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  1. 1. MARPOL - Amendments to Annex V 3rd October 2012Introduction New MARPOL Annex V requirements regarding the disposal of garbage from ships and fixed and floating platforms are due to enter into force on 1 January 2013. The new regulations represent a major change as, other than for certain defined permitted discharges, they will prohibit the disposal of garbage at sea. Therefore, as from the beginning of next year, it will become common practice for ships to send their garbage to reception facilities ashore when disposing of ship-generated waste. It is likely that shipboard garbage destined to be sent to a port waste reception facility will need to be segregated. The requirements for the port concerned should be sought and followed in this respect. Given that some ports may not be able to receive and process all types of waste, the garbage processing capability of the port should be checked prior to arrival.
  2. 2. Cleaning agents and additives used in washing down decks and holds may be discharged into the sea provided that they are not harmful to the marine environment. Products considered suitable for discharge are those which are not defined as a harmful substance by the criteria set out in MARPOL Annex III and do not contain any carcinogenic, mutagenic or reprotoxic components. In addition, ships will need to maintain records showing that any cleaning agent or additive used was not harmful to the marine environment. IMO recommends that the supplier provides a signed and dated statement to this effect, either as part of a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or as a stand-alone document. It is important to note that ash residues from shipboard incinerators will be classified as operational waste. Ash is therefore deemed to be garbage and its disposal into the sea will not be permitted.
  3. 3. Discharge Criteria – Outside Special Areas When ships are outside one of the MARPOL Annex V special areas they will be permitted to discharge: Food waste that has been comminuted or ground (ie able to pass through a screen or mesh with holes of no larger than 25mm) when as far as possible, but at least 3 nautical miles, from the nearest land and “en route” (defined by the regulations as being underway at sea on a course which will cause the discharge to be spread over as great an area of the sea as is reasonable and practicable). Food waste that has not been comminuted or ground when as far as possible, but at least 12 nautical miles, from the nearest land whilst en route. Cargo residues including wash water residues which cannot be unloaded using commonly available means and which are not harmful to the marine environment when as far as possible, but at least 12 nautical miles, from the nearest land whilst en route.
  4. 4. Animal carcasses in the maximum possible depth of water en route provided the ship is at least 100 nautical miles from the nearest land. If animal carcasses are discharged into the sea they must be split or otherwise treated so that they sink immediately. If a ship cannot comply with this requirement due to a passage where the vessel will not sail more than 100 nautical miles from the nearest land, disposal of the carcasses will be permitted at least 12 nautical miles from the nearest land if the Master determines that retaining the carcasses will create a health and safety risk to the personnel and live animals on board during periods of high heat and humidity. It will also be necessary to note the circumstances in the Garbage Record Book. The regulations encourage Masters to provide copies of such entries to the vessel’s Flag State and to the Administration of the State where the ship commenced the voyage. Should the number of animal mortalities exceed the level normally expected due to, for example, the failure of a watering system or an outbreak of disease, an unusually large amount of animal carcasses will not be considered to be garbage and will therefore not be subject to the provisions MARPOL Annex V. Should such a situation arise, the Guidance on Managing Spoilt Cargoes prepared by the Joint London Convention/MEPC Working Group should be followed -
  5. 5. cleaning agents and additives contained in wash water from cargo holds, decks and external surfaces provided that such products are not harmful to the marine environment. If non-harmful wash water is to be discharged, no minimum distance from the nearest land is specified and there is no requirement for the vessel to be en route. Discharge Criteria – Within Special Areas The MARPOL special areas are the Baltic Sea, North Sea, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Red Sea, the Gulfs Area, Wider Caribbean Region and the Antarctic Area. However, due to a lack of shore reception facilities in the Black Sea and Red Sea, these regions will not be classified immediately as special areas for the discharge of garbage when the new regulations enter into force. When ships are within a MARPOL Annex V special area the following discharges will be permitted:
  6. 6. Food waste that has been comminuted or ground (ie able to pass through a screen or mesh with holes of no larger than 25mm) when as far as possible, but at least 12 nautical miles, from the nearest land or ice shelf whilst en route. However, in the Antarctic Special Area the discharge of avian (bird) products including poultry will not be permitted unless made sterile beforehand. Cargo residues and cleaning agents and additives contained in cargo hold wash water which are not harmful to the marine environment when as far as possible, but at least 12 nautical miles, from the nearest land or ice shelf whilst en route. Such an operation may only take place if the departure port and the destination port are situated within the same special area, that no suitable reception facilities are available at either port and that the ship will not proceed outside the special area when sailing between the Cleaning agents and additives contained in deck and external surfaces wash water that are not harmful to the marine environment. The regulations do not specify a minimum distance from the nearest land or ice shelf or require the vessel to be en route
  7. 7. MARPOL Annex V Reference Material Further information regarding the new requirements can be found in the following IMO documents: Revised Text of MARPOL Annex V – Resolution MEPC.201(62) 2012 Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V – Resolution MEPC.219(63) 2012 Guidelines for the Development of Garbage Management Plans – Resolution MEPC.220(63) Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships: IMO guidance on MARPOL Annex V Simplified Overview of the Discharge Provisions of the Revised MARPOL Annex V (Resolution MEPC.201(62)) which will Enter into Force on 1 January 2013. – Discharge provision table Members are advised to review the full text of the revised MARPOL Annex V and should ensure their ships comply with the new requirements by 1 January 2013. For further information, please contact the Loss Prevention department.
  8. 8. 1. Shipboard Garbage Pollution Sources ’’Garbage means all kinds of victual, domestic and operational waste excluding fresh fish and parts thereof, generated during the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically except those substances which are defined or listed in other Annexes to the present Convention’’.
  9. 9. 2. Biological / economic effects of garbage disposal Biological effects: • Plastics do not biodegrade (animals can mistake plastic for food) - aquatic animals get trapped in plastic ropes, nets, bags,etc - plastic can kill bottom growing plants • Food waste is usually biodegradable but: - may upset balance of food chain - may promote algae blooms Economic effects: - garbage can become attached to ships and their equipment leading to interruptions in a vessel's operations - beaches with polluted seas can have a negative effect on tourism
  10. 10. Time taken for objects to dissolve at sea Material Time to degrade Tin cans 100 years Newspaper 6 weeks Glass Indefinate Polystyrene foam Indefinate Cardboard 2 - 4 months Pastic six pack rings 400 years + Plastic bottles 450 years Aluminum cans 200 years Painted wood 13 years
  11. 11. 3. Special Areas” according to MARPOL: Mediterranean, Baltic, Black Sea, Red Sea, The Gulfs Area,Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman,The North Sea, The Antarctic, The Wider Caribbean Region including Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Note: The Great Barrier Reef. The „nearest land” as defined in MARPOL, off the North - east of Australia, is to be considered as the outer edge of The Great Barrier Reef and not the mainland. As such, all discharges (including food waste) are prohibited in The Great Barrier Reef region. The Special Area requirements for these areas have not taken effect because of lack of notifications from MARPOL Parties whose coastlines border the relevant special areas on the existence of adequate reception facilities.
  12. 12. the following areas to be environmentally sensitive and therefore to be considered the same as a MARPOL special area unless discharge of garbage is considered absolutely essential for the efficient operation of the ship: • Inside the US EEZ (200 miles from the nearest coast or territorial island) • Irish Sea • Inland Sea of Japan • Malacca Strait from One Fathom Bank to Horsburgh
  13. 13. Garbage Type Outside Special Areas In Special Areas Plastics including ropes, nets, bags Disposal prohibited Disposal prohibited Floating dunnage, lining, packing materials >25 miles offshore * Disposal prohibited Ground – down*paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery, etc >3 miles offshore Disposal prohibited Cargo residues, paper products, rags, glass, metal, bottles, crockery etc >12 miles offshore Disposal prohibited Food waste comminuted or ground ** >12 miles offshore >12 miles offshore Incinerator ashes*** >12 miles offshore Disposal prohibited * ”offshore” meaning from the ”nearest land” are base lines from which territorial sea is measured ** Comminuted or ground garbage must pass through a screen with a mesh size no larger than 25mm. *** Vessel's incinerator must be able to burn plastics. Ash generated from plastic incineration is not to be discharged in any sea area. Incineration of Polyvinyl Chlorides (PVCs) shall be prohibited except in incinerators for which IMO type approval certificates have been issued. 4. REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AT SEA
  14. 14. Exceptions When the garbage is mixed with other discharges having different disposal or discharge requirements the more stringent requirements shall apply. Regulations related to garbage disposal, shall not apply to: • securing the safety of life or the ship; or • the escape of garbage resulting from damage to a ship or its equipment provided all reasonable precautions have been taken before and after the damage, for the purpose of preventing or minimizing the escape; or • the accidental loss of synthetic fishing nets or synthetic material incidental to the repair of such nets, provided that all reasonable precautions have been taken to prevent such loss.
  15. 15. 5. Reception facilities 1. The Government of each Party to the Convention has to provide appropriate facilities at ports and terminals for the reception of garbage, without causing undue delay to ships. 2. The Government of each Party has to notify the IMO of all cases where the facilities provided under this Regulation are inadequate. Remarks: Some ports (particularly members of the Paris MOU) now require advance warning of waste to be disposed of. The waste includes oil, chemicals, ballast, sewage and garbage. The method of reporting this is to send Company form SAF13 to the agents prior to arrival. Note that this form may be required even if no waste is to be landed. The local agent is to be asked to confirm accordingly.
  16. 16. 6. Port State Control on operational requirements* 1. when in port a ship can be inspected by authorized PSC officers 2. if the master or crew are not familiar with essential shipboard procedures preventing pollution by garbage, all should be done to ensure that the situation has been brought to order 3. if ships equipment is broken or missing or ship has suffered damages en route, Port Authorities must be informed accordingly and if remedies were agreed with the flag state, the ship is not to be detained. * Refer to the Procedures for port State control resolution A.787(19) as amended by resolution A.882(21);
  17. 17. 7. Placards, garbage management plans and garbage record-keeping 7.1. Placards posters (notices) are to be displayed in the working language of the ship and English or French or Spanish, informing crew and passengers of the disposal requirements of garbage on board ships 12 or more meters long 7.2. Garbage management plan all ships of 400 gross tonnage and above and ships carrying more than 15 persons shall carry a Garbage Management Plan and Garbage Disposal Record (Garbage Record Book)
  18. 18. The Plan should include : - written procedures for: collecting, storing, processing and disposing of garbage (using onboard equipment) - the designated person in charge of carrying out the plan The Plan should be : - in the working language of the crew and adapted for individual ships - regularly reviewed and checked by the Master if the it is being correctly adapted as part of his weekly inspections.
  19. 19. 7.3. Collection of Garbage - containers for collecting garbage - clearly marked by the appropriate colours and additionally by stencil. - food waste is to be collected only in mess rooms, galleys, and food preparation areas
  20. 20. 7.4. Processing of Garbage Ships may be provided with onboard incinerators, compactors, comminuters or other equipment for garbage processing Advantages of such facilities: - disposal of certain garbage possible at sea - onboard storage space reduction - helpful in unloading garbage at a port - allowing absorption of some types of garbage Garbage should be processed under the categories included in Par.4 attached Table entitled: ”REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AT SEA” Processing must ensure that the minimum amount of garbage or waste is disposed of to shore.
  21. 21. 7.5. Incineration • Shipboard incinerators installed on or after 01 January, 2000 are required to comply with IMO specification MEPC 76 (40). • Existing incinerators installed before 01 January, 2000 are acceptable provided they are type approved in accordance with MEPC 59 (33). NOTE: Existing incinerators that are not type approved may still be utilized provided they are not used for Polyvinyl Chlorides (PVC s). Incineration of the following substances is prohibited (ref: MARPOL Annex VI): a) Cargo Residues and related contaminated packing materials (Annex I, II, III) b) Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) c) Garbage containing more than a trace of heavy metals (used in coatings, paints, packaging, etc.) d) Refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds
  22. 22. 7.6. Storing and disposing of garbage All disposal of garbage must be consistent with MARPOL 73/78 Regulations included in Par.4 ,Table entitled: ”REQUIREMENTS FOR DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AT SEA” All processed and unprocessed garbage shall be: - stored in tight, good condition, securely covered containers so that no garbage is released into the environment. (also required by Port Health and Agriculture Authorities in many countries from a health and disease control point of view) - landed to reception facilities ashore and the Master shall ensure that all local regulations are adhered to - processed according to the vessel’s local agent requirements such as segregation, cleanliness of garbage and disposal containers / transportation bags Note: USDA (United States Dept of Agriculture) restricts the type of waste for vessels going to USA, where food waste not originating from USA or Canada has to be separated. Food waste also includes anything contaminated with food , packaging, wrapping etc
  23. 23. 7.7. Garbage Disposal Record Book (Garbage Record Book) The Garbage Disposal Record should be used :  when garbage is discharged in the sea  when garbage is discharged to reception facilities ashore or to another ship  when garbage is incinerated  for any accidental or exceptional discharge of garbage.  on board for minimum 2 years and to be available for inspection by port officials  for receipts or certificates for any garbage landed ashore (including the type of garbage and estimated amount). These receipts are to be kept for a minimum of 2 years.
  24. 24. 7.8. Items entered into the Garbage Record Book: 1. Date and Time 2. Position of the ship (where cargo residues are disposed of at sea, the discharge start and stop positions must be recorded) 3. Estimated amount and category discharged into the sea (m3) 4. Estimated amount and category discharged to reception facilities(m3) 5. Estimated amount and category incinerated (m3) Each discharge operation, or completed incineration, shall be recorded and signed by the officer in charge. Each completed page of the Garbage Record Book shall be signed by the master of the ship. The entries in the GRB shall be at least in English, French or Spanish. Where the entries are also made in an official language of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly, these entries shall prevail in case of a dispute or discrepancy.
  25. 25. 7.9. Garbage Record Book inspections 1. The competent authority may inspect the Garbage Record Book on board any ship while the ship is in ports or offshore terminals and may make a copy of any entry in that book, and may require the master of the ship to certify that the copy is a true copy of such an entry. 2. Any copy which has been certified by the master of the ship as a true copy of an entry in the ship’s Garbage Record Book, shall be admissible in any judicial proceedings as evidence of the facts stated in the entry.
  26. 26. 8. Inadequacy of Reception Facilities  it is recognised that the discharge of garbage in some ports is difficult. Table 3 of Garbage Management Plan gives a recommended reporting format which allows the master to report on any inadequacy discovered.  where reception facilities are considered inadequate, the agent is to be given this report which must be forwarded to the relevant authorities. A copy is also to be sent to the Company.