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HUBIOS, Agosto 2016, Parte 2


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HUBIOS: Humanidades, Biografías y Sustentabilidad: Tres temas importantes para la física PARTE 2. Conferencia dictada el 3 de agosto de 2016.

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HUBIOS, Agosto 2016, Parte 2

  1. 1. 2! Biografías!
  2. 2. The more students encounter the diversity of physics and the variety of jobs that physicists do, the better placed they’ll be to make a rewarding choice of career.! Irving, Paul W. and Sayre, Eleanor C., Physics Today, 69, 46-51 (2016), ! DOI:!
  3. 3. George Green (1793-1841)!!! ! Nottingham! De profesión: molinero-panadero! Formación: posiblemente autodidacta: ¿1808-1823?! En 1814, John Toplis – headmaster of N. Grammar School – publica una traducción de Mecanique Céleste de Laplace. ¿La posible fuente para el interés de GG en teoría potencial?! 1823: Nottinghan Subscription Library! 1828: An Essay on the Application of Mathematical Analysis to the Theories of Electricity and Magnetism.! 1833: Con 40 años es admitido en Cambridge (1837)! 1835-1839: Publica 8 trabajos en hidrodinámica, ondas y óptica.!
  4. 4. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) (48 años)! Dedicó los últimos 5 años de su vida ha hacer historia de la ciencia (reunir y clasificar la obra de Henry Cavendish (1731-1810).! To James Maxwell, scientific facts were incomplete without the knowledge of how they came to be discovered. The process of discovery held as much interest as the result. Scientific history was at least as important as political history and needed to be complete.! 17 de mayo 1861!
  5. 5. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) (48 años)! 1850: Equilibrio de sólidos elásticos! 1855 y 1860: Teoría del color! 1858: Estabilidad de los anillos de Saturno! 1865: Ingeniería civil: figuras recíprocas y diagramas de fuerzas en estructuras! 40 Poemas!
  6. 6. William Thompson (Lord Kelvin) (1824-1907)! ¿Por qué lo hacen Lord?! From  1854,  James  White  was  producing  electrical  instruments  from   Prof.  Thomson's  patents,  mainly  galvanometers  and  electrometers.   From  1876,  he  manufactured  accurate  compasses  for  metal  ships  and   deep-­‐sea  sounding  machines  from  Thomson's  designs.  At  the  same   Fme,  he  made  a  range  of  more  convenFonal  instruments  such  as   telescopes,  microscopes,  chronometers  and  surveying  equipment.  AHer   White's  death  in  1884,  Sir  William  Thomson  raised  most  of  the  capital   needed  to  construct  and  equip  new  workshops  in  Cambridge  Street,   Glasgow.  William  Thomson's  patent  compass  was  adopted  as  a   standard  for  Royal  Navy  use  by  the  Admiralty  in  1889.     Consultor para Atlantic Telegraph Company!
  7. 7. 1858!
  8. 8. Yate velero ! Lalla Rookh (1870)! 126 toneladas! Netherhall ! Casa de campo costa oeste de Escocia.!
  9. 9. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995)! After the early preparatory years, my scientific work has followed a certain pattern motivated, principally, by a quest after perspectives. In practice, this quest has consisted in my choosing (after some trials and tribulations) a certain area which appears amenable to cultivation and compatible with my taste, abilities, and temperament. And when after some years of study, I feel that I have accumulated a sufficient body of knowledge and achieved a view of my own, I have the urge to present my point of view, ab initio, in a coherent account with order, form, and structure.! Chandra autobiografía!!! Diferentes formas de hacer física!
  10. 10. Rosalyn (Sussman) Yalow (1921-2011)! Física médica! Hunter College en New York (B. Sc., 1941)! Universidad de Illinois, Urbana (Ph. D., 1945)! (Física nuclear experimental)! Premio Nobel en Medicina (1977): Desarrollo de la técnica del radioinmunoensayo (RIA, 1959) – Solomon Bergson (MD). ! … my course work in physics [at Hunter] had been minimal for a major – less! than that of the other first year graduate students. Therefore at Illinois I sat in on two undergraduate courses without credit, took three graduate courses and was a half-time assistant teaching the freshman course in physics.! AUXILIAR DOCENTE! (I) Like nearly all first-year teaching assistants, I had never taught before - but unlike the others I also undertook to observe in the classroom of a young instructor with an excellent reputation so that I could learn how it should be done.! JEFE DE GRUPO! (II) In the training in my laboratory the emphasis has been not only in learning our research techniques but also our philosophy. I have never aspired to have, nor do I now want, a laboratory or a cadre of investigators-in-training which is more extensive than I can personally interact with and supervise.!!
  11. 11. Rudolf Mössbauer (1929-2011)!! “Explain it!” ! “The most important thing is, that you are able to explain it! You will have exams, there you have to explain it. Eventually, you pass them, you get your diploma and you think, that's it! – No, the whole life is an exam, you'll have to write applications, you'll have to discuss with peers... So learn to explain it! You can train this by explaining to another student, a colleague. If they are not available, explain it to your mother – or to your cat!”!
  12. 12. Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932-2007)! Cómo seleccionar un tema de investigación y cuándo cambiarlo!! Nunca solo: prioridad personal crear grupos de teóricos y experimentales.! Ciencia pequeña, bajo costo:1961-1965 superconductividad metales: aleaciones Pb-Sn y luego, Nb-Sn (pero costoso)! - Difracción neutrones ! - Superconductividad! - Cristales líquidos! - Polímeros! - Fenómenos! interfaciales! 2004: 72 años! - Física biológica:! Neuronas, memoria ! y cáncer.! 2007! “I get accused of hopping from one subject to another. Other people spend 20 years on the same problem. Both approaches are necessary.”!
  13. 13. Paul Andre Maurice Dirac (1902-1984)! Graduado en ingeniería (eléctrica)! Yes. I think that this engineering education has influenced me very much in making me learn to tolerate approximations. My natural feelings were to think that only an exact theory would be worth considering. Now, engineers always have to make approximations. I learned that even a theory based on approximations could be a beautiful theory. I rather got to the idea that everything in nature was only approximate, and that one had to be satisfied with approximations, and that science would develop through getting continually more and more accurate approximations, but would never attain complete exactness. I got that point of view through my engineering training, which I think has influenced me very much. As a result of that I haven’t been much interested in questions of mathematical logic or any attempts to form an absolute measure of accuracy, an absolute standard of reasoning. I feel that these things are just not important, that the study of nature through getting ever, improving approximations is the profitable line of procedure.!! Dirac en entrevista con! Thomas S. Kuhn! para APS! Oral History.!
  14. 14. Paul Andre Maurice Dirac (1902-1984)! Graduado en ingeniería (eléctrica)! Diferentes estilos de aprender! I think all the time I picked up my mathematics more by working by myself than from lectures. I don’t seem to be able to pick things up very much from a lecture because I like to jump forward and jump back again and jump forward and back, continually. One can’t very well do that if one is listening to an ordered presentation like a lecture. ! When I go to lectures I usually just get stimulated to think on certain lines, and then maybe I think along those lines myself instead of listening to every word the lecturer says. I perhaps miss a good deal of the lecture for that reason and have to make it up later in my own reading or something. But all my learning in mathematics has been rather along those lines. And it still is like that.!! Dirac en entrevista con! Thomas S. Kuhn! para APS! Oral History.!
  15. 15. Murray Gell-Mann (1929-)! ¿Qué materias (además de física y matemáticas) estudió en Yale una persona como el físico y Premio Nobel Murray Gell-Mann.!! La formación de un físico! Alma Mater: Yale University (B. Sc., 1948)!! ! ! MIT (Ph. D., 1952)! Cursos: Ornitología, Arqueología, Historia (incluyendo la Historia Constitucional Británica), Lingüística, Biología y Bacteriología, Filosofía y Física (con Henry Margenau) y, en el pregrado, tomó cursos del posgrado en física y matemáticas.! Ciencia Ficción: aprende las ideas de antimateria y neutrinos (no enseñadas en el curriculum)!
  16. 16. Gribov (1930-1997) y su círculo!! ! Leningrado! Años 1960s! Physico-TechnicalInstitute(PTI)! AcademyofSciencesoftheUSSR! Ioffe PTI! 1971:NuclearPhysicsInstitute! Universidad de Leningrado,1952 ! Yuri Dokshitzer: [Gribov] had a profound knowledge and skill in using mathematical methods in physics. However…what mattered most was…“a picture.” He would approach the problem from different angles, abstracting its essential features and illustrating them with the help of simplified models and analogues from different branches of physics.! Física de partículas y teoría de campo: Teoría Regge !
  17. 17. Gribov (1930-1997) y su círculo! Karen Ter- Martirossian, Gerasim Eliashberg, L. E. Gurevich, ! I. Ya. Pomeranchuk, Boris Altshuler!! ! Leningrado! Años 1960s! Physico-TechnicalInstitute(PTI)! AcademyofSciencesoftheUSSR! Ioffe PTI! 1971:NuclearPhysicsInstitute! Universidad de Leningrado,1953 ! Yet salaries stagnated under Khrushchev, and an average physicist in the seventies earned less than the bus driver that took him to his institute. Families of physicists, like everyone else, spent considerable energy in order to satisfy their basic needs, not to mention obtaining luxuries!
  18. 18. Gribov (1930-1997) y su círculo!! ! Leningrado! Años 1960s! Universidad de Leningrado,1953 ! created ethical norms, lifestyles, and discourses that were different from the Soviet mainstream. On the outside, they adapted to the logics of ideological license and of the economy of scarcity, but inside of the community, that logic was ridiculed and its adherents ostracized. There the ruling values were those of the disinterested intellectual, of the context independent beauty of the physical world, and of the egalitarian community of an intellectual elite.!
  19. 19. Gribov (1930-1997) y su círculo! Physics was for them far more than a profession: it was a vocation and a way of life. When they were not at the institute, the theoreticians worked at home, thinking, smoking, and talking: “making physics,” as Gribov’s second wife Julia Nyiri, herself a physicist, called it. Summer and winter schools of theoretical physics were orgies of undiluted physics-making.! The physicists of the group ....neither lived in ivory towers nor were willing accomplices in the state’s nuclear project. Instead they created a non-state social space in which lifestyle and values were substantially influenced by their belief in physical truth.! Crearon un espacio social –valores y estilo de vida– influidos por su creencia en la física y la verdad de la ciencia !
  20. 20. Gribov (1930-1997) y su círculo! RECUENTO DE UN SEMINARIO DE GRIBOV! There are some ten (10) people and someone is talking, and I even understand what he is saying. Suddenly a man with black hair and a sharp narrow face jumps up and says something, and I see that I understand nothing. I am even a bit irritated: everything has been fine, why did he have to jump up! Suddenly a second man…jumps up, a bit older and starts arguing…Volodia [Gribov] and Karen [Ter- Martirossian]. After this a total mess sets in. ! The presenter disappears, Volodia and Karen shout at each other, pick up pieces of chalk, write something. At the end, Volodia is left alone at the blackboard, explaining something.… I have understood nothing of the whole thing…so I go home.!
  21. 21. Phillip Morse (1903-1985), V. M. Kenkre (Profesor de Física en la University of New Mexico) y Guillermo Ruggeri (1943-2002). ! Científicos normales: buenos y dedicados  
  22. 22. Phillip McCord Morse (1903-1985) ! “I could act as a scout, looking over many areas, choosing those that appeared most promising at the time, bringing to bear research techniques that had been developed in other areas. I could call the attention of others to the potentials of the new area, could help skim the cream of research, and could persuade students to explore further.! This skill was not the sort of deep-thinking ability that wins prizes and fame, but it was more in line with my urge to explore and my new-found enjoyment in teaching. And, to be honest, the greatest achievements were outside my capabilities. I liked what I was doing; that was the important thing.”! “It was clear to me that I was no Einstein.”   “I could grasp the essence of a new theory quickly and could take effective part in exploring its ramifications. But I wasn’t the one to make the initial breakthrough. This realization cam slowly enough to cushion disappointment. There were enough other interesting things to do.”! BSc, 1926, Case School of Applied Science; PhD, 1929, Princeton University. Junto con Herman Feshbach (1917-2000) es autor del famoso texto: Methods of Theoretical Physics, 1953. Autor de Vibration and Sound y pionero de la Investigación de Operaciones. Primer director del Brookhaven National Laboratory. ! Tomado de In at the Beginnings: A Physicist’s Life, MIT Press, 1977 p. 137!
  23. 23. To be blessed with a sharp focus in life is given to only a few in this world. I am not one of them. This allows me to do only 'sketches' rather than finished perfections in whatever I undertake. Clearly, this is unfortunate. It is also fortunate: I am freed of the need to concentrate. I can hang loose and dip into that which pleases at a given moment.! When I prepare a lecture, I talk to myself. I go for long walks where no one can hear me or see me mouthing my oratory. The spontaneity helps and the thoughts form themselves into a structure that is loosely held in memory. Typically two such attempts are sufficient. The first to form the lecture, the second to time it. ! Prof. V. M. Kenkre! Cómo prepararse para dar conferencias!!
  24. 24. I recall a comment made by a physicist colleague many years ago that a quality lacking in today’s graduate students was the ability to stay on the job until the carpet was woven completely. This chance remark has stayed with me over the years.! My profession at the university demands that I train graduate students to become practicing physicists. To be a good practicing physicist requires a multitude of qualities, tendencies, and skills, as I am sure to be a good practicing individual in any field of endeavor does. There is devotion to the subject, basic intelligence, curiosity, careful observation, intellectual honesty, creativity, and hard work. ! But there is one more with which I have always had trouble in my own development: refusal to be content with small achievements. The subtlety of the situation arises from the fact that the ability to be content with small achievements is also an important prerequisite to success as a practicing physicist. If one is always seeking after the grandiose, deep frustrations descend, in no time engulfing the individual in depression. One must learn to enjoy the little berries one picks in the field even as one prepares to hunt big game. What makes this whole business of training oneself or one’s students fascinating is that side by side with developing contentment with small achievements one must develop dissatisfaction with them. It is subtle. The contentment must come from their being achievements, however small. The dissatisfaction from their being small, even though they are achievements. One must enjoy every little joke but must not stop until the entire story is written. One must derive contentment from every little integral that is evaluated but not stop until the entire theory is constructed.!! Carpet Weaving! V. M. Kenkre!
  25. 25. Primera Publicación! Siendo estudiante del 8vo semestre de la Lic. en Física.! Guillermo Ruggeri! (1943-2002)! Lic. en Física, UCV, 1965 ! Ph.D, Universidad de! Birmingham, 1978.!