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Entrepreneurial Spirit, Belfast


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Slides used by James Nottingham and Stefan Lindstrom on Tuesday 21st June at the International Conference on Thinking (ICOT) in Belfast

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Entrepreneurial Spirit, Belfast

  1. 1. Entrepreneurial Spiritwhere education meets business<br />James Nottingham Stefan Lindström<br />
  2. 2. The Nature vs. Nurture argument<br />Francis Galton was the first to raise the argument when he published an article discussing the the influence of heredity and environment on social advancement.<br />Galton was a cousin of Charles Darwin<br />
  3. 3. Genetics plays a role, but how much of one?<br />
  4. 4. There are varying degrees of heritability<br />High<br />Eye colour and blood type<br />Medium<br />Weight <br />Low<br />Specific language<br />
  5. 5. How hereditary is intelligence?<br />Alfred Binet<br />1857 - 1911<br />
  6. 6. The origins of the IQ test<br />In 1904, Alfred Binet was asked by the French government to create a mechanism for identifying students in need of alternative education. <br />Binet created a scale of 30 tasks for 6 – 14 year olds, ranging from easy to complex ones.<br />He was forthright about the limitations of his scale, stressing that intellectual development progressed at variable rates and was heavily influenced by nurture. <br />Binet clearly stated that the IQ scale reflected intelligence that is malleable rather than fixed.<br />
  7. 7. The misuse of IQ<br />In 1908, H.H. Goddard, translated Binet’s scale into English. However, as a champion of the eugenics movement, he changed the focus of the scale to suit his own beliefs.<br />Lewis Terman then took the scale, standardized it using a large US sample, and from that created the first Stanford-Binet scale – the basis for the modern IQ test. <br />With it was published the following objective: "curtailing the reproduction of feeble-mindedness and in the elimination of an enormous amount of crime, pauperism, and industrial inefficiency” (Terman, Lyman, et al, 1916)<br />
  8. 8. What matters is what you believe about intelligence<br />People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nature have a ‘fixed’ mindset<br />People who believe intelligence comes mainly from nurture have a ‘growth’ mindset<br />Professor Carol Dweck, Stanford<br />
  9. 9. Fixed vs Growth Mindsets<br />Growth<br />Intelligence is incremental<br />I’ve developed talents<br />My abilities change over time for better or worse<br />I can learn pretty much anything I put my mind to<br />Fixed<br />Intelligence is innate<br />I have gifts<br />I’ll always be good at certain things<br />I’ll never be good at other things<br />
  10. 10. What difference does mindset make?<br />
  11. 11. The French don’t know the meaning of the word ‘entrepreneur’<br />
  12. 12.
  13. 13. Evelyn Glennie – Growth Mindset ?<br />
  14. 14. Sting – Fixed Mindset ?<br />
  15. 15. Entrepreneurial minds – born or created? <br />
  16. 16. Number of children per family, Sweden 2004<br />One child families 19%<br />Two children 47%<br />Three children 24%<br />Four children 7%<br />Five children 2%<br />Six or more 1%<br />
  17. 17. Entrepreneurial archetypes<br />Starter (drive, impulsive, intuitive) <br />Professional (all-rounder, analytical, long-term)<br />Serial entrepreneur (intuitive, extrovert, timing)<br />Innovator (feeling & thinking, details) <br />Lifestyle (independent, sentimental) <br />Workstyle (party with themselves) <br />
  18. 18. Are schools built on fixed or growth mindsets?<br />
  19. 19. Rewards and assessments <br />10/10<br />
  20. 20. Spelling tests that focus on learning<br />Thinking<br />Wondering<br />Decision<br />Understanding<br />Reflection<br />Knowledge<br />Argument<br />Opinion<br />Conclusion<br />Justification<br />Pre-test; Marks Out of 10<br />7, 8, 9 or 10<br />New Set of Spellings<br />4, 5, or 6<br />Correct Set<br />0, 1, 2 or 3<br />Additional coaching<br />169<br />
  21. 21. My name is Stuart and I sit in the …<br />Special Needs Cupboard<br />