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P4C and Mindset


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Slides used by Bosse Larsson and James Nottingham in Varberg, Sweden on 3rd Nov 2011

Published in: Education, Technology
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P4C and Mindset

  1. 1. P4C & Mindset Bosse Larsson James Nottingham
  2. 2. “Some men are born great, some achieve greatness and others have greatness thrust upon them” Malvolio, Twelfth Night
  3. 3. Francis Galton was the first to use the term “Nature vs. Nurture” In 1854, he published an article exploring whether social behaviour was a result of genetics or environment (eg. are criminals born or created?) Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin Nature vs Nurture
  4. 4. What has made these two people successful? Oscar Pistorius Usain Bolt
  5. 5. Did they develop their genius or were they born with it? Leonardo da Vinci Steve Jobs
  6. 6. Their writing talent – innate or incremental? Joanne Kathleen Rowling Astrid Lindgren
  7. 7. Bobby Charlton – “the most gifted player of a generation” ? Bobby’s uncles All professional footballers • Jack (Leeds & Bradford) • George (Leeds & Chesterfield) • Jim (Leeds & Bradford) • Stan (Chesterfield & Leicester) Mother’s (Cisse) cousin Wor Jackie Milburn 177 goals NUFC, 10 England
  8. 8. Mozart – a child prodigy?
  9. 9. Once upon a time, there were three babies
  10. 10. By the time they start school Some children start school knowing 6,000 words. Others, just 500 words. Source: BBC 2009 magazine/8013859.stm
  11. 11. Number of words heard by children A child in a welfare-dependent family hears on average 616 words an hour A child in a working-class home hears on average 1,251 words an hour A child in a professional home hears on average 2,153 words an hour Number of words spoken by the time children are 3 500 700 1100 Hart & Risley, 1995
  12. 12. But in school, we use terms such as … Gifted, Bright Average Special Needs
  13. 13. Can we predict intelligence?
  14. 14. Intelligence – nature or nurture? Alfred Binet 1857 - 1911 In 1904, the French government asked Binet to create a mechanism for identifying students in need of alternative education Binet created a scale of 30 tasks for 6 – 14 year olds, ranging from easy to complex ones He stated his test showed what a child had learnt to that point, and nothing else
  15. 15. Self-fulfilling prophecies
  16. 16. Why does it matter where we think intelligence comes from?
  17. 17. Dweck identifies different attitudes to learning based on Mindset People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nature have a ‘fixed’ mindset Professor Carol Dweck, Stanford People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nurture have a ‘growth’ mindset
  18. 18. Fixed Mindset Intelligence and ability are fixed Nature determines talents I am naturally good at some things I’ll always struggle with some things My priorities o Prove myself o Succeed easily o Avoid failure of any sort My mottos o No pain, no pain o Only stupid people have to try o Effortlessly superior Growth Mindset Intelligence and ability can grow Nurture determines abilities I have developed my talents Potential is there to be realised My priorities o Improve myself o Take challenges o Learn from my mistakes My mottos o No pain, no gain o Learners always try hard o There’s always room to improve Carol Dweck’s theory of Fixed & Growth Mindsets
  19. 19. 535 Columbia University (NY) students, aged 18 to 35 were given a test Their brains were scanned as they took the test Mangels, Butterfield, Lamb, Good & Dweck, 2006 These beliefs dramatically affect behaviour
  20. 20. Question: What is the capital of Australia? Student types his or her answer Student rates their confidence on a 7- point scale (1: sure wrong; 7: sure right) 2.5 secs 2.5 secs Answer (for 2 secs) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  21. 21. Proportion corrected at (surprise) re-test
  22. 22. We should focus on progress, not rank order 92 85 73 64 43 32 90 86 78 70 41 35 90 85 84 78 40 34
  23. 23. Rewards, rewards, rewards 10/10
  24. 24. Praise that discourages pupils getting in the pit Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician Bright boy Top of the class! By far the best
  25. 25. Mueller and Dweck, 1998 In six studies, 7th grade students were given a series of nonverbal IQ tests. The effects of different types of praise
  26. 26. Intelligence praise “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.” Process praise “Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried really hard.” Control-group praise “Wow, that’s a really good score.” Mueller and Dweck, 1998
  27. 27. 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 Trial 1 Trial 3 Effort Praise Control Praise Intelligence Praise Number of problems solved on a 3rd test
  28. 28. Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls
  29. 29. 1. Duktig flicka; 2. Extremt bra; 3. Bra jobbat; 4. Enstående insats; 5. Vilken matematiker du är; 6.Otroligt jobb; 7.Du är ett geni; 8.Du utvecklas; 9.Smart kille; 10.Du borde vara stolt; 11.Du har det; 12.Du är unik; 13. Mycket begåvat; 14. Du överträffar dig själv; 15. Du lyssnar på ett bra sätt; 16. Du kämpade dig igenom; 17.Du är mycket musikalisk; 18.Fortsätt med det goda jobbet; 19.Det är allt jag hoppats du skulle göra; 20.Perfekt; 21.MVG+arbete; 22.Du är en stjärna; 23.Bra att du arbetat med en svår uppgift; 24. Du är #1; 25. Du tar bra ansvar; 26. Du har talang; 27.Spektakulärt; 28. Bra val av strategi 29.Du är fantastisk; 30.What a great idea; 31.Väl genomarbetat; 32.Myckat tankvärt; 33.Du listade ut det till slut; 34.Bäst I klassen; 35. Du får mig att bli glad
  30. 30. How philosophical are you? 10 0
  31. 31. The aim of a thinking skills programme such as P4C is not to turn children into philosophers but to help them become more thoughtful, more reflective, more considerate and more reason-able individuals P4C – Created by Matthew Lipman
  32. 32. Children are natural philosophers However … this doesn’t mean adults are able to spot when they are being philosophical and when they’re just being cute!
  33. 33. Not all of our questions answered … … but all of our answers questioned
  34. 34. Example question stems What is (difference different from?) What if (everyone was extraordinary?) Always/never (know?) How do we know (what love is?) Why do we (say young people don’t know what love is?) What is the difference (between ordinary & extraordinary?) Is it possible (to always be happy?) When (is happiness a bad thing?) Who (decides what the natural way is?) Can we (ever know for sure?)
  35. 35. Colliding concepts Truth and Opinion Biodegradable and Reusable Hero and Villain Happy and Content Dreams and Daydreams Decision and Order Child and Youth Lies and Make-believe Toys and Books Karma and Revenge
  36. 36. If A = B then Does B = A? Friend Trust Trust Friend For example … Wobblers (If A = B)
  37. 37. How philosophical are you? 10 0