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Occupational form and occupational performance 2005


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Some fundamentals of occupational science

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Occupational form and occupational performance 2005

  1. 1. Occupational Form and Occupational Performance Or How to think about occupations!October 2005 J.Taylor 1
  2. 2. Occupations• Occupations are fundamental to health, well-being and identity.• Occupations are the therapeutic media employed by the occupational therapist.• And so …….• We need to have a sophisticated understanding of occupations (Creek 1996)October 2005 J.Taylor 2
  3. 3. Two ways we can use occupations• As the end • As the point that we means to are aiming for improve in our someone’s intervention impaired abilitiesOctober 2005 J.Taylor 3
  4. 4. Occupation as end point• These occupations are part of the person’s normal roles – They organise the person’s time – They help the person to participate in life /society – They have purpose and meaning for the personOctober 2005 J.Taylor 4
  5. 5. Occupation as end point• The O.T. can help the person learn / relearn these occupations, and / or can make adaptations if necessaryOctober 2005 J.Taylor 5
  6. 6. Occupation as a means to an end• We can introduce occupation as intervention to help improve someone after illness or when disabled• Enables eventual occupational functioning• We choose occupations which interest the client and which have therapeutic value• They should be challenging but enable successOctober 2005 J.Taylor 6
  7. 7. Two ways we can analyse occupation• Occupational • Occupational form performanceOctober 2005 J.Taylor 7
  8. 8. Nelson’s question about baseball• What is an occupation?• Is the format of the game (the structure) the occupation?• Or is the playing of the game (the doing) the occupation?October 2005 J.Taylor 8
  9. 9. His answer ….• Occupation is the relationship between occupational form and occupational performance• Occupation is the relationship between the ‘something to be done’ and the ‘doing’ of it – Playing a game of Monopoly – Cooking a meal for a special occasionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 9
  10. 10. Occupational Form• ‘an objective set of circumstances, independent and external to a person’ (p633)• a ‘pre-existing structure that elicits, guides, or structures subsequent human performance’ (p634) (Nelson 1988)October 2005 J.Taylor 10
  11. 11. Occupational form has two dimensions The physical dimension and The sociocultural dimensionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 11
  12. 12. The physical dimension can be observed and measured• The objects and their properties• The environment• The temporal aspects• The human aspectsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 12
  13. 13. The sociocultural dimension – the social and cultural aspects• Symbols, norms, sanctions, roles• These operate at different levels of society• LanguageOctober 2005 J.Taylor 13
  14. 14. OCCUPATIONOccupational Occupational form performance October 2005 J.Taylor 14
  15. 15. Occupational Performance• ‘to go through or carry out the occupational form’• ’the doing, the action, the active behaviour, or the active responses exhibited within the context of an occupational form.’Nelson (1988, p634)October 2005 J.Taylor 15
  16. 16. Occupational performance has two aspects Overt And CovertOctober 2005 J.Taylor 16
  17. 17. Overt occupational performance can be observed• Gross and fine movement• Speech and related vocalisations• Facial expressions• All movements and postures under voluntary motor controlOctober 2005 J.Taylor 17
  18. 18. Covert occupational performance may not be observed directly• Cognitive processes• Emotional reactionsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 18
  19. 19. Chains of occupational performanceOccupational Performance Aspects of formWalks to the refrigeratorOpens The fridge doorLooks for MilkPicks up MilkPushes shut Fridge doorWalks to TablePours Milk into glass October 2005 J.Taylor 19
  20. 20. Opening a fridge door is a complex activity!!!• Reach out to handle• Grasp handle• Firmly pull the handle (to break the hold of the rubber seal)• Gently pull the handle• Stop pullingOctober 2005 J.Taylor 20
  21. 21. What might go wrong?• What if some of the muscles are weak?• What if you cannot initiate muscle action?• What if you cannot control muscle action?• What if you have no movement in one or more of your joints?• What if you cannot recognise the handle?• What if you cannot see it?October 2005 J.Taylor 21
  22. 22. The developmental structure of the human• The human has – Sensorimotor } – Cognitive } abilities – Psychosocial }• These have developed over timeOctober 2005 J.Taylor 22
  23. 23. Occupational performance depends on …..• The occupational form which is encountered PLUS• The unique developmental structure of the individual• The specific features of that one-off occasionOctober 2005 J.Taylor 23
  24. 24. OccupationOccupational The Occupational meaning purposeform person performance October 2005 J.Taylor 24
  25. 25. References• Creek, J (1996) Making a cup of tea as an honours degree subject British Journal of Occupational Therapy 59 (3) 128-130• Nelson, D.L. (1988) Occupation: Form and Performance The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 42 (10) 633-641• Trombly, C.A., Radomski, M.V.(eds) (2002) Occupational Therapy for Physical Dysfunction 5th edition Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams & WilkinsOctober 2005 J.Taylor 25