BIG IDEAS OF SCIENCE-Space & TIme: Universe - 13,700,000,000years old +700,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000meters-Matter & Change: Matter has volume andmass (Solid, Liquid, Gas), Matter made up ofatoms (Electrons, Protons, Neutrons)-Forces & Motion: Force causes change inmotion, laws of physics allow movements tobe calculated exactly-Energy: Exists in many forms (KineticEnergy, Potential Energy) Energy exists inmatter itself, Energy cannot be destroyed
SCIENTIFIC METHOD-The main purpose of scientiﬁc method is tocomprehend and/or solve an unknown-Steps:1. Making Observations2. Forming Hypothesis3. Testing Hypothesis4. Drawing Conclusion5. Developing Theory(Repeating scientiﬁc method leads to Scientiﬁc Laws)
MEASUREMENT-Scientiﬁc Notation: Expressing a value as aproduct of a number between 1-10 & a power of10-SI Units: SI Units (International System of Units)are a set of measuring units used by scientiststo readily interpret one another’s measurements-Metric Preﬁxes: Kilo, Hecto, Deca  Deci, Centi,Milli-Precision Vs. Accuracy: Limits of Measurment
PRESENTING SCIENTIFIC DATA-Organizing Data:1. Data Table2. Bar Graphs3. Line Graphs4. Pie Chart
CLASSIFYING MATTER-Pure Substances: Fixed uniform composition-Elements: Substance that can not be brokendown into a simpler substance-Compounds: Made up of elements oranother compound with two or more simplersubstances, always joined in a ﬁxedproportion-Mixtures: Heterogeneous (Different parts arenoticeable) Homogeneous (Same parts makeup mixture)-Solution/Suspension/Colloid: Solution:Dissolved substance Suspension:Heterogeneous mixture Colloid: In-betweenSolution/Suspension (Cloudy)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-Viscosity: Liquids resistance to ﬂow-Conductivity: Materials ability to transfer heat-Malleability: Ability of solid to be hammeredwithout shattering-Hardness-Melting/Boiling points-Density: Ratio of the mass of a substance toits volumeUses: Identify materials, using properties tochoose materials, using properties toseparate mixtures (ﬁltration/distillation)
Separation Techniques Evaporation: A process used to isolate solid dissolved in a liquid property: solubility
Separation Techniques Filtration: a process that separates materials based on the size of particles or solubility
Separation Techniques Distillation: a process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
Classifying Matter Pure Substances: A matter that has exactly the same composition is a pure substance. Every sample of a given substance has the same properties because it has a ﬁxed uniform composition. Elements: An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Elements have a ﬁxed composition because they only have one type of atom.
Classifying Matter Cont’d Compounds: A compound is a substance that is made of two or more simpler substances. Compounds always have to or more elements joined in a ﬁxed proportion, ex: H2O (Hydrogen + Oxygen) Mixtures: A mixtures property can vary because the composition of their mixture is never ﬁxed. The amount of materials in a mixture will never be evenly distributed.
Classifying Matter Cont’d Heterogeneous Mixtures: The materials in a heterogeneous mixture are noticeably different from one another. Made of different substances. Homogeneous Mixtures: The substances in a Homogeneous Mixtures are so evenly distributed that it is hard to distinguish their differences. Made of the same substances.
Classifying Matter Cont’d Solutions: Dissolved substances form a homogeneous mixture, the mixture that is formed is a solution. Suspensions: Suspensions are a heterogeneous mixture that separates into layers over time. Colloids: Colloids contain some particles that are intermediate in size and small in size creating a suspension.
Physical Properties Viscosity: A liquids resistance to ﬂow Conductivity: A materials ability to allow heat to ﬂow through it Malleability: The ability for a solid to be hammered without being shattered. Hardness: A materials density compared to another’s Melting+Boiling points: Melting point - the temp. when a solid changes to a liquid. Boiling point - the temp. that a substance boils Density: A way of measuring a substances purity
Physical Properties Cont’d Filtration: A process that seperates materials based on the size of their particles Distillation: A process that separates a substances solution based on their boiling points
Chemical Properties Flammability: A materials ability to burn in the presence of oxygen Reactivity: A property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances Change in Color: A change in color is a clue that a chemical change has produced at least 1 new substance Production of Gas: The combination of 2 or more substances creating a gaseous substance Formation of a Precipitate: A precipitate is when a solid separates from a liquid mixture