Building Materials I
Calvin Wong Ping Ket (0322481)
Nicole Thain (0325697)
Alan Chung (0321487)
Jacquelyn Vanessa Tee (0320021)
Kiew Chee Yuan (0323297)
Tham Kai Loon (0323593)
Clean, safe water is vital for everyday life. Domestic water systems
deliver potable water to a facility and the process may vary slightly at
Standard water treatment process includes the following processes:
- Neutralization of charges (floc)
- Sinking of negative charges
- Filtered dissolved particles (dust, bacterias)
- Disinfectant (chlorine) kills bacterias
Distribution System to House
Water distribution is a process which delivers water to consumers with a suitable quality,
quantity and pressure. Water distribution systems consist of a joined series of components.
● storage facilities
● components that
convey drinking water
Methods of distribution system:
a) Gravity System
● Suitable when the source is at a sufficient height
● Reliable and highly economical over pumping systems as no extra power is needed to
maintain the flow
b) Pumping system
● Suitable when the sources of water is at same height or lower than the consumer’s area
● Develop the required pressure to distribute
c) Combined gravity and pump system
● Treated water is pumped and stored in an elevated distribution reservoir.
● Then supplies to consumer by action of gravity.
Some of the connecting pipes in water distribution system:
Domestic water treatment systems
a. Installed after water meter b. installed in a single source line in front of
to treat the water for entering any or all of the building’s faucets or taps
ＰＯＩＮＴ OF ＥＮＴＲＹ ＰＯＩＮＴ OF ＵＳＥ
The most common types of domestic water treatment consists of:
a) Water Softener
● Removal of dissolved salts e.g Calcium, Magnesium
using synthetic resins which reduces water hardness
and preventing the development of limescale
b) Filtration system
1. Activated carbon filter
● Removes large particles like sediment and silt
● Water will be less odor and tastes better
The most common types of domestic water treatment consists of:
2. Reverse Osmosis Filter (RO filter)
● Has the capability to remove all types of contaminants
● Accomplished by household water pressure pushing the
tap water through a semipermeable membrane.
● Affordable and provide outstanding
3. UltraViolet Filter
● UV light destroy illness-causing micro-organism in
● Does not involves any chemicals, water taste and
The general guideline for all Installation Process:
Step1 - Drain the system
Turn off the water supply at the consumer meter end. Open a faucet at the lowest point to
drain most of the water.
Step 2- Cut into the water supply line
Find a place for filter to have enough space below the filter tank to allow easy removal and
reattachment. Cut out a section of the pipe sand the burrs off the end of the freshly cut pipes.
Step3-Attach the fittings
Attach the fittings as recommended by the manufacturer of the filter. Ensure that all fittings fit
tightly without leaks.
Step4-Position the filter
Install the water filter on the water line tighten all fittings.
Step5-Turn on the water on at the main line
Turn the water back on at the main water line. Check the filter and fittings for any leaks.
● Unpleasant materials needs to be removed from water before it is even fit for
domestic consumption and uses (causes tastes or odours)
1. Abstraction: is carried out and all these water resources (eg. Rivers,
reservoirs) are limited by yearly rainfall.
2. Screening: a crude filtering involving the removal of materials like branches,
twigs and other plant material that might clog up and cause blockage to the
pipes in the water treatment plant.
3. Clarification: carried out via coagulation of flocculation, & sedimentation.
- It’s all about removing the dirt and its colour.
4. Filtration: it’s where anything solid still floating or suspended in the water
5. Chlorination: delivered to water treatment plants as liquid in high-pressure
- Only a small amount of chlorine is added to water to kill any residual
organisms or bacteria to keep the water safe.
● Initially, disinfection of source water that came from open storages is
transferred out when this water in the beginning would enter the distribution
system, along with fluoridation and pH correction of the major supplies.
● At places where the source of water comes from unprotected catchments or
little detention time sources, that is where the filtration plants would treat the
source of water to maintain its standard.
● Whereas the source of water that comes from protected catchments does not
require much treatment and is disinfected, fluoridated and pH adjusted
before being supplied to Melbourne city.
● Besides that, chlorine residual limits are also set to ensure that disinfection
by-products do not go above the limits for health as specified in the
Australian Drinking Water Guidelines.
● On a side note, Melbourne Water’s methods of disinfection are chlorination,
chloramination and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation.
✘ Water which haven’t purify by certain system contain a lot of
bacteria and viruses which could directly infect to human body.
✘ The process of purifying the water is to lower the harmful contain to
a certain low level is called Water Treatment.
⇒ To ensure the water is safe for human to drink and use for daily life.
○ Avoid getting diarrhea, vomiting or even worst, death.
○ Water treatment can purify the bacteria and virus which unseen
⇒ To soften the hard water which contain calcium, magnesium and
other metal components
○ Kidney failure and other disease
Water Filter Treatment
✓ Can remove the contain of chlorine and improve the taste of the
✓ Remove most of the harmful containment in the water
✓ Can directly got the filtered water when turn on the tap becuase the
water directly go through the filter
✘ Require regular maintenance
✘ Some of the filter, there’s strong input to the filter, the output usually
will be slow due to the storage-less concept
✘ Risk of sewage
✘ The disposal of the used filter can be very dangerous and must be
landfill and avoid to pollute to the environment.
✓ Destroy bacteria, parasites, and other organism
✓ Remove soluble iron, manganese, hydrogen sulfide
✓ Easily apply on the water resources
✓ Commonly use
✘ Bad taste and smell from the imply of chlorine
✘ Harmful as some people have sensitivity toward the contain of
✓ Remove the amount of iron, bacteria and virus, hydrogen sulfide and
✓ Doesn’t add chemical into the drinking water thus healthier than
✘ Less soluble into water so additional technique is required.
✘ Difficult to install and expensive cost.
History of Melbourne Water
- Melbourne Water was started up since 1890.
- The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) was form
by Melbourne Water’s predecessor, to take responsibility for both
water supply and the treatment of sewage.
- Playing role in supply water, treat sewage, recycle water, protect river
and creeks, and manage flooding
- Owns many reservoir to support the water system: Maroondah
Reservoir, O'Shannassy Reservoir, Silvan Reservoir, Upper Yarra
Reservoir, Greenvale Reservoir, Thomson Reservoir, Cardinia
Reservoir and so on.
- A major scheme of pipelines and tunnels are built in Melbourne to
bring more water to Melbourne to avoid the extreme storms caused
widespread flooding to Port Phillip Bay.
- Melbourne Water also constructed the second major sewage
treatment plant, the Eastern Treatment Plant in Bangholme opened.
The 1100-hectare plant was built to relieve pressure on the Western
- In year 1995, Melbourne Water commenced operation as the wholesale
water company, together with City West Water, South East Water and
Yarra Valley Water as Melbourne’s retail water companies.
- The Victorian Government put in place a long-term plan for water, Our
Water Our Future, which set out 110 initiatives for water conservation
aimed at every sector of the community, seeking to provide water to
sustain growth over the next 50 years.
- They are determined to protect the environment by cutting our carbon
footprint. As well as their goal of 100% renewable energy use by 2018,
and to achieve their goal of zero net greenhouse gas emissions by
- In charge of Melbourne’s water supply
- Consist of many reservoir
- Water supplied is mainly taken from water catchment areas
- Small percentage of water come from seawater
Water catchment area:
- Protected catchment
- Areas that have limited public access, such as national park and
- Catchment areas are set aside for almost 100 years to harvest
- Water will then flow through rivers, springs, streams and into the
- Water is let to rest at the reservoir for a long period of time to break
- Open catchment
- Open to public access area, such as, farmland, rural properties
and state forest that are open to activities.
- Water taken will need to go through different filtration treatment
- It is only able to fulfill a small part of the the water supplied
Melbourne’s water is known as a rainwater-independent source of water.
Therefore, alternative water source is needed to prevent shortage of
- Water taken from the sea
- Water will go through reverse osmosis process to remove dissolved
salt and minerals
- Water will then flow through the North-South Pipeline
- Water will then flow to one of the reservoir and mix with the existing
- Water will then be distributed to other reservoir
- The water in the reservoir is sent for treatment as different reservoir
contain different water source and will affect the treatment needed
for the water from different reservoir.
- Water is the supply to customers.
The threat of natural disasters
- Rainstorm and windstorm
- Silt and impurities polluted the reservoirs and water tower
Old and aging equipment
- Outdated water system problems
- Do not afford to supply efficiently, water does not filter effectively.
- Resulting those impurities mixed with water flows along water pipe
Cracks and corrosion
- Contaminated by insects and dust, resulting in the growth of bacteria
in the water.
- Corrosive water pipes contained lead and iron.
- Cause serious problems to the human’s body- Kidney
Artificial chemical materials
- Man-made chemical : Pesticides, detergents, heavy metals raw
- Dispersed in the environment, within in the air, soil, lake.
- Resulting water treatment cannot completely remove these harmful
chemical raw materials.
- Cannot fully prevent a natural disaster
- Take counter measures
- Alternate water source to compensate for water loss
- Increase the water taken from the sea
- Used bigger water plants to purify the seawater taken from sea.
- Can purify infection during the natural disaster.
Aging and Old equipment
- Maintenance is needed frequently
- Equipment worn out will affect water quality
- Cause leakage, which is not energy efficient.
Cracks and corrosion
- Construction of water treatment plant is important.
- The quality of materials used to build water treatment plant will reduce
cracks in the reservoir.
- Surveillance of the structure of the treatment plant is required
- To determine cracks
- Maintenance and repair will be able to carry efficiently.
Artificial chemical materials
- Pollutants from adjacent area to protect catchment will flow through and
into the reservoir.
- Content in the water needs to be tested out
- Determine pollutants and infection of the water
- Water needs to be treated.