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it's all about biology

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  1. 1. Biology Helpful terms
  2. 2. Biologist <ul><li>Aristotle person who attempted to arrange organism into groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Hooke made the first recorded observations of cell using the compound microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>William Harvey traced the circulation of blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Galen recognized that lungs added and removed something from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Rene Dutrochet concluded that various parts of organism are made up of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Anton Von Leeuwenhoek designed lenses specifically for compound microscopes that are still being used today. </li></ul><ul><li>Rudolph Virchow concluded that “all cells come from living cells.” </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Brown concluded that cells have a central structure, the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Felix Dujardin described the cells full of jelly-like fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Matthias Schleiden deduced that plants and animals are made up of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Gregor Mendel described the basic principles of heredity. </li></ul><ul><li>William Beaumont showed the relationship between structure and function in the digestive system. </li></ul><ul><li>James Watson & Francis Crick described the shape of the DNA as double-helical. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Philippine Biologist <ul><li>Marco Nemesio E. Montano researched on Philippine seaweeds, thus improving the country’s industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Lilian Lee (neurologist) found out the causes of a brain disorder, Recessive Dystonia Parkinsonism (RDP) common in the islands of Panay. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosalinda C. Solevilla promoted the use of medicinal plants as alternative medicines thereby improving the country’s health care. </li></ul><ul><li>Roberto E. Coronel studied fruits and crops to improved the Filipino farmers’ production in large scale all year round. </li></ul><ul><li>Leoncio A. Amadore (atmospheric scientist) devised a method of forecasting trophical cyclone movement, known as the Amadore Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Fe Del Mundo (pediatrician) pioneered in the treatmant of illness and the promotion of health of children and adolescents. </li></ul><ul><li>Priscilla C. Sanchez discovered 2 species of bacteria in Los Banos, Laguna and made the micobial contents of fermented food products healthy and parasites-free. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Scientific Attitude <ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Humility </li></ul><ul><li>Open-minded </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Positive outlook </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Suspended Judgment </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual honesty </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Thinking </li></ul>
  5. 5. Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>Posing A Question </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Formulating the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Designing the Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting Data </li></ul><ul><li>Making the Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization </li></ul>
  6. 6. Experiment <ul><li>Manipulated Variable variable that is change to test the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Responding Variable variable that response to the manipulated variable. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Generalization <ul><li>Scientific Theory </li></ul><ul><li>A well-tested explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Law </li></ul><ul><li>A statement that is expected to happen. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of Organism <ul><li>We are made up of cells </li></ul><ul><li>We are Highly Organized </li></ul><ul><li>We use Energy </li></ul><ul><li>We Grow and Develop </li></ul><ul><li>We have a life span </li></ul><ul><li>We reproduce ourselves </li></ul><ul><li>We respond to Stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>We adjust to our environment </li></ul>
  9. 9. Major parts of Microscope (light compound) <ul><li>The Illuminating Parts </li></ul><ul><li>The Magnifying Parts </li></ul><ul><li>The Mechanical Parts </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Illuminating Parts of Microscope <ul><li>Mirror reflects light upward to enhance the image of the specimen. </li></ul><ul><li>Iris Diaphragm controls the amount of light passing through the object being viewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Abbey condenser above the iris diaphragm. </li></ul>Abbey Condenser Iris Diaphragm Mirror
  11. 11. The Magnifying Parts <ul><li>Ocular/eyepiece contains lenses to increase magnification. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives lenses with different magnifications to enlarge the image of an object being viewed. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LPO- Low Power Objectives- 10x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HPO- High Power Objectives- 60x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OIO- Oil Immersion Objectives- 100x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Ocular/Eyepiece Objectives
  12. 12. The Mechanical Part <ul><li>Body tube houses all the lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw tube </li></ul><ul><li>Dusk shield </li></ul><ul><li>Revolving nosepiece holds objects on rotating disc to allow them to be shifted. </li></ul><ul><li>Course Adjustment knob moves the body tube for the objectives to be in correct distance from the object being viewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Fine adjustment knob permits exact focusing by moving objectives slightly. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage supports a glass slide over the hole that admits light from below. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Clip holds a glass slide in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclination joint allows the microscope to be tilted. </li></ul><ul><li>Arm part where the microscope is held. </li></ul><ul><li>Base supports the weight of the whole microscope. </li></ul>Draw tube Body Tube Revolving nosepiece Arm Stage Base Coarse Adjustment Knob Dusk shield Fine Adjustment Knob Stage Clip Inclination Joint
  13. 13. Kinds of Microscope <ul><li>Light Compound Microscope have two kinds of lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnifying Glass has only one lenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereomicroscope used to study large and live specimens. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electron Microscope uses beam of electrons. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission electron microscope sends beam of electrons through the specimen. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scanning Electron microscope sends beam of electron across the specimen from left to right. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other tools in using the Microscope <ul><li>Microtome used to cut slices of a specimen to be viewed on the microscope. </li></ul><ul><li>Centrifuge separates fluids from solid by spinning at high speed. </li></ul><ul><li>Micromanipulator translates large movements of the hand into microscopic movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Micropipette withdraw small quantities of fluids from a vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer analyze data and create visual models of complicated molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Stain chemicals the are absorbed by certain parts of the cell which highlight these parts. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Other terms to use <ul><li>Biology study of living things/life. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Inquiry diverse way by which scientist study the world and propose explanations and answers to questions based on evidences they gathered. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational definition describes how to define a particular term. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion the summary of what you’ve learned in the experiment </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis an answer to the question that is not sure and can be tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Magnifying Power apparent increase in the size of an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving Power ability of the microscope or increase the visible detail of the specimen. </li></ul>