Jack Brown Mobile Coupon Architecture Ver 1

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Jack Brown Mobile Coupon Architecture Ver 1

  1. 1. Multi‐player, Interoperable Ecosystem For A Mobile Barcodes Clearing House Jack E Brown 1
  2. 2. Graphic Depiction Of A Barcode Architecture QR 1D 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 2
  3. 3. Offering Barcode Service Requires Coordination Among The Following Entities Code Publishers/ Sales Agents: • Provide compelling campaigns Technology Service Providers (Campaign Manager, Registry, Clearing House) • Support the Code Publishers and Sales Agents through infrastructure Carriers: • Provide network support and ensure handset and application availability This model is designed to be open to multiple vendors, allowing each vendor to participate in one or multiple interoperable roles. The model will allow for creative use of codes, the creation of services and market prices, and open competition across various functional levels in the ecosystem. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 3
  4. 4. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS QR The functions supporting the creation and management of a campaign reside in the top three levels of the architecture, which include Code Publishers, Sales Agents and Campaign Managers, as shown above.Jack E Brown 7/4/2009 4
  5. 5. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS It is envisioned that Code Publishers and Sales Agents will utilize barcodes to enable interactive campaigns. By doing so, these entities will reap the benefits of wider reach and enhanced targeting. A Code Publisher or Sales Agent will initiate a campaign by contacting a Campaign Manager. The following is a description of these three entities and their roles in creating and managing a campaign: Code Publisher / Brand Code Publishers include any entity choosing to use barcodes to engage with their customers through more convenient access to mobile data services and content. A common example is a Brand. Brands may purchase advertising services that include barcodes from Sales Agents or directly from Campaign Managers. Code Publishers can select from several actions resulting from a scan. As an example, the target action of the barcode may be to send the customer to the Brand’s WAP site for information on a specific product. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 5
  6. 6. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Code Publisher / Brand Carriers will exercise best efforts to support the following actions on all capable phones: • Launch a WAP browser • Pre‐populate a phone call • Pre‐populate a SMS text message In addition, though the population of capable handsets is smaller, carriers should attempt to support the following actions on capable enabled phones: • Send a MMS message • Save the Date to a Calendar • Add a Contact to the Address book • Pre‐populate an Email Code Publisher Responsibilities: • Enlist a Sales Agent (Agency) or a Campaign Manager to manage the placement of barcodes in a marketing campaign • Select the target action of the scan • Provide the final destination address of the scan (i.e. intended content or service) 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 6
  7. 7. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Sales Agents Sales Agents sell barcode campaigns to Code Publishers and work with Campaign Managers to enact the campaigns. Sales Agents may be advertising agencies, Carriers, Campaign Managers or any entity selling barcode campaigns. A Sales Agent may simply resell codes or they may add significant value such as vertical industry expertise or service aggregation to support Code Publishers. Sales Agent Responsibilities: • Obtain codes for publishing from Campaign Managers • Work with Code Publishers to develop a campaign that meets their mobile communication needs • Obtain anonymous subscriber‐volunteered demographic data and scan reporting data from Campaign Managers, to be shared with Code Publishers 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 7
  8. 8. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Reporting Functions Supported Reporting data is important to the health and growth of the ecosystem and the many players within it, including Code Publishers. In some cases, a consumer may voluntarily provide demographic information via the code scanning client application. The client may then transmit the anonymous consumer data to the Central Clearing House, which may be passed through the ecosystem. Carriers should support sharing anonymous customer‐provided demographic information throughout the barcode scanning ecosystem where technology, legal statutes, and privacy policies allow. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 8
  9. 9. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Reporting Functions Supported Carriers should strive to support the sharing of anonymous demographic information provided voluntarily by customers, so long as doing so occurs within legal, ethical and technical limitations. The following variables represent the demographic data that should be available within the ecosystem: • Age • Zip • Gender • Household Income In addition, all Carriers should strive to support the following minimum Campaign information with ecosystem participants when technically, ethically and legally possible: • Number of scans per campaign • Number of unique user scans • Date and time of scans • Network of originating scans • Handset Make and Model 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 9
  10. 10. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Campaign Manager Campaign Managers design and execute barcode campaigns. Other than the Code Publisher and/ or Sales Agent, the Campaign Manager is the only entity that knows the target action and content destination address of the code scan. Campaign Manager Responsibilities (when designing a Campaign): • Work with Sales Agents and Code Publishers to develop barcode campaigns • Provide professional services to enable barcode campaigns, including consulting and technical support • Report demographic and scanning information to Carriers, Code Publishers and/ or Sales Agents for each campaign as legally and technically appropriate 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 10
  11. 11. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF ECOSYSTEM QR The technical functions that link a barcode scan to an action in the handset reside in the lower five levels of the architecture. The functional entities and technology involved include Campaign Managers, Central Clearing House, Central Registry, Code Reader Application, and Carriers. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 11
  12. 12. Technology Overview With the proliferation of camera‐equipped cell phones, technology has emerged that allows phone‐resident software to examine a barcode image and interpret the alphanumeric values it represents. The most common method uses downloadable or preloaded client software (“code reader”) that is launched and accesses the camera component. The handset screen becomes the camera view‐finder for the user to view and center the code on the screen. Depending on the reader, the user either snaps a picture to initiate the client software interpretation process, or the image is interpreted automatically. In either case, when the software recognizes a supported code, it follows directions to accomplish a desired user experience. The device (client) software can provide results with or without the support of the network. In the Direct model, the client software interprets the code and delivers a result without calling upon the network for further information. For example, a phone number might be embedded in the code, and the client software interprets it and presents it as a phone number ready to be dialed. In the Indirect model, an alpha‐numeric number (‘Identifier’) is decoded in the Code Reader and sent over a network to a server for dereferencing. The resolved address of the intended content or service is then returned to the client software, which initiates an action in the device to launch the intended user experience. An example of this might be accessing a deep link on the mobile Internet. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 12
  13. 13. Technology Overview The following Information Flow diagram depicts how a user’s scan information flows through the ‘Indirect’ architecture of the ecosystem: Markets Barcodes to End Users through Marketing Vehicles Receives regular updates from Code Registry 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 13
  14. 14. Technology Overview The campaign creation flows from Code Publisher to Campaign Manager. It is an offline process that does not occur in real time. In contrast, the real‐time scanning process begins at the consumer handset (Step 1 above) and flows to the Campaign Manager (Step 6’ above) and back, and occurs almost instantaneously. Direct vs. Indirect codes There is a basic distinction between ‘Direct’ and ‘Indirect’ mobile codes, which have differing requirements. • Direct: the code contains either the address (URI) of the content or service, or the content itself, in-line. The requirement here is to support a range of URI and content types. In this model, the code reader application will decode and execute the service request without assistance from the network. It then initiates access to the content or service. • Indirect: the mobile code contains an identifier, which needs to be resolved to obtain the content or service. Resolving an identifier means looking it up, typically at a network service, to determine the corresponding content or service. To avoid ambiguity, any identifier retrieved from a code must be unique. Several URI schemes have already dealt with those issues, e.g. ‘tag’ URIs [TAGURI]. Note that certain symbologies, such as those in the EAN/UPC family, contain uniquely allocated identifiers. The combination of the symbology name (e.g. its ISO identifier) and the identifier read from the code is therefore unique. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 14
  15. 15. Technology Overview Benefits of an Indirect Encoding Model The Indirect encoding model offers several benefits over the Direct model, which are useful for consumers, Code Publishers and Campaign Managers. The following describes the main benefits of an Indirect encoding model: • Interoperability ‐ Indirect encoding allows multiple Campaign Managers to reach carrier subscribers through a single handset code reader application. The incorporation of a Central Clearing House and Central Registry enables Campaign Managers to use this system in an interchangeable, equal way, while maintaining the privacy and confidentiality of their company’s bar code campaigns. • Consistency of Service and Market Reach ‐One key to adoption of barcodes in the United States is consistency of service experience and reliability for customers, independent of carrier or camera phone make & model and choice of barcode symbology. Indirect encoding supported by a Central Clearing House function acting on behalf of carriers enables users to scan and decode different supported symbologies using a single code reader application on the handset. This fulfills a key objective of Code Publishers by ensuring a consistent experience to the broadest base of users and allows access to campaign content or service, regardless of their choice of Campaign Managers, carriers or symbologies. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 15
  16. 16. Technology Overview Benefits of an Indirect Encoding Model • Advertising Uses & Size ‐ The Indirect model encodes an alpha‐numeric code (‘Identifier’) into the barcode, rather than a full address of the intended content or service (i.e. WAP URL). This Identifier is used by the Campaign Manager as an index to resolve the full URL, which will be returned to the handset barcode reader application for action. As a result of encoding a smaller amount of data, indirect barcodes are typically much smaller in size. A small bar code will be essential in usage situations with space constraints, such as on consumer goods packaging involving imprints on small objects. • Security and Trust ‐ The Indirect model ensures the security of content and a trusted user experience. This contrasts the Direct encoding of barcodes, which typically involves unmanaged routing of the user’s client to the code publisher’s web portal, hence exposing the user to potential inappropriate content, fraud, phishing and other attacks. With the Indirect model, system entities work collaboratively to ensure a trusted and managed user experience. Stakeholders are much better equipped to institute content guidelines for bar code distributions and they can mitigate the adverse impact of misleading or inappropriate content on end users by removing the associated Identifiers from circulation. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 16
  17. 17. Technology Overview Benefits of an Indirect Encoding Model • Consumer Analytics Reporting ‐ The Indirect model enables system entities (Clearing House and Campaign Managers) to leverage carrier capabilities to report user demographics (on a opt‐in and anonymous basis). These demographics are of value to Code Publishers for purposes of advertising accountability and campaign planning. As the Barcode market and methods of user‐controlled disclosure of application attributes (e.g. geo‐location and subscription profile data) mature, further opportunities exist to enhance the user experience and create possible follow‐on service transactions with the Code Publishers (e.g. e‐commerce). 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 17
  18. 18. Technology Overview Code Reader Application The Code Reader Application scans the barcode and decodes a data string from the symbology. Next, it sends the unique Identifier, the Header, customer‐provided demographic information and scan data to the Central Clearing House for processing. The Header will include information about the handset and carrier. A single code reader application will support more than one code symbology. Code Reader Application Responsibilities: • Scan and read supported Code symbologies • Send decoded Identifier and Header information to the Central Clearing House for partial de‐referencing • Potentially send Subscriber demographic data (if available) and scan data with each scan to the Central Clearing House 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 18
  19. 19. Technology Overview Central Clearing House All scans in the ecosystem must pass through the Central Clearing House (CCH) in order to maintain consistency of service. The CCH acts as a point of reference (‘Gateway function’) for all Campaign Managers and all participating Carriers in the ecosystem. Any participating Carrier can utilize the CCH to assist with auditing of scan data for each Campaign Manager. The CCH must therefore maintain records of scans sent from each Carrier’s network to each Campaign Manager The technical flow is as follows: Once an Identifier is decoded in the Code Reader Application, the Identifier is sent with a Header, along with potential anonymous demographic information and scan data to the CCH server. The CCH server checks the Identifier against its database to find the assigned Campaign Manager. Then, the CCH determines whether the sending Carrier network has an agreement with the assigned Campaign Manager. If the Carrier does have an agreement, the CCH forwards the Identifier and all data to that Campaign Manager. If the Carrier does not have a contract with the Campaign Manager, the CCH will then send an “error” or “sorry” message back to the customer’s handset. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 19
  20. 20. Technology Overview Central Clearing House Finally, the CCH is the entity that evaluates and permits Campaign Manager use of the ecosystem Service Mark. Therefore, the CCH will be required to sign and maintain policies of acceptable use with each Campaign Manager in the ecosystem. Central Clearing House Responsibilities: • Maintain a database of Identifiers with their associated Campaign Managers • Update database regularly with the Registry • Check that the Carrier has a contract with the Campaign Manager that manages the Identifier • If a contract is in place, send the Identifier to the controlling Campaign Manager with the Header, potential demographic information and scan data • If a contract does not exist, or the Identifier is not registered, send an “error” or “sorry” message to the Code Reader Application • All Header information must be sent to the Campaign Manager in a format identical to the way it is received • Maintain and appropriately share records of scans sent from each Carrier’s network to each Campaign Manager for auditing purposes • Ensure confidentiality of all scan, demographic and header information between Carriers and between Campaign Managers 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 20
  21. 21. Technology Overview Central Registry The Central Registry is the authority responsible for managing the creation and dissemination of unique Identifiers to Campaign Managers. The Central Registry is envisioned to be a neutral, independent third party that allocates Identifiers in a standard way and has reporting responsibility to a neutral governing body. The Central Registry should provide an online lookup facility for all registered codes to authorized parties, such as the Central Clearing House. Finally, the Central Registry may also push updates to the Central Clearing House database and may support the online registration of codes. Central Registry Responsibilities: • Create unique Identifiers for use in the barcode ecosystem • Disseminate the Identifiers in a structured, consistent manner that is neutral to all parties • Maintain a database of Campaign Managers and the Identifiers they control • Provide access to the database to authorized parties including the Central Clearing House • Update the Central Clearing House’s database regularly • Convert all current and new Identifiers to conform to the International standard Identifier when it becomes available 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 21
  22. 22. Technology Overview Campaign Manager In the ecosystem, Campaign Managers play a dual role as a sales entity and a technical enabler. In order to technically enable campaigns, Campaign Managers must coordinate services with the Central Clearing House, Central Registry, Carriers, and Code Reader Applications. Once a Campaign Manager’s server receives an Identifier from the Clearing House server, the Campaign Manager will check the Identifier against its database to determine the final destination address of the content. The Campaign Manager then sends the destination address information of the content to the subscriber’s code reader application through the Carrier network. Campaign Manager Responsibilities (when acting as a technology provider): • Procure Identifiers from the Central Registry for use in campaigns on behalf of Sales Agents and/or Code Publishers • Convert the Identifiers into graphical barcodes • Receive an Identifier from the Central Clearing House and determine the destination address of the content for the associated Identifier • Send the appropriate destination address and action directions back to the code reader application • Agree to support common content guidelines with the Central Clearing House • Once content guidelines are supported, use the Service Mark where appropriate • Solicit Carriers to partner with in the ecosystem 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 22
  23. 23. Technology Overview Carriers The carrier owns the cellular network that facilitates the movement of barcodes. The carrier selects and maintains the Code Reader Application for handsets. Carriers work with Campaign Managers and the Central Clearing House to facilitate the movement of barcodes. Individual Carrier Responsibilities: • Select and maintain Code Reader Applications for handsets • Maintain barcode reader capable handsets Select Campaign Managers to work within the ecosystem Code Symbologies There are hundreds of symbologies to choose from. Some considerations for symbology support include: • Whether the symbology can be accurately interpreted using the optic capabilities in camera‐enabled handsets in the US market. • Whether the code is “Standard.” The International Organization of Standards has defined standards for a sizeable subset of barcodes available in the market. • The Code Reader Application will maintain flexibility to support symbologies as standards and the market evolve. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 23
  24. 24. Technology Overview Device Support Rapid growth of supported devices is critical to promote adoption of mobile barcodes. Therefore, target as many devices as possible to support barcode scanning in the near term. Over time, the number of supported devices should continue to grow. The minimum technical requirements for devices to support Mobile Barcode Scanning are: • Ability to preview the barcode on the cell phone screen. The display requires at least a QVGA display (320x240), with better performance on a VGA resolution (640X480). • Capture the barcode through a user‐initiated operation or automatically process while reviewing the image. In general, OS‐level software handlers are necessary for external applications to manage the handset‐based camera. • Ability to process the image that was captured by the application. Once the processed information is received by the phone it should be capable of letting the application open functions such as browsers, text messaging platform and the calendar application. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 24
  25. 25. Code - Coupon Service Execution and Integration Platform 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown -- Draft 25
  26. 26. 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown 26
  27. 27. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS The Content, Code Coupon Customer Portals are secure web portals where you can: Manage your company profile. Enter and manage the business and technical information that's used for general administration and system integration. Create code - coupon product offers, then submit to the network operator for publication. In addition, you can view which offers are published to a staging or production environment. Access online and downloadable sales and financial reports that are generated on a daily or monthly basis. Set up and manage your user account. A user in the administrator role can manage permissions and control certain settings. With Customer Portals you have a central, online location for keeping business information up to date and collaborating on and managing your product offer catalog. These portals are designed to help you work efficiently with the network operator to move offers to market quickly, and to help you track business performance with complete, timely, and accurate reports. 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown -- Draft 27
  28. 28. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS User roles There are three basic user roles that determine your read/write access to information and ability to perform tasks. User roles also control features and menu options. The table below describes the different user roles and permissions. Administrator An administrator can work with the company profile, create product offers, view reports, reset passwords, and manage users and system settings. At least one user in the system must be assigned the administrator role. An administrator role is created by default when you create an account. Standard User A standard user can work with the company profile, create product offers, and view reports. This role cannot add or edit user accounts or modify system settings. Reports Only A user with the reports-only role has full access to reports and events, but has read-only access to other parts of Partner Center and cannot perform any additional Partner Center tasks. 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown -- Draft 28
  29. 29. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Profile The Profile feature lets you enter and manage the business and technical information used to provision your company . Profile stores the following type of information: Your business's name, address, brief description, and website URL. Business and technical contacts who can be reached during and after business hours. URLs and server names required for integration method(s) you will use. The states and provinces in which your company is liable for sales and use taxes. This is known as your tax nexus. Your acceptance of the network operator's terms and conditions agreement. 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown -- Draft 29
  30. 30. CREATING AND MANAGING CAMPAIGNS Code Publisher. This is a brand owner (businesses or individual) who chooses to acquire and present mobile codes – coupons in print or electronic media. Publishers may wish to execute advertising campaigns by directly acquiring codes themselves or may do so via a campaign agency that manages their interests. Therefore, they may interact with the Code Sales Agency, Code Management Platform or Code Registry. Code Sales Agency. The Code Sales Agency acquires the rights to market codes obtained from a Code Management Platform provider and/or from a Code Registry, and sells them to Code Publishers. Code Management Platform. The Code Management Platform function obtains the rights to distribute codes from the Code Registry, and adds technical value to the code generation and management process (e.g., code design enhancement, measurement and reporting of success rates of the advertising campaign). This entity also interacts with the Code Sales Agency. The Code Management entity may also develop a variety of “Ad Mechanics” that can be fulfilled by the code, such as “Launch Browser and dereference a URI”, or “Launch SMS client, address it, and populate it with this message”; it could also design and host wireless web pages on behalf of the code publishers/code sales agency, or arrange for their access to user demographic data collected based on the campaign 9/14/2009 Jack E. Brown -- Draft 30
  31. 31. Jack Brown 31
  32. 32. 50 ¢ Personal Coupon for David Hoodis This screenshot shows the list of items selected by the user and one of the coupons Jack Brown 32
  33. 33. This screenshot shows the 2D barcodes for each of the coupons. Jack Brown 33
  34. 34. 50 ¢ Personal Coupon for David Hoodis This screen shot shows a single coupon with the 2D bar code Jack Brown 34
  35. 35. Ecosystem For Mobile Barcodes In Review 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 35
  36. 36. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 36
  37. 37. Ecosystem Roles Code Publisher. This is a brand owner (businesses or individual) who chooses to acquire and present mobile codes in print or electronic media. Code Publishers may wish to execute advertising campaigns by directly acquiring codes themselves or may do so via a campaign agency that manages their interests. Therefore, they may interact with the Code Sales Agency, Code Management Platform or Code Registry. Code Sales Agency. The Code Sales Agency acquires the rights to market codes obtained from a Code Management Platform provider and/or from a Code Registry, and sells them to Code Publishers. Code Management Platform. The Code Management Platform function obtains the rights to distribute codes from the Code Registry, and adds technical value to the code generation and management process (e.g., code design enhancement, measurement and reporting of success rates of the advertising campaign). This entity also interacts with the Code Sales Agency. The Code Management entity may also develop a variety of “Ad Mechanics” that can be fulfilled by the code, such as “Launch Browser and dereference a URI”, or “Launch SMS client, address it, and populate it with this message”; it could also design and host wireless web pages on behalf of the code publishers/code sales agency, or arrange for their access to user demographic data collected based on the campaign 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 37
  38. 38. Ecosystem Roles Code Registry and Resolution. This entity is comprised of 2 functional roles: a) the code registry, and b) the resolution (redirection) server. In the registry role, this entity authorizes different actors performing at the same layer (i.e. multiple players of Code Sales Agencies, or multiple Code Management Platform providers) to activate and distribute codes. Other key responsibilities of the Code registry may include: i. Ensuring that common codes work across operator domains and that no duplicates exist across the entire ecosystem. ii. Providing a mechanism for each operator to approve these common codes for use in their networks. iii. Synchronizing multiple Code Registries, where applicable. In the resolution role, this entity receives an identifier read from a mobile code and provides the content or URI corresponding to that identifier. The Code Registry could interact with the Code Publisher, the Code Sales Agency and/or the Code Management Platform. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 38
  39. 39. Ecosystem Roles Code Clearing House. This is an entity that sits between the Operator and the Code Management entity and is equipped with a database facility to ensure that the identifier from the Code Reader is partially resolved and sent to the appropriate Code Management Server for full resolution. The Clearing House can be independent of the Operator, can serve one Operator, or, subject to business agreements, can serve multiple Operators. In addition to routing of scanned codes to the appropriate Code Management Platform via the Code Registry, the Code Clearing House can also provide value-added functions (e.g. accounting functions, scanned code traffic monitoring, logging and reporting) to Code Publishers. Operator. The Operator (or an entity performing an equivalent role) supports all required functions toward the End Users, including requiring Code Readers to support desired symbologies relevant to its markets. Towards Code Publishers, the Operators are responsible for connectivity to one or more Clearing Houses, or alternatively, connecting directly to one or more Code Registries Code Reader. Code Readers extract data from mobile codes and processes it accordingly. Code Readers in mobile devices are configured according to individual Operator requirements. Economies of scale should motivate the Code Reader to support symbologies that are both relevant and exclusive to the market. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 39
  40. 40. Telecommunications "Next Generation Networks" Tech Talk 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 40
  41. 41. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 41
  42. 42. Appendix 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 42
  43. 43. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 43
  44. 44. Indirect Access Model – describes the encoding of an Identifier, rather than the campaign content or service address, into a barcode. In contrast to the Direct Model, the handset application sends the Identifier to a Clearing House for authentication and routing to the appropriate Campaign Manager (‘partial de‐referencing’). Based on the Identifier, the Campaign Manager resolves the destination address of the intended content or service on behalf of its customers (‘full de‐referencing’), which is returned to the handset application for action. Direct Access Model – describes the direct encoding of campaign content or service address (e.g. a URL) into a barcode. In this model, the code reader application will decode and execute the service request without assistance from the network. It then initiates access to the content or service. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 44
  45. 45. Mobile codes – 2D and 1D barcodes – have emerged as a promising enabler of the mobile Internet in some markets. Camera equipped handsets now have good enough optics, image resolution and processing capacity to read mobile codes on printed materials and electronic displays. These symbols encode information such as URLs, phone numbers, and in-line content such as business cards. There is, however, still a lack of interoperability between different markets and players. The majority of consumers are unlikely to adopt the technology before it comes pre-installed on their devices. Similarly, marketing, publishing and other industries that are otherwise motivated to provide mobile codes will not adopt them without adequate potential for consumer take-up. That in turn would entail deployment on a large variety of devices, and interoperability between different service providers. 7/4/2009 Jack E Brown 45

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