• 1983-the public is introduced to cell phones.
• 1989- first flip phone
• 1993- text messaging is developed.
• 2002- first smart phone and camera phone is developed.(No
microphone or speakerphone, could only send and receive emails.)
• Cell phones now have endless capabilities, whether its accessing the web, video
chatting someone, or taking suggestion from your phone (siri).
• Its amazing to see how far the cellphone has come, from a 3lb brick to
something that can fit in the palm of your hand. Its hard to imagine where the
technology can go from here.
• By the time 2023 I think cell phones will replace the home computer. Every
phone will have the video talk feature and it will be the main means of
communications. I can also see cell phones braking away from their traditional
shape, maybe there will be a special eye piece the accompanies an ear piece
and the entire system will be voice controlled. Seeing the leaps and bounds
companies have made over the last 10 years, its endless to think of the things
we will have access to in the next 10 years.
Critical Mass Theory
• Requires innovators and early adopters willing to take the risk
of trying new technology.
• These users are the “critical mass,” small segment of
population that choose to make big contributions to the public
• Any social process involving actions by individuals that benefit
others is know as “collective action”.
• Technologies become more useful if everyone in the system is
using this technology, this is known as universal access.
Cell phones and The Critical Mass Theory
• Cell phone usage had its “critical mass” testing out this new technology.
• As more people were using cell phones others began to see the ease and
convenience of communication the popularity began to grow. With more people
using them companies had more money to invest in improving their products,
which allowed cell phones to improve. There’s a direct correlation in cell phone
popularity and the improvements.
• With these two growing together, cell phone usage shifted from select few to
the most common form of communication. Today there are billions of cell
• Since cell phone usage has grown to the proportion it has, cell phone
technology is forever growing and improving. Cell phones have grown from
large objects that are simply used for calling into handheld computers. You can
run your life and business from your cell phone. Seeing the improvements in
technology we have in the last 10 years its hard to picture what else they could
incorporate into these devices.
• By 2023 television will evolve to service our every
• Every television will be equipped with internet
• Having that access will allow users to talk, video
chat and access social media, all from their
• I believe there will be technology that allows a TV.
to project a 3D image so when you talk with
someone it will almost be like that person is with
• Just like cell phones televisions will soon
Be the only object needed to access the internet
And make calls. The home computer and phone.
• The amount of control one has of the T.V. will be limitless in 2023.
• I feel companies will stray away from the use of remote controls.
There will be voice activation and motion sensors that allow you to
interact with the television.
• You would be able to touch what things you want to click on.
• I think in the next 10 years cars will be used more for communication. Every car
will be equipped with internet access and a more interactive computer system.
• Cars computer system will not only take commands but will also be able to
relay information to you, for example reading text messages and emails,
allowing the driver to focus on driving.
• With internet access people can stay in touch with one another sending
messages via email, social media, and text.
• Cars now have started incorporating voice command features into its design,
• There are flaws. Those systems are not always user friendly and sometimes
has trouble recognizing the action your wanting it
• All of that will be eliminated by 2023.
Uses and Gratifications
• “Uses and Gratifications is a descriptive approach that give insight into
what people do with technology” (Grant 31)
• I feel this theory gives the best insights into how companies produce
communication products. By studying the uses individuals have for
technology you can decide what features to include into your products.
For example cars being equipped with a superior computer system and
internet access. People want to be able to access the web and stay
connected with friends so cars can give them those features.
• This theory will allow products to grow with its users. People want to
be able to access the internet, social media, emails, and talk with
others so majority of products in 2023 will have those features.
The Principal of Relative Constancy
• “Do people just keep adding new entertainment
media, or do they adjust by dropping one form for
another” (Grant, 33)
• This theory focuses on technology and how people
decide what form to use and when to jump from one
technology to another.
• “Is that new technology compelling enough to make
the user want to switch” (Grant, 33)
The Principle of Relative Constancy
• This theory is extremely important when deciding what
technology you want to spend your money on.
• As time progresses technology will change and people will
be struck with the decision to switch. When automobiles add
the new improvements, like computer system and internet
access, people will have to decide if its worth spending
money to purchase that technology.
• This theory will cause competition in the technology
industry and help advance technology into what it will be in
• I feel that as companies add new technology to their
products all products will soon start adding those features.
Pretty soon the only thing people will have to decide on is
what brand they want to purchase.
• People being what they are, everyone will purchase all of
the communication mediums just to have them. Regardless
if the television can access the web and serve that purpose,
they will still purchase that new car and fancy cell phone,
just to have the toys they want.
• Soft Schools (n.d.). Cell phone timeline. Retrieved from
• Meadows, J. H. (2012). Understanding communication
technology. In A. Grant & J. Meadows (Eds.), Communication
Technology Update and FundamentalsWaltham, Ma: Focal