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Principles of test construction (10 27-2010)


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Principles of test construction (10 27-2010)

  2. 2. TYPES OF CLASSROOM TEST MATCHINGMost often used to measure the lower levels of thecognitive domain. MULTIPLE CHOICEThe most popular, flexible, versatile and useful of alltypes of test because it is the most adaptable formeasurement of all levels of the cognitive skills.
  3. 3. Types of Classroom Test (cont’) SHORT ANSWERThis test evaluates retention of specific points,demands accurate information and measures higherlevels of cognitive skills. minimizes guessing sincethere are no choices given. TRUE/FALSEApplicable to a wide range of subject matter andadaptable for use in situations where themeasurement of acquisition of factual/non-interpretiveinformation is desired.
  4. 4. Avoid replication of thetextbook.Encourages simplymemorization and repetitionof the textbook passages.Guidelines in constructing tests - multiple choice,true/false, matching, and short answer questions.GUIDELINE REASONAvoid confusing studentswith too many negativesin a question.Rarely tests contentknowledge.Avoid using incompletesentences.Provides grammatical cluesto the correct answer.
  5. 5. GUIDELINE REASONAvoid using “All of the above(AOTA)” and “None of the above(NOTA)” as a choice.Students are rewarded forincomplete or negative learning.Write all answer choices to beapproximately the same length.Correct answers are often thelongest.Adjust the level of the question tothe level of thinking required toanswer it.You can measure higher orderthinking skills by the way you worda question.Proofread all items before copyingthe test.Typographical errors are moreoften made in incorrect answersand may be apparent to test wisestudents.
  6. 6. PROCEDURE IN WRITING TESTQUESTIONS:1. Determine the total number of items to be includedin the test.2. Select the course objectives to be included in thetest.3. Determine the number of questions for each courseobjective.4. Establish a table that lists the levels and the courseobjectives to be tested.5. Determine the number of question at each level.6. Decide on the number of questions to be askedaccording to the content area or objective.
  7. 7. Bloom’s Taxonomy• 1950s- developed by Benjamin BloomBloom’s RevisedTaxonomy• 1990s- Lorin Anderson (former student of Bloom) revisitedthe taxonomy
  8. 8. • Evaluation• Synthesis• Analysis• Application• Comprehension• Knowledge• Creating• Evaluating• Analyzing• Applying• Understanding• Remembering(by Lorin Anderson)New Terms(by Benjamin Bloom)Original Terms
  9. 9. LEVELS OF QUESTIONS• Lower level questions are those at theremembering, understanding and lowerlevel application levels of the taxonomy.• Higher level questions are those requiringcomplex application, analysis, evaluationor creation skills.
  10. 10. BLOOM’S REVISED TAXONOMYRememberingRememberingUnderstandingUnderstandingApplyingApplyingAnalyzingAnalyzingEvaluatingEvaluatingCreatingCreatingPYRAMID
  11. 11. RememberingThe learner is able to recall, restate andremember specific information from long-term memory.– Requires recall of information previouslylearned.– Requires no understanding or judgment.– Good for testing factual information.Sample key words – Recognizing, Listing,Describing, Identifying, Retrieving,Naming, Locating, Finding, …Item types: MC, T/F, Matching, Short AnswerCan you recall information?
  12. 12. Remembering: sample key words• List• Memorize• Relate• Show• Locate• Distinguish• Give example• Reproduce• Quote• Repeat• Label• Recall• Know• Group• Read• Write• Outline• Listen• Group• Choose• Recite• Review• Quote• Record• Match• Select• Underline• Cite• SortRecall orrecognition ofspecificinformation
  13. 13. UnderstandingThe learner grasps the meaning ofinformation by interpreting and translatingwhat has been learned.• Requires student to understand the informationand utilize it in a specified situation.Sample key words: Interpreting, Exemplifying,Summarizing, Inferring, Paraphrasing,Classifying, Comparing, Explaining, …Item types: MC, T/F, Matching,Short AnswerCan you explain ideas or concepts?
  14. 14. Understanding: sample key words• Restate• Identify• Discuss• Retell• Research• Annotate• Translate• Give examples of• Paraphrase• Reorganize• Associate• Describe• Report• Recognise• Review• Observe• Outline• Account for• Interpret• Give main idea• Estimate• DefineUnderstandingof giveninformation
  15. 15. ApplyingThe learner makes use of information in acontext different from the one in which itwas learned.• Requires students to understand theinformation and apply their knowledge in anew situation.Sample key words: Implementing, Carrying out,Using, ExecutingItem types: MC, Short Answer, EssayCan you use the information in anotherfamiliar situation?
  16. 16. Applying: sample key words• Translate• Manipulate• Exhibit• Illustrate• Calculate• Interpret• Make• Practice• Apply• Operate• Interview• Paint• Change• Compute• Sequence• Show• Solve• Collect• Demonstrate• Dramatize• Construct• Use• Adapt• DrawUsing strategies,concepts, principlesand theories in newsituations
  17. 17. AnalyzingThe learner breaks learned information intoits parts to best understand thatinformation.• Requires student to break down information toobtain the meaning of the material or demonstratehow it is organized or structured.• Requires the student to analyze the situation,interpret data, set goals, and determine actions.Sample key words: Comparing, Organizing,Deconstructing, Attributing, Outlining, Finding,Structuring, IntegratingItem types: MC, Short Answer, Problems, EssayCan you break information into parts to exploreunderstandings and relationships?
  18. 18. Analyzing: sample key words• Distinguish• Question• Appraise• Experiment• Inspect• Examine• Probe• Separate• Inquire• Arrange• Investigate• Sift• Research• Calculate• Criticize• Compare• Contrast• Survey• Detect• Group• Order• Sequence• Test• Debate• Analyze• Diagram• Relate• Dissect• Categorize• DiscriminateBreakinginformation downinto its componentelements
  19. 19. EvaluatingThe learner makes decisions based on in-depthreflection, criticism and assessment.• Requires judgment based standards and specificcriteria.Sample key words: Checking,Hypothesizing, Critiquing,Experimenting, Judging, Testing,Detecting, MonitoringItem types: MC, EssayCan you justify a decision or course of action?
  20. 20. Evaluating: sample key words• Judge• Rate• Validate• Predict• Assess• Score• Revise• Infer• Determine• Prioritize• Tell why• Compare• Evaluate• Defend• Select• Measure• Choose• Conclude• Deduce• Debate• Justify• Recommend• Discriminate• Appraise• Value• Probe• Argue• Decide• Criticize• Rank• RejectJudging the value ofideas, materials andmethods by developingand applying standardsand criteria.
  21. 21. CreatingThe learner creates new ideas andinformation using what has been previouslylearned.• Requires taking previously learned informationand putting the elements together to createsomething newSample key words: Designing,Constructing, Planning, Producing,Inventing, Devising, MakingItem types: MC, EssayCan you generate new products, ideas, orways of viewing things?
  22. 22. Creating: sample key words• Compose• Assemble• Organize• Invent• Compile• Forecast• Devise• Propose• Construct• Plan• Prepare• Develop• Originate• Imagine• Formulate• Improve• Act• Predict• Produce• Blend• Set up• Devise• Compile• GeneratePutting together ideasor elements to developa original idea orengage in creativethinking.
  23. 23. Questions for Remembering• What happened after...?• How many...?• What is...?• Who was it that...?• Can you name ...?• Find the definition of…• Describe what happened after…• Who spoke to...?• Which is true or false...?
  24. 24. Questions for Understanding• Can you explain why…?• Can you write in your own words?• How would you explain…?• Can you write a brief outline...?• What do you think could have happened next...?• Who do you think...?• What was the main idea...?• Can you clarify…?• Can you illustrate…?• Does everyone act in the way that …….. does?
  25. 25. Questions for Applying• Do you know of another instancewhere…?• Can you group by characteristics suchas…?• Which factors would you change if…?• What questions would you ask of…?• From the information given, can youdevelop a set of instructions about…?
  26. 26. Question for Analyzing• Which events could not have happened?• If. ..happened, what might the ending have been?• How is...similar to...?• What do you see as other possible outcomes?• Why did...changes occur?• Can you explain what must have happened when...?• What are some or the problems of...?• Can you distinguish between...?• What were some of the motives behind..?• What was the turning point?• What was the problem with...?)
  27. 27. Questions for Evaluating• Is there a better solution to...?• Judge the value of... What do you think about...?• Can you defend your position about...?• Do you a good or bad thing?• How would you have handled...?• What changes to.. would you recommend?• Do you believe...? How would you feel if. ..?• How effective are. ..?• What are the consequences..?• What influence will....have on our lives?• What are the pros and cons of....?• Why is ....of value?• What are the alternatives?• Who will gain & who will loose?
  28. 28. Questions for Creating• Can you design• Can you see a possible solution to...?• If you had access to all resources, how wouldyou deal with...?• Why dont you devise your own way to...?• What would happen if ...?• How many ways can you...?• Can you create new and unusual uses for...?• Can you develop a proposal which would...?