Enriching Learning & Success                           “Progress is                        impossible without             ...
The impact of “fixed” & “growth” mindsets                           Our praise often                         teaches pupil...
Our “mindset” affects our response to theories                               I wish teachers had                          ...
Focus on learning, not grades“Pupils show greater motivation, are betterbehaved and are more likely to beindependent and s...
Focus on learning, not grades“Pupils show greater motivation, are betterbehaved and are more likely to beindependent and s...
Contact Detailswww.jamesnottingham.co.ukjames@p4c.comwww.challenginglearning.com
Almost Everything Works95% of all things we do have a positiveachievement on educationWhen teachers claim they are having ...
Effects on Achievement (Hattie, 2009)
Effects on Achievement (Hattie, 2009)
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback                 Ability groupingComputers              Staff-student relations...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability groupingComputers              Staff-student relationshi...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability groupingComputers              Staff-student relationshi...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability groupingComputers              Staff-student relationshi...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers              Staff-student relati...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers              Staff-student relati...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers            8          Staff-stude...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers            8          Staff-stude...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers            8          Staff-stude...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback               Ability grouping   10Computers            8                     ...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback   4           Ability grouping   10Computers            8                     ...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback   4           Ability grouping   10Computers            8                     ...
What Makes the Most Difference?    Feedback   4           Ability grouping   10Computers            8                     ...
Carol Dweckwww.carol-dweck.co.uk
The effects of different types of praiseMueller and Dweck, 1998In six studies, 7th gradestudents were given a seriesof non...
Mueller and Dweck, 1998Intelligence praise“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”Process praise“Wow,...
Number of problems solved on a 3rd test6.5! 6!                                      Effort Praise!5.5!                    ...
Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls
Number of children who lied about their score0.4!0.3!0.2!0.1! 0!       Intelligence!    Control!        Effort!
Feedback is a major influence on learningInfluence                            Effect Size   Domain (1) Self-report grades...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
The impact of different types of assessment  Group       Feedback    Pre‐Post
Gain    A5tudes    A        Comments        ...
Feedback is …
Feedback is …Ready
Feedback is …ReadyFire
Feedback is …ReadyFireAim
FeedbackFeedback is one of the most powerfulinfluences on learning IF it:   Relates to clear and specific goals   Stimul...
Fixed Mindset: some of us are born with big brains
Fixed: nature determines what we’re good at
Chart showing Bolt’s progress since 2001
Only so much time in the day
Fixed vs Growth Mindsets
Fixed vs Growth MindsetsIntelligence is fixedPriority: Look smartFeel smart by achievinglow effort success andoutperformin...
Fixed vs Growth MindsetsIntelligence is fixed        Intelligence can be grownPriority: Look smart         Priority: Becom...
Mindset does not deny the influence of genetics
Evelyn
Glennie
–
Growth
Mindset
?
SBng
–
Fixed
Mindset
?
Alfred Binet, creator of the IQ test                                Alfred Binet                                1857 - 1911
Self-fulfilling prophecies
Spellings tests: the work of the devil
Can
we
reward
progress
instead?
Grades that focus on learning                                16                                  9
Grades that focus on learningThinkingWonderingDecisionUnderstandingReflectionKnowledgeArgumentOpinionConclusion           ...
Grades that focus on learningThinking             Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecisionUnderstandingReflectionKnowled...
Grades that focus on learningThinking             Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision             7, 8, 9 or 10Unde...
Grades that focus on learningThinking             Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision             7, 8, 9 or 10Unde...
Grades that focus on learningThinking             Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision             7, 8, 9 or 10Unde...
By the time they start school
By the time they start school                                Some children                                start school    ...
By the time they start school                                Some children                                start school    ...
Praise that gets in the way of learning
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!                                   G...
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!                                   G...
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!                                   G...
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!                                   G...
Praise that gets in the way of learning                                   Clever girl!                                   G...
The Learning Challenge                         1. Concept  Clarity                         2. Conflict  Confusion         ...
The Learning Challenge                            1. Concept  Clarity                            2. Conflict              ...
The Learning Challenge                            1. Concept  Clarity                            2. Conflict              ...
A selection of thinking skillsANALYSE       DESCRIBE        GROUP         RESPONDANTICIPATE    DETERMINE       HYPOTHESISE...
What if these two are in your class?                            Lynx and Lamb are the twin daughters of                   ...
Kriticos = able to make judgments                      Critical Thinking                      Comes from the Greek,       ...
Nursery Concept - Names
Rules & Roles of P4CNot all of our questionsanswered …                           ?… but all of our answersquestioned      ...
Year 5 P4C: Your Granny or Your Goldfish?Filmed by Channel 4 in 1999. Video at: www.p4c.com/video-clips
Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C
Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C    I know it’s     wrong to       steal
Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C    I know it’s     wrong to       steal
Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C                               But then why    I know it’s                 was Robin     w...
Concept - Tourism                    22                      2
Eureka moments come from challenge                                     1. Concept  Clarity                                ...
Eureka moments come from challenge                               3                                     1. Concept  Clarity...
Eureka moments come from challenge                                      Eur eka!                               3          ...
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)                      96
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)            If A = B then                            96
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)            If A = B then                            96
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)            If A = B then            Does B = A?                            96
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)             Friend            If A = B then            Does B = A?                            96
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)             Friend   Trust            If A = B then            Does B = A?                            ...
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)             Friend      Trust            If A = B then            Does B = A?                      Tru...
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)             Friend      Trust            If A = B then            Does B = A?                      Tru...
Wobblers
(If
A
=
B)             Friend      Trust            If A = B then            Does B = A?                      Tru...
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)                         98
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)            If A = B then                            98
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)            If A = B then                            98
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?                            98
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)             Real            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?                            98
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)             Real        See
It            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?                    ...
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)             Real        See
It            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?             Can’t
S...
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)             Real        See
It            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?             Can’t
S...
Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?)             Real        See
It            If A = B then  If it’s NOT B = NOT A?             Can’t
S...
Dunstanburgh Castle, Northumberland
Contact Detailswww.jamesnottingham.co.ukjames@p4c.comwww.challenginglearning.com
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Challenging Learning, Birmingham
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Challenging Learning, Birmingham

934 views

Published on

Slides used at Paragon Hotel, Birmingham on 28th Feb 2011

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
934
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
47
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • Challenging Learning, Birmingham

    1. 1. Enriching Learning & Success “Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.” George Bernard Shaw (1856 – 1950) www.jamesnottingham.co.uk
    2. 2. The impact of “fixed” & “growth” mindsets Our praise often teaches pupils that easy success means they are intelligent and, 

















 by implication, that errors and effort mean they are not. Prof Carol Dweck, Mindset
    3. 3. Our “mindset” affects our response to theories I wish teachers had never heard my theory – they’re all 

















 obsessed with categorizing kids! Prof Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences
    4. 4. Focus on learning, not grades“Pupils show greater motivation, are betterbehaved and are more likely to beindependent and strategic thinkers whenteachers are not obsessed by grades.”Chris Watkins, Institute of Education, Aug 2010From an analysis of 100 international studies on how children learn
    5. 5. Focus on learning, not grades“Pupils show greater motivation, are betterbehaved and are more likely to beindependent and strategic thinkers whenteachers are not obsessed by grades.”“If there is one new thing we need in ourschool system right now, it is a well-developed focus on learning.”Chris Watkins, Institute of Education, Aug 2010From an analysis of 100 international studies on how children learn
    6. 6. Contact Detailswww.jamesnottingham.co.ukjames@p4c.comwww.challenginglearning.com
    7. 7. Almost Everything Works95% of all things we do have a positiveachievement on educationWhen teachers claim they are having apositive effect on achievement or when apolicy improves achievement, this is almosta trivial claim: virtually everything worksTeachers average an effect of between 0.20and 0.40 per year on student achievementSchools should be seeking greater than0.40 for their achievement gains to beconsidered above average ... and greaterthan 0.60 to be considered outstanding
    8. 8. Effects on Achievement (Hattie, 2009)
    9. 9. Effects on Achievement (Hattie, 2009)
    10. 10. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability groupingComputers Staff-student relationships Student choice Challenging tasks Class size Self-belief of studentsStaff Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    11. 11. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability groupingComputers Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice Challenging tasks Class size Self-belief of studentsSubject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    12. 12. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability groupingComputers Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size Self-belief of studentsSubject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    13. 13. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability groupingComputers Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size Self-belief of studentsSubject knowledge 11 High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    14. 14. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size Self-belief of studentsSubject knowledge 11 High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    15. 15. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    16. 16. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers 8 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement Creative curriculum
    17. 17. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers 8 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum
    18. 18. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers 8 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum 6
    19. 19. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback Ability grouping 10Computers 8 5 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum 6
    20. 20. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback 4 Ability grouping 10Computers 8 5 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum 6
    21. 21. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback 4 Ability grouping 10Computers 8 5 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 3 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum 6
    22. 22. What Makes the Most Difference? Feedback 4 Ability grouping 10Computers 8 5 Staff-student relationshipsStudent choice 12 3 Challenging tasks Class size 9 Self-belief of students 1= 11Subject knowledge High expectationsParental involvement 7 Creative curriculum 6
    23. 23. Carol Dweckwww.carol-dweck.co.uk
    24. 24. The effects of different types of praiseMueller and Dweck, 1998In six studies, 7th gradestudents were given a seriesof nonverbal IQ tests.First set of problems werechallenging but well withintheir rangeAfter their success, childrenreceived one of three formsof praise Intelligence praise Process praise Control-group praise
    25. 25. Mueller and Dweck, 1998Intelligence praise“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must be smart at this.”Process praise“Wow, that’s a really good score. You must have tried reallyhard.”Control-group praise“Wow, that’s a really good score.”
    26. 26. Number of problems solved on a 3rd test6.5! 6! Effort Praise!5.5! Control Praise! 5! Intelligence Praise!4.5! Trial 1! Trial 3!
    27. 27. Boys get 8 times more criticism than girls
    28. 28. Number of children who lied about their score0.4!0.3!0.2!0.1! 0! Intelligence! Control! Effort!
    29. 29. Feedback is a major influence on learningInfluence Effect Size Domain (1) Self-report grades 1.44 Student (2) Piagetian programs 1.28 Student (3) Formative evaluation 0.90 Teaching (4) Micro teaching 0.88 Teacher (5) Acceleration 0.88 School (6) Classroom behavioural 0.80 School (7) Interventions for SEN 0.77 Teaching (8) Teacher clarity 0.75 Teacher (9) Reciprocal teaching 0.74 Teaching (10) Feedback 0.73 Teaching (11) Staff-student relationships 0.72 Staff (12) Spaced vs. mass practice 0.71 Teaching
    30. 30. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments only B Marks only C Marks and comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    31. 31. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain only B Marks only C Marks and comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    32. 32. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain only B Marks only No gain C Marks and comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    33. 33. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain only B Marks only No gain C Marks and No gain comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    34. 34. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain Positive only B Marks only No gain C Marks and No gain comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    35. 35. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain Positive only B Marks only No gain Top 25% + Bottom 25% - C Marks and No gain comments 18 Butler (1997) 5
    36. 36. The impact of different types of assessment Group Feedback Pre‐Post
Gain A5tudes A Comments 30% gain Positive only B Marks only No gain Top 25% + Bottom 25% - C Marks and No gain Top 25% + comments Bottom 25% - 18 Butler (1997) 5
    37. 37. Feedback is …
    38. 38. Feedback is …Ready
    39. 39. Feedback is …ReadyFire
    40. 40. Feedback is …ReadyFireAim
    41. 41. FeedbackFeedback is one of the most powerfulinfluences on learning IF it:  Relates to clear and specific goals  Stimulates a thoughtful, proactive response on the part of the learner  Allows for learning from mistakes 8
    42. 42. Fixed Mindset: some of us are born with big brains
    43. 43. Fixed: nature determines what we’re good at
    44. 44. Chart showing Bolt’s progress since 2001
    45. 45. Only so much time in the day
    46. 46. Fixed vs Growth Mindsets
    47. 47. Fixed vs Growth MindsetsIntelligence is fixedPriority: Look smartFeel smart by achievinglow effort success andoutperforming othersYou avoid: higher-performing peers,difficulty and setbacks
    48. 48. Fixed vs Growth MindsetsIntelligence is fixed Intelligence can be grownPriority: Look smart Priority: Become smarterFeel smart by achieving Feel Smart by engaginglow effort success and fully, exerting effort,outperforming others stretching skillsYou avoid: higher- You avoid: Easy, previouslyperforming peers, mastered tasks, or lowdifficulty and setbacks level challenge
    49. 49. Mindset does not deny the influence of genetics
    50. 50. Evelyn
Glennie
–
Growth
Mindset
?
    51. 51. SBng
–
Fixed
Mindset
?
    52. 52. Alfred Binet, creator of the IQ test Alfred Binet 1857 - 1911
    53. 53. Self-fulfilling prophecies
    54. 54. Spellings tests: the work of the devil
    55. 55. Can
we
reward
progress
instead?
    56. 56. Grades that focus on learning 16 9
    57. 57. Grades that focus on learningThinkingWonderingDecisionUnderstandingReflectionKnowledgeArgumentOpinionConclusion 16Justification 9
    58. 58. Grades that focus on learningThinking Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecisionUnderstandingReflectionKnowledgeArgumentOpinionConclusion 16Justification 9
    59. 59. Grades that focus on learningThinking Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision 7, 8, 9 or 10Understanding New Set of SpellingsReflectionKnowledgeArgumentOpinionConclusion 16Justification 9
    60. 60. Grades that focus on learningThinking Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision 7, 8, 9 or 10Understanding New Set of SpellingsReflectionKnowledge 4, 5, or 6Argument Correct SetOpinionConclusion 16Justification 9
    61. 61. Grades that focus on learningThinking Pre-test; Marks Out of 10WonderingDecision 7, 8, 9 or 10Understanding New Set of SpellingsReflectionKnowledge 4, 5, or 6Argument Correct SetOpinionConclusion 0, 1, 2 or 3Justification Additional coaching 16 9
    62. 62. By the time they start school
    63. 63. By the time they start school Some children start school knowing 6,000 words.
    64. 64. By the time they start school Some children start school knowing 6,000 words. Others, just 500 words. Source: BBC 2009 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ magazine/8013859.stm
    65. 65. Praise that gets in the way of learning
    66. 66. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl!
    67. 67. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl! Gifted musician
    68. 68. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician
    69. 69. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician Bright boy
    70. 70. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician Bright boy Top of the class!
    71. 71. Praise that gets in the way of learning Clever girl! Gifted musician Brilliant mathematician Bright boy Top of the class! By far the best
    72. 72. The Learning Challenge 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict Confusion The Pit 18 8
    73. 73. The Learning Challenge 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict 1 Confusion The Pit 18 8
    74. 74. The Learning Challenge 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict 1 Confusion 2 The Pit 18 8
    75. 75. A selection of thinking skillsANALYSE DESCRIBE GROUP RESPONDANTICIPATE DETERMINE HYPOTHESISE SEQUENCEAPPLY DISCUSS IDENTIFY SIMPLIFYCAUSAL-LINK ELABORATE INFER SHOW HOWCHOOSE ESTIMATE INTERPRET SOLVECLASSIFY EVALUATE ORGANISE SORTCOMPARE EXEMPLIFY PARAPHRASE SUMMARISECONNECT EXPLORE PREDICT SUPPORTCONTRAST GENERALISE QUESTION TESTDECIDE GIVE EXAMPLES RANK VERIFYDEFINE GIVE REASONS REPRESENT VISUALISE 13 7
    76. 76. What if these two are in your class? Lynx and Lamb are the twin daughters of April Gaede, an activist and writer for the white nationalist organization National Vanguard. The twins grandfather wears a swastika belt buckle and uses the Nazi symbol on his truck The twins believe Adolf Hitler was a great man with good ideas, such as incentives to improve the genetic quality of the German people, and marriage loans to help qualified German families In 2003, they were featured in a Louis Theroux BBC documentary, entitled Louis and the Nazis, on anti-semitism and white supremacy in the United States Source: Wikipedia PRUSSIAN BLUE
    77. 77. Kriticos = able to make judgments Critical Thinking Comes from the Greek, Kriticos Meaning: able to make judgments Source: www.etymonline.com
    78. 78. Nursery Concept - Names
    79. 79. Rules & Roles of P4CNot all of our questionsanswered … ?… but all of our answersquestioned 21
    80. 80. Year 5 P4C: Your Granny or Your Goldfish?Filmed by Channel 4 in 1999. Video at: www.p4c.com/video-clips
    81. 81. Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C
    82. 82. Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C I know it’s wrong to steal
    83. 83. Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C I know it’s wrong to steal
    84. 84. Cognitive Conflict is Key to P4C But then why I know it’s was Robin wrong to Hood a hero? steal
    85. 85. Concept - Tourism 22 2
    86. 86. Eureka moments come from challenge 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict 1 3. Construct Confusion 2 The Pit 18 8
    87. 87. Eureka moments come from challenge 3 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict 1 3. Construct Confusion 2 The Pit 18 8
    88. 88. Eureka moments come from challenge Eur eka! 3 1. Concept Clarity 2. Conflict 1 3. Construct Confusion 2 The Pit 18 8
    89. 89. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) 96
    90. 90. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) If A = B then 96
    91. 91. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) If A = B then 96
    92. 92. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) If A = B then Does B = A? 96
    93. 93. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) Friend If A = B then Does B = A? 96
    94. 94. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? 96
    95. 95. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? Trust 96
    96. 96. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? Trust Friend 96
    97. 97. Wobblers
(If
A
=
B) Friend Trust If A = B then Does B = A? Trust Friend For
example
… 96
    98. 98. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) 98
    99. 99. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) If A = B then 98
    100. 100. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) If A = B then 98
    101. 101. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? 98
    102. 102. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) Real If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? 98
    103. 103. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) Real See
It If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? 98
    104. 104. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) Real See
It If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? Can’t
See
It 98
    105. 105. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) Real See
It If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? Can’t
See
It Not
Real? 98
    106. 106. Wobblers

(If
NOT
A
?) Real See
It If A = B then If it’s NOT B = NOT A? Can’t
See
It Not
Real? For
example
… 98
    107. 107. Dunstanburgh Castle, Northumberland
    108. 108. Contact Detailswww.jamesnottingham.co.ukjames@p4c.comwww.challenginglearning.com

    ×