Occupation health and wellbeing

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This is a lecture which explores the relationship between everyday occupations, health and well-being. The need for an underpinning theory-base for occupational therapy is presented.

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Occupation health and wellbeing

  1. 1. Occupation, health and well-being<br />Jackie Taylor<br />October 2011<br />
  2. 2. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />2<br />Aims<br />To consider why occupational science is important for occupational therapy<br />To examine the concepts of occupation, health and well-being <br />To explore an occupational perspective on the health and well-being of individuals and communities<br />
  3. 3. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />3<br />We have a problem!<br />At some point, occupational therapy lost its way<br />And we keep having identity crises<br />The profession, each service, each individual has to tackle this<br />Or I suppose we could choose to stay lost!<br />
  4. 4. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />4<br />The occupational therapist’s dilemma<br />A conflict between 2 paradigms<br />Shall we view people as mechanistic bundles of joints, chemicals and neurones?<br />Then we can help them by manipulation, control and the use of techniques<br />Shall we view people as whole, complex beings-in-context, who have the ability to grow?<br />Then we can work with them as partners to facilitate their growth<br />
  5. 5. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />5<br />Our problem<br />Alignment with the medical model?<br />Why did / do we do that?<br />Psychological models?<br />Do we still do this?<br />Social models?<br />Physiotherapy Models?<br />Nursing Models?<br />Practitioners, educators, researchers<br />
  6. 6. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />6<br />‘don’t focus on defining roles, define our principles’<br /> Whiteford, 2004<br />And demonstrate them to others. . . .<br />
  7. 7. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />7<br />What is an occupation?<br />Exercise <br />Answer this question!<br />
  8. 8. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />8<br />What is an occupation?<br />‘chunks of activity within the ongoing stream of human behaviour which are named in the lexicon of the culture’(Yerxa, 1989, p5).<br />‘An activity or group of activities that engages a person in everyday life, has personal meaning and provides structure to time. Occupations are seen by the individual as part of his / her identity and may be categorised as self care, productivity and / or leisure.’<br />(Creek, 2006, p205).<br />Doing, being, becoming and belonging (Wilcock, 2006) <br />
  9. 9. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />9<br />Some characteristics of an occupation<br />Have meaning and purpose to the individual performing them<br />They also have sociocultural meaning<br />They fill and structure time<br />Tend to be grouped according to purpose: leisure, productivity, self-care<br />Support roles and participation in society<br />Contribute to an individual’s sense of identity<br />
  10. 10. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />10<br />What is health?<br />WHO definition ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease and infirmity’<br />A multi-dimensional concept<br />People may define it differently according to gender, life-stage, culture<br />
  11. 11. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />11<br />Health . . .<br />A reserve to combat problems?<br />Behaviour aimed at healthy lifestyle?<br />Physical fitness?<br />Energy and vitality?<br />Social relationships?<br />Being able to function?<br />Psychosocial well-being?<br />
  12. 12. Well-being . . .<br />Physical well-being<br />Mental well-being<br />Social well-being<br />Community well-being<br />All of these can be described occupationally (Wilcock)<br />Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />13<br />Well-being in the UK<br />14% have a high level of well-being (‘flourishing’)<br />14% very low (not including those with a mental health problem)<br />(Huppert, 2008, Mental capital and well-being project)<br />
  14. 14. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />14<br />5 ways to well-being. . . <br />Connect – with family, friends, community<br />Be active<br />Take notice – be curious, catch sight of the beautiful, remark on things, savour the moment<br />Keep learning - try something new, rediscover an old interest, set a challenge<br />Give – do something nice for someone, look outwards as well as inwards <br />
  15. 15. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />15<br />From ‘Five ways to well-being’ (New Economics Foundation Centre for Well-being, 2009)<br />
  16. 16. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />16<br />Did you do your 5 yesterday?<br />Exercise<br />Yesterday – did you<br />Connect<br />Be active<br />Take notice<br />Keep learning<br />Give?<br />
  17. 17. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />17<br />Occupational well-being<br />Doble and Caron Santha (2008)<br />We should shift some of our attention away from occupational performance to subjective experience of occupation.<br />5 critical issues in the literature about occupation in last 20 years<br />ICF 2001 and emphasis on participation<br />Wilcock's doing, being, becoming and belonging<br />people compose or orchestrate their occupational lives<br />a balance of occupations is beneficial to health and well-being<br />the construct of meaning has been developed<br />
  18. 18. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />18<br />Occupational well-being<br />A framework for the concept of occupational well-being.<br />7 occupational needs: <br />Accomplishment <br />Affirmation (Recognition of value from others and self)<br />Agency (Perception of having control)<br />Coherence (Continuity, connection, identity)<br />Companionship<br />Pleasure<br />Renewal (Inner peace, refreshed, re-energised)<br />
  19. 19. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />19<br />Health defined occupationally<br />Wilcock (1998)<br />Absence of illness but not necessarily disability<br />A balance of physical, mental and social well-being attained through socially valued and individually meaningful occupation<br />Enhancement of capacity and opportunity to strive for individual potential<br />Community cohesion and opportunity<br />Social integration, support and justice, all within and as part of a sustainable ecology<br />
  20. 20. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />20<br />Does occupation contribute to health and well-being?<br />Literature review of 22 studies showed moderate to strong evidence that occupation has an important influence on health and well-being (Law et al 1998)<br />A quantitative study of 120 participants showed a positive correlation between perceived progress in completing personal projects (meaningful occupations) and well-being (Christiansen et al, 1999)<br />
  21. 21. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />21<br />The idea of occupational balance<br />What is this?<br />Work-life balance?<br />Is it about allocating the right amount of time to the right kind of occupations?<br />Is it about treading a fine line between order / chaos, health / illness, happiness / sadness?<br />Is it about adding the right ingredients to life?<br />
  22. 22. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />22<br />Pentland and McColl, 2008<br />If we get bogged down trying to find the right configuration, we might not take risks, or do new things<br />Maybe balance and well-being are achieved by an occupational life consistent with one’s values<br />Connect us with our childhood, and culture<br />Disturbed when occupational life is disconnected from values, perhaps when we conform<br />Occupational integrity<br />
  23. 23. Dr Jackie Taylor: Occupation, Health and Well-being<br />23<br />Some suggested reading<br />Doble, S. E., & Caron Santha, J. (2008). Occupational well-being: rethinking occupational outcomes. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(3), 184-190.<br />Kramer, P., Hinojosa, J., & Royeen, C. B. (Eds.). (2003). Perspectives in human occupation: participation in life. Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.<br />Kronenberg, F. K., Algado, S. S., & Pollard, N. (Eds.). (2005). Occupational therapy without borders: learning from the spirit of survivors. Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.<br />Molineux, M. (2004). Occupation for occupational therapists. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.<br />Schwartz, K. B. (2003). History of occupation. In P. Kramer, J. Hinojosa & C. B. Royeen (Eds.), Perspectives in human occupation: participation in life (pp. 18-31). Baltimore: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.<br />Wilcock, A. A. (2006). An occupational perspective of health. Thorofare, NJ: Slack Incorporated.<br />

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