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BIR_LT5

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BIR_LT5

1. 1. The Research Process: Step 4 and 5 Theoretical Framework Hypothesis Development Business Information Research
2. 2. Theoretical framework ( 理論架構 ) <ul><li>theoretical framework is a conceptual model( 概念的模式 ) that theorizes the relationships among the important variables ( 重要因素 ) to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>理論架構是一種概念的模式 ，透過它可以建立理論，或找出研究問題中，幾個重要因素間的合理關係。 </li></ul>
3. 3. Theoretical framework <ul><li>A scientific theoretical framework bases itself on the literature survey and theorizes the logical relationships among the variables identified. </li></ul>
4. 4. Hypotheses ( 假設 ) <ul><li>Hypotheses ( 假設 ) are several testable ( 可測試的 ) statements developed based on the theoretical framework. </li></ul><ul><li>With appropriate statistical analyses, we test the hypotheses and examine whether the theory formulated is valid or not. </li></ul><ul><li>( 依據理論架構，得以發展可測試的假設，同時驗證理論之形成是否確實成立，之後，便可透過合適之統計分析，來驗證假設之因果關係 ) </li></ul>
5. 5. Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis <ul><li>The theoretical framework and hypothesis development helps us improve our understanding of the problem in a scientific manner. </li></ul>
6. 6. Variable 變項 <ul><li>A variable is a measurable factor in a situation that may vary (change) at different time. </li></ul><ul><li>( 所謂變項係指任何具有不同數值的事物。例如，對相同對象或人而言，變項數值會因時間不同而改變 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable and independent variable refer to values that change in relation to each other. </li></ul>
7. 7. Dependent variable 依變項 <ul><li>The dependent variable is a variable that changes in response to the independent variable. Dependent variables are the main variables researchers observe and investigate. </li></ul><ul><li>The answers or solutions to the research problem can be found through the analysis of the dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>是研究者主要關心的變項；研究者的目標在於理解及描述依變項，並解釋或預測其變化性。 </li></ul></ul>
8. 8. Example <ul><li>McDonald’s manager is concerned that the sales of a new product, “ 足三兩” , introduced after test marketing it do not meet with his expectations. </li></ul>
9. 9. Example <ul><li>McDonald’s manager is concerned that the sales of a new product , “ 足三兩” , introduced after test marketing it do not meet with his expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable – Sales (1. since sales can vary – can be low, medium, or high; 2. since sales is the main focus of interest to the manager) </li></ul>
10. 10. Question <ul><li>An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in a particular bank. </li></ul>
11. 11. Question <ul><li>An applied researcher wants to increase the performance of organizational members in a particular bank. </li></ul>
12. 12. Independent variable ( 自變項 ) <ul><li>The independent variable is a variable that can change the dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>The independent variable can be controlled to cause the variance (change) in the dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>即是以正向或負向方式影響依變項之變項；亦即自變項與依變項同時存在，且自變項每增加 1 單位，依變項也會因此而增加或減少。 </li></ul></ul>
13. 13. Example <ul><li>Research studies indicate that successful new product development has an influence on the stock market price of the company. </li></ul><ul><li>More successful the new product turns out to be, the higher will be the stock market price of that firm. </li></ul>
14. 14. Example <ul><li>Success of the new product – independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Stock market price – dependent variable </li></ul>
15. 16. Moderating variable( 調節變項 ) <ul><li>moderating variable modifies the original relationship between the independent and dependent variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating variables pinpoint ( 定點 ) the conditions under which an independent variable causes change to a dependent variable. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>是指對自變項與依變項間，具有強烈影響效果的變項；亦即有第三個變項（即調節變項）的存在，改變了自變項與依變項間原有的關係。 </li></ul></ul>
16. 19. Question: <ul><li>A manager finds that off-the-job classroom training has a great impact on the productivity of the employees in her department. However, she also observes that employees over 60 years of age do not seem to derive ( 得到 ) much benefit and do not improve with such training. </li></ul>
17. 20. Question <ul><li>Independent variable – off-the-job classroom training </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent variable – Productivity of the employees in her department </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating variable – Age of employee </li></ul>
18. 21. Intervening variable ( 中介變項 ) <ul><li>Intervening variable facilitates a better understanding of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables when the variables appear to have no connection. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>係指在自變項開始影響依變項，並於產生影響的期間，所顯露出來的一種變項 </li></ul></ul>
19. 22. Intervening variable ( 中介變項 ) <ul><li>An intervening variable is a temporary factor that helps to conceptualize and explain the change of the independent variables. </li></ul><ul><li>中介變項具有暫時的特質，協助概念的建立，並解釋自變項對依變項所產生的影響。 </li></ul>
20. 27. Theoretical Framework 理論架構
21. 28. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>The theoretical framework is the basis ( 基礎 ) of the research through which you find the solution to the problem . </li></ul><ul><li>理論架構可說是整個研究計畫的根本基礎 </li></ul>
22. 29. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>In the theoretical framework, you name all variables identified through interviews and literature survey and state the logical relationship among them. </li></ul><ul><li>經過符合邏輯的思考發展、描述，詳盡闡釋與問題情況相關的各種變項關係，並藉由一連串如訪談、觀察以及相關的學術文獻等過程來確認。 </li></ul>
23. 30. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>In so doing, you build up the theoretical framework (the network of the association of all variables). </li></ul><ul><li>After building up the theoretical framework, we can develop hypotheses and test them and find the solution to the problem. </li></ul>
24. 31. The basic features of the Theoretical Framework <ul><li>The variables should be identified . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>被視為與研究有關的變項，均需在討論中清楚地加以界定與歸類。 </li></ul></ul>
25. 32. The basic features of the Theoretical Framework <ul><li>The relationship among variables should be built up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>在討論中應說明兩個或兩個以上的變項間為何有關；對於理論中所存在之重要變項關係，也應詳盡說明。 </li></ul></ul>
26. 33. The basic features of the Theoretical Framework <ul><li>If the relationship among variables is based on any previous research findings (from the literature survey), they should be indicated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>假如變項關係的方向與本質，可依據過去的研究發現作為基礎，而將其理論化，則對於變項之間是正相關還是負相關，應該在討論中另做說明。 </li></ul></ul>
27. 34. The basic features of the Theoretical Framework <ul><li>Explain why you expect the relationship among variables exist. Support your argument with previous research findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>對於我們為何期望這些關係存在，應有詳細的解釋；而這些論點可源自於過去的研究發現。 </li></ul></ul>
28. 35. The basic features of the Theoretical Framework <ul><li>Draw a schematic ( 概要 ) diagram of the theoretical framework. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>應該提供描述理論架構的系統圖示，以利讀者易於具體瞭解理論化的變項關係。 </li></ul></ul>
29. 36. Example - DELTA AIRLINE <ul><li>With airline deregulation, there were price wars among the various airlines. Suppose Delta Airline faced charges of air-safety violations( 違規 ) when there were several near collisions ( 相撞 ) in midair, and one accident that resulted in 137 deaths in 1987. </li></ul>
30. 37. Example - DELTA AIRLINE <ul><li>Four important factors identified to have influenced the poor (1) communication among the cockpit crew members themselves, poor (2) coordination between ground staff and cockpit crew , (3) minimal training given to the cockpit crew, and management philosophy that encouraged a (4) decentralized structure ( 組織分權 ) . </li></ul>
31. 38. Example - DELTA AIRLINE
32. 40. Example - DELTA AIRLINE
33. 42. Example - DELTA AIRLINE
34. 44. Hypotheses Development 假設發展
35. 45. Hypotheses Development <ul><li>A hypothesis is a testable statement that states the logical relationship between two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>所謂假設，係指將兩個或更多變項之間合理推測的關係，用可驗證的陳述方法表現出來。 </li></ul></ul>
36. 46. Hypotheses Development <ul><li>By testing the hypotheses and confirming the relationship theorized, we can expect to find the solution to the problem in a scientific manner. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>變項關係之推斷，乃是以理論架構中所建立的相關網絡為基礎，藉由驗證假設，並確認原先所推測的變項關係，期望能找出研究問題的解答。 </li></ul></ul>
37. 47. Example <ul><li>If the pilots are given enough training to handle midair crowded situations, air-safety violations will be reduced. </li></ul>
38. 48. Statement of Hypotheses: Formats
39. 49. If-Then Statements <ul><li>Example 5.15 Employees who are more healthy will take sick leave less frequently.   </li></ul><ul><li>Example 5.16 If employee are more healthy, then they will take sick leave less frequently. </li></ul>
40. 50. Directional and Non-directional Hypotheses <ul><li>在敘述兩個變項之間或比較兩個群組的關係時，所用的詞語包含正面的、負面的、多於或少於等類似的用語時，這些假設就屬於方向性假設，因為變項間的方向關係（正關係／負關係）將被明白地表示出來。 </li></ul><ul><li>Example 5.17 The greater the stress experienced in the job, the lower the job satisfaction of employees. (directional)  </li></ul><ul><li>Example 5.18 Women are more motivated than men. (directional) </li></ul>
41. 51. Directional and Non-directional Hypotheses <ul><li>提出變項間的關係或差異性，但並未指出其方向關係；換句話說，即我們推測兩種變項間具有顯著關係，但並無法說出其關係是正相關還是負相關，此屬於非方向性假設。 </li></ul><ul><li>Example 5.19 There is a relationship between age and job satisfaction.(non-directional)  </li></ul><ul><li>Example 5.20 There is a difference between the work ethic values of American and Asian employees. (non-directional) </li></ul>
42. 52. Hypothesis Testing with Qualitative Research 質性研究的假設檢定 Negative Case Analysis 否定性個案分析法
43. 53. Negative Case Analysis <ul><li>Hypotheses can also be tested with qualitative data. </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it usually take more time for women to rise to top executive positions than men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women generally are unaware ( 不知道 ) of the most recent organizational changes as they are not a part of the decision-maker. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We hypothesize that gender-role stereotypes ( 規範模式 ) hinder ( 阻礙 ) women’s assess to critical ( 關鍵的 ) information. </li></ul></ul>