Rediscovering discovery techniques 2011


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A presentation about using grammar discovery techniques including practice discovering grammar.

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Rediscovering discovery techniques 2011

  1. 1. Rediscovering Discovery Techniques JoAnn Miller Editorial Macmillan [email_address]
  2. 2. Deductive vs. Inductive <ul><li>Grammar may be approached in two main ways: </li></ul>Deductively Inductively --students given rule which they then practice --students work out rules for themselves --explicit --implicit
  3. 3. Personal experience
  4. 4. Discovery Techniques always usually sometimes never often 100% | | | | 0% Ken always comes early
  5. 5. Why let them explore.... <ul><li>capture and hold students’ attention--mystery </li></ul><ul><li>personal involvement in exploratory tasks helps them remember rules more easily </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical--show ways to approach unfamiliar grammatical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Independent work requirements--prove to students that they can recognize a rule by themselves </li></ul>Newman, Ela. Students in the Land of Grammar: The Use of Discovery Techniques.
  6. 6. Research <ul><li>Ellis (1984) Deductive teaching of question forms had little effect on learning of question forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou (1991) Deductive teaching helped with some forms (passive) but not others (tense and aspect) </li></ul><ul><li>Fotos (1994) Grammar consciousness raising activities in small groups successfully promoted proficiency gains. </li></ul><ul><li>Sysoyev (1999) Students preferred to learn L2 grammar using the EEE method (Exploration, Explanation, Expression) as opposed to form-based or meaning-based only approaches. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What can you do in class? <ul><li>Let the students play with the grammar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have students make rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relate structure to Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use charts for sentence patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed questions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Have students make rules <ul><li>In groups of 3 or 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Study the following extract. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the parts of the conversation in italics. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference between what A says and what B says? </li></ul><ul><li>When would you use one form, and when would you use the other? </li></ul><ul><li>Nunan, David. Second Language Teaching and Learning. Newbury House, 1999. Pp. 111-113) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>A: I've seen Romeo and Juliet twice. </li></ul><ul><li>B: Me too. I saw it last Tuesday, and again on the weekend. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Student responses (Chinese) Student A : A use present perfect because something happened in the past, but affecting things happening now. Student B : Present perfect tense is used only to describe a certain incidence in the past without describing the exact time of happening. However, it is necessary to describe the time of happening when using the simple past tense. A: I've seen Romeo and Juliet twice. B: Me too. I saw it last Tuesday, and again on the weekend.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Student C: Simple past is more past than ‘have seen.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Student E : A use present perfect to show how many times A has seen the film. B use simple past to show how much he love the film. </li></ul>Student D: We use present perfect tense when the action happen many times. B focus on actual date and use past. A: I've seen Romeo and Juliet twice. B: Me too. I saw it last Tuesday, and again on the weekend.
  12. 12. Let’s discover…Nahautl. Look at this data from Classical Nahautl. What rules can you make about: Personal pronouns: I, you, you (pl.), he, they Verb tenses: simple present, present progressive, past progressive, future Vocabulary: cry, sleep, sing
  13. 13. <ul><li>Answers: </li></ul><ul><li>Plural: </li></ul><ul><li>I you (pl) </li></ul><ul><li>we you </li></ul><ul><li>they he </li></ul><ul><li>simple present </li></ul><ul><li>present progressive </li></ul><ul><li>past progressive </li></ul><ul><li>future </li></ul><ul><li>cry sleep sing   </li></ul>Plural: h I: nicho: you (pl): anko / ancho : we: tiko / ticho: you: tiko they: kwi: / cho: he: kwi: / cho: simple present: verb present progressive: verb + ni past progressive: verb + ya Future: verb + s cry: ka sleep: chi sing: ka
  14. 14. Relate structure to Spanish <ul><li>Save time—try explaining there is or however without translating </li></ul><ul><li>Similar structures on a basic level: present progressive: I am reading / estoy leyendo </li></ul><ul><li>As a contrast: I’ve lived here for 2 years / Vivo aquí desde hace dos a ňos. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Which of the following structures transfer easily? <ul><li>Present continuous </li></ul><ul><li>Present perfect </li></ul><ul><li>If clauses </li></ul><ul><li>Modals </li></ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul><ul><li>Used to </li></ul><ul><li>Prepositions </li></ul>
  16. 16. Charts for sentence patterns <ul><li>Basic Hungarian vocabulary: </li></ul><ul><li>the – a; </li></ul><ul><li>is – van </li></ul><ul><li>here – itt; </li></ul><ul><li>there – ott </li></ul><ul><li>no, not – nem </li></ul><ul><li>yes - igen </li></ul><ul><li>bag – t áska </li></ul><ul><li>lamp – lámpa; </li></ul><ul><li>telephone – telefon </li></ul>
  17. 17. van t áska Igen, A a   ott van   Nem, nem van ott .   A táska       itt? Igen, a     itt van.           itt.         lámpa     van ott? Nem,   lámpa nem           ott     Nem,     nem      
  18. 18. A telefon van ott? Nem, nem ott. Itt van. Is the telephone there? No, not there. It’s here. A t áska itt van. ( Nem.) A telefon nem ott van. (Nem.) Nem ott van. (Nem.) Nem ott.
  19. 19. Directed Questions <ul><li>Give students the exercises to do BEFORE you explain the grammar (if you must explain it) </li></ul><ul><li>Have students correct them (in groups, at board…) </li></ul><ul><li>Then put them in pairs and have them try to figure out the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them directed questions to help them if necessary… When do you use the does? </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Correct the exercise, but don’t explain the grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Give them the chart to complete in pairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask them what the difference is between the two pairs: my-mine. </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit more examples </li></ul>If they have problems, what questions can you ask to guide them?
  21. 22. Complex Grammar Points <ul><li>Sometimes there isn’t just one explanation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present perfect—form / meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which is more difficult? </li></ul><ul><li>On using discovery techniques, which will elicit more exact rules? </li></ul><ul><li>Which one will require many different examples to reach an acceptable rule? </li></ul>
  22. 23. An Activity <ul><li>In groups of 2-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a grammar structure that is difficult for your students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the grammar point…is there more than one aspect to teach? Form? Meaning? Both? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would you guide the SS to form the rule? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What questions would you ask to guide them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kinds of approximations might they make? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Thank you very much <ul><li>JoAnn Miller </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>The handout and a link to slides are available at: </li></ul><ul><li> (Presentations) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>