups and downs. The same thingwith a journey, we mightwith a journey, we mightencounter traffic, engineencounter traffic, enginemalfunctions and other usualmalfunctions and other usualthings that a traveler might meetthings that a traveler might meetalong the way.along the way. Question: what &who do weQuestion: what &who do weneed?need?
PreparationPreparation Set goals and objectivesSet goals and objectives Aim for successAim for success A systems analystA systems analyst-in systems analysis we need-in systems analysis we needsomeone to achieved all thesomeone to achieved all thethings we prepared, goals wethings we prepared, goals weset. We need a person bestset. We need a person bestfitted for this problem.fitted for this problem.That is what a systems analystThat is what a systems analystdoes.does.
Systems analysisSystems analysis It is also known as an explicit formalIt is also known as an explicit formalinquiry carried out to help someoneinquiry carried out to help someone(referred to as the decision maker)(referred to as the decision maker)identify a better course of action andidentify a better course of action andmake a better decision than he mightmake a better decision than he mightotherwise have made.otherwise have made. The characteristic attributes of aThe characteristic attributes of aproblem situation where systemsproblem situation where systemsanalysis is called upon areanalysis is called upon arecomplexity of the issue andcomplexity of the issue anduncertainty of the outcome of anyuncertainty of the outcome of anycourse of action that mightcourse of action that mightreasonably be taken.reasonably be taken.
Systems analysis usually has someSystems analysis usually has somecombination of the following:combination of the following: 1.identification and re-identification1.identification and re-identificationof objectives, constraints andof objectives, constraints andalternative course of action.alternative course of action. 2.examination of the probable2.examination of the probableconsequences of the alternatives inconsequences of the alternatives interms of costs, benefits and risks.terms of costs, benefits and risks. 3.presentation of the results in a3.presentation of the results in acomparative frame work so that thecomparative frame work so that thedecision maker can make andecision maker can make aninformed choice from among theinformed choice from among thealternatives.alternatives.
*the typical use of systems*the typical use of systemsanalysis is to:analysis is to: GUIDE decisions on issuesGUIDE decisions on issuessuch as national or corporatesuch as national or corporateplans and programs, resourceplans and programs, resourceuse & protection policies,use & protection policies,research & development inresearch & development intechnology, regional & urbantechnology, regional & urbandevelopment, educationaldevelopment, educationalsystems & other social services.systems & other social services. Clearly, the nature of theseClearly, the nature of theseproblems requires anproblems requires aninterdisciplinary approach.interdisciplinary approach.
However, there are severalHowever, there are severalkinds or focuses of systemskinds or focuses of systemsanalysis for which differentanalysis for which differentterms are used:terms are used: Policy analysis-related to publicPolicy analysis-related to publicdecisiondecision Decision analysis-this topicDecision analysis-this topicconcentrates on comparisonconcentrates on comparisonand ranking of alternativesand ranking of alternatives
Feasibility studies-this concentrates onFeasibility studies-this concentrates onfinding out whether an intended course offinding out whether an intended course ofaction violates any constraints. This is toaction violates any constraints. This is todetermine whether or not a given project isdetermine whether or not a given project isfeasible.feasible. When a feasibility study is carried out,When a feasibility study is carried out,there are 4 main areas of consideration:there are 4 main areas of consideration: --technicaltechnical or is the project technicallyor is the project technicallypossible?possible? --financialfinancial or can the business afford carryor can the business afford carryout the project?out the project? -organizational-organizational or will the new system beor will the new system becompatible with the existing practices?compatible with the existing practices? --ethicalethical or is the impact of the new systemor is the impact of the new systemsocially acceptable?socially acceptable?
Cost effectiveness analysis- the alternatives areCost effectiveness analysis- the alternatives areranked in terms of effectiveness for fixed cost or inranked in terms of effectiveness for fixed cost or interms ofterms of cost for equal effectiveness.cost for equal effectiveness. Cost benefit analysis- is a study, where for eachCost benefit analysis- is a study, where for eachalternative the time stream of costs and the timealternative the time stream of costs and the timestream of benefits(both in monetary units) arestream of benefits(both in monetary units) arediscounted to yield their present values.thediscounted to yield their present values.thecomparison and ranking are made in terms of netcomparison and ranking are made in terms of netbenefits(benefits minus cost).benefits(benefits minus cost). Risk benefit analysis- in here, cost(in monetaryRisk benefit analysis- in here, cost(in monetaryunits) is assigned to each risk so as to make aunits) is assigned to each risk so as to make apossible comparison of the discounted sum of thesepossible comparison of the discounted sum of thesecosts with the discounted sum of benefits that arecosts with the discounted sum of benefits that arepredicted to result from the decision.predicted to result from the decision. *the risks considered are usually events whose*the risks considered are usually events whoseprobability of occurrence is low, but whose adverseprobability of occurrence is low, but whose adverseconsequence would be important.consequence would be important. Ex.Ex. Events such as earthquake or explosion of a placeEvents such as earthquake or explosion of a place
As a whole, systems analysisAs a whole, systems analysisinvolves following sequences orinvolves following sequences orstages:stages: >feasibility study>feasibility study >investigation of the current>investigation of the currentenvironmentenvironment >business system option>business system optionhaving investigated the current system,having investigated the current system,the analyst must decide on the over allthe analyst must decide on the over alldesign of the new system. to do this, thedesign of the new system. to do this, theanalyst using the output of the previousanalyst using the output of the previousstage, will develop a set of business option.stage, will develop a set of business option.Perhaps, in the form of brain stormingPerhaps, in the form of brain stormingsession so that as many & various ideas assession so that as many & various ideas aspossible are generated.possible are generated.the output of this stage is the singlethe output of this stage is the singleselected business option together with allselected business option together with allthe output of first stage.the output of first stage.
>requirements specification>requirements specificationthis is probably the most complex stagethis is probably the most complex stageusing the requirements developed in stageusing the requirements developed in stageI and working within the framework of theI and working within the framework of theselected business option, the analyst mustselected business option, the analyst mustdevelop a full logical specification of what adevelop a full logical specification of what anew system must do. It must be free fromnew system must do. It must be free fromerror, ambiguity and inconsistency.error, ambiguity and inconsistency.by logical, we mean that theby logical, we mean that thespecification does not say how the systemspecification does not say how the systemwill be implemented but rather describeswill be implemented but rather describeswhat the system will do.what the system will do.*the product of this stage is a complete*the product of this stage is a completerequirements specification documentsrequirements specification documents
>technical system options>technical system optionsthis stage is the first towards athis stage is the first towards aphysical implementation of the newphysical implementation of the newsystem. Things to be considered:system. Things to be considered:-cost of implementation-cost of implementation-staffing required-staffing required-physical limitation such as a space-physical limitation such as a spaceoccupied by the systemoccupied by the system-over all format-over all format*all these aspects must conform to any*all these aspects must conform to anyconstraints imposed by the businessconstraints imposed by the businesssuch as money and standardizationsuch as money and standardization
>Physical design>Physical designthis is the final stage wherethis is the final stage whereall the logical specification of theall the logical specification of thesystem are converted tosystem are converted todescriptions in terms of realdescriptions in terms of realphysical structure.physical structure.
Impact of systems analysisImpact of systems analysis The nature and extent of systems analysis inThe nature and extent of systems analysis ineducation is discussed in terms of the followingeducation is discussed in terms of the followingspecific applications:specific applications: -instructional systems where the concern is with the-instructional systems where the concern is with thecomponents of the systemcomponents of the system(teachers,students,material to be taught or audio(teachers,students,material to be taught or audiovisual system&their interaction in the learningvisual system&their interaction in the learningprocess).process). -project management system for the planning and-project management system for the planning andcontrolling of a wide variety of educational projectscontrolling of a wide variety of educational projects -management information systems for better-management information systems for betterdecision making by chief school officialsdecision making by chief school officials -planning-programming-budgeting systems for-planning-programming-budgeting systems forselecting among alternatives to reach programselecting among alternatives to reach programgoalsgoals -operations research which attempts to identify the-operations research which attempts to identify therelevant variables making up the total systems andrelevant variables making up the total systems andsub systems and to secure quantitative data forsub systems and to secure quantitative data foreach variableeach variable
Thank you andThank you andgod bless!god bless!