How to boost Entrepreneurial UNIVERSITY: lessons from international reviews


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What are the common challenges in entrepreneurship education and how to address them. Three case studies from the US, Mexico and Finland with different approaches to building entrepreneurship capabilities: McGuire Center for Entrepreneurship is a hub of entrepreneurship within the University of Arizona providing education, research and technical support to the students, faculty and wider community. Monterrey Tech (Itesm) is the leading private university in Mexico that was established by business leaders in 1940s and today integrates entrepreneurship in all its activities supporting hitech industry as well as social entrepreneurship. Team Academy is a 3-year entrepreneurship programme that was developed in a small Finnish town in Jyvaskyla to address the rising youth unemployment. There are no classes, not teachers, no simulations.

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  • Since 2005, OECD has reviewed over 30 regions in 20+ countries. During 2005-07, we reviewed 14 regions in 12 countries. This first round had a strong European focus: 9 of the 14 reviews took place in European regions and 5 of them in Nordic countries. There were important gaps, e.g. US was not included in the first round.During the second round in 2008-11, we reached out to 14 regions in 11 countries. In line with the OECD enlargement strategy these reviews had a wider reach also to non-member economies (some of which have become OECD members during the review process such as Chile and Israel). The final review round under the OECD education directorate has reached out to 6 regions: the Free State (South Africa), Sonora (MX), Wroclaw (PL), Antioquia (COL).Preparations are now under way to ensure that this work can be followed up in OECD LEED with a stronger focus on entrepreneurship, skills and local growth.
  • The reviews investigate:The contribution of HEIs’ research to regional innovation The role of teaching and learning in the development of human capital and skills The contribution of HEIs to social, cultural and environmental development The role of HEIs in building regional capacity to act in an increasingly competitive global economyKey questionsWhat policies, practices and mechanisms promote mobilisation of higher education for regional and city development? How to make reforms happen?Which brings greater benefits to cities and regions a high performing regionally focused HE system or a single world class university?
  • The McGuire Center for Entrepreneurship was established in 1984 as one of the first university-based centers for entrepreneurship in the US. The McGuire Entrepreneurship Program is among only a handful of programs in the US that maintains top-tier rankings in both undergraduate and graduate rankings in all major surveys for the last decade. Ranked No 2 in US among public undergraduate programs and No 4 among public graduate programs (Entrepreneur/Princeton Review, 2012)
  • MENTORS-IN- RESIDENCEExperienced entrepreneurs who have been involved in multiple ventures in a variety of roles teach the program’s capstone classes and work with student teams throughout the process in a full-time, on-staff residence capacity.TECHNOLOGY MENTORSTechnology mentors help teams navigate topics including development, proof of concept and prototype creation.ALTERNATIVE VALUATIONAlternative valuation mentors assist students in identifying and measuring their innovations’ potential beyond conventional financial and economic measures, taking into consideration benefits to society, environment, etc.COMMUNICATION MENTORSCommunication mentors help student teams refine their communication skills, to address tailored audiences including the business, academia and potential funding entities.MOCK LAW FIRMThe Mock Law Firm is an experiential learning environment where law students offer counselling to McGuire teams as they pursue their ventures.
  • The Entrepreneurship Centre of Excellence of the JAMK University of Applied Sciences in Jyväskylä, Finland. Tiimiakatemia students run their own cooperative businesses and once they have graduated, they embark on a trip around the world with the money made in their businesses during their studies. 200 students, 11 team-companies1,000,000 EUR total revenue of team-companies 91% of students are employed within 6 months of graduation.37% of students launch their own business within 6 months of graduation.47% of students are still entrepreneurs 2 years after graduation.150 completed projects for various companies.10% of projects have revenue of over 10,000 EUR.350,000 EUR of team-company revenues is returned to society as taxes.
  • LACK OF STRATEGIC ANCOHORINGNot linked to research , academic subjects; strategic development, budget allocation Funding Incentives enable isolated initiatives. Each HEI and or department delivers own range of activities and servicesLack of co-ordination, collaboration, sharing of good practice leads to duplication of efforts. Lack of data on student progress, graduate employment, successes & failures of HEI activities; regional environment Difficulties to evaluate the outcomes of entrepreneurship policies and HEI practices UNI Tech transfer model does not generally produce enterprises that grow in the region or regional economic growth. Lack of ongoing HE-industry relationship to determine what innovations have the best opportunities for adoption and commercialisation; Lack of support for skills to apply process & product innovations Success measured in terms of external funding rather than sustainability and transformation of regional industry & employment growth.Training programmes have limited practical orientationLack of focus on lifelong learning and flexible ways of delivery (online, mixed mode)Limited capacity to identify long term labour market needs and trends on a regional basisEmployers & entrepreneurs do not participate in curriculum/course design and deliveryLack of experiential learning, work-based learningLack of robust data about student progress/achievement and labour market outcomesEducation is based on faculty interests and expertise rather than labour market realitiesLack of opportunities for interdisciplinary learningMismatch of skills supply and demand
  • How to boost Entrepreneurial UNIVERSITY: lessons from international reviews

    1. 1. Educating Entrepreneurship Educators Coneeect is an international network of universities that offers training courses for academic entrepreneurship teachers to improve the Entrepreneurship Education across Europe.
    2. 2. This material has been produced for the Coneeect program. The content is copyright of the author. All rights reserved. Duplication and distribution of original documentation is permitted. Any changes to the original are prohibited. This copyright message shall not be removed. Jaana PUUKKA Strategy Consultant, Founder & President of Innovation Engage, former OECD analyst Boosting Entrepreneurial Universities: lessons from international reviews 22 July 2013
    3. 3. Boosting entrepreneurial UNIVERSITIES: lessons from international reviews content 1. How can universities support regional growth and entrepreneurship? 2. What are the constraints and barriers? 3. Three approaches to entrepreneurship education Three cases and the Reality 4. What are the common issues in education education? 5. Where are the gaps? And how to address them?
    4. 4. Where does the evidence come from? courtesy to the OECD 2005 - 2007 2010 - 2012 2008 - 2011 Kazan 2007 Between 2005 and 2013 OECD reviewed the role and impact of Higher Education in 35 cities and regions in 25 countries
    5. 5. How were the reviews conducted? Self-evaluation / background report owned by the Regional Steering Committee Review visit by international experts Review Report tailored for the city/region Dissemination of outcomes courtesy to the oecd
    6. 6. What is university’s role in regional growth & entrepreneurship? University Skills Innovation Society at large Capacity building Jaana.Puukka@innovationengage.COM Partnerships Context Global, National and Local Context
    7. 7. Wroclaw, PL •Location and first mover advantage •City investment in knowledge-based economy •HE hub Context •Ageing, uneven development •Traditional HE sector •Lack of focus on equity & relevance Challenges •REVISIT the HE management •DEVELOP a robust evidence base •ENHANCE HE collaboration •INTEGRATE entrepreneurship, LLL, internships in all programmes What next City of Wroclaw wants to mobilise HE system to build a knowledge & cultural hub in central Europe
    8. 8. Victoria, Australia 8 The tertiary education system needs to be mobilised to contribute to more concretely to Victoria’s “healthy, sustainable and productive future.” •Robust economy •Diverse TE sector and int’l education hub: strongest export worth AUD 5 billion •Investments in Science & Tech infrastructure Context •Rapid population growth, ageing •Impacts of global warming •Low skills & skills shortages •Dependence on int’l students Challenges •WIDEN access to TE, increase attainment levels •BROADEN innovation concept, support SMEs & BOOST entrepreneurship •ENCOURAGE TE collaboration What next?
    9. 9. Barriers to engagement: results from OECD review National Sub-national Institutional / HEI-level Uncoordinated HE, STI and regional policy Fragmented regional governance, weak leadership Lack of management capacity and entrepreneurial culture Limits to HEIs’ autonomy and/or suboptimal accountability schemes Intra-regional & inter- institutional competition Tensions between regional engagement & pursuit for world class excellence Limited incentives to HEIs Mutual exclusion of HEIs/regions from strategy development & implementation Lack of incentives to individuals
    10. 10. Entrepreneurship education – 3 cases
    11. 11. Create an entrepreneurial HUB: McGuire Center for entrepreneurship A hub of entrepreneurial activity at The University of Arizona. One of the top centres in US in the field with a nearly 30-year track record and multiple on- and off campus audiences. A limited-enrolment undergraduate degree stream, an enterpreneurship initiative to all business students; an entrepreneurship-focused MBA and + electives and support services. McGuire identifies and helps transfer technology and innovations to the market place. It teaches entrepreneurship to early-career business people, schools etc. and provides technical assistance on entrepreneurship activities. Images credits: Tiimiakatemia
    13. 13. Create an entrepreneurial INSTITUTION: Monterrey Tech MX A private university founded by business leaders (1943): 33 campuses+ 6 academic centres in Latin America. Supports both high-tech spin offs and social entrepreneurship. Mandatory entrepreneurship training since 1985. Programa Emprendedor, Entrepreneurial diploma, Bachelor program in business creation and development, 3 Masters programs through virtual and class room delivery Interdisciplinary open innovation spaces in most study fields. All campuses have business incubators for for-profit enterprises and ventures that support social and community development. Images credits: ITESM
    14. 14. Promote resilience, self-reliance, innovation and ingenuity: team academy, FI Developed in 1993 in a small town in Finland by a marketing lecturer of Jyvaskyla University of Applied Sciences. Worldwide interest: TAs in 8 countries, 6000 users of methodology, 1800 adult learners, 800 TA alumni, 850 team entrepreneurs A 3 year program: no classrooms, no lectures, no exams. In first 2 weeks teams of 20 students start developing real businesses. Students learn finance, marketing, leadership & strategy in projects. Half of the students launch their own business. Coaching programs for entrepreneurs, team leaders, managers and teachers. Over 1000 adult learners graduated with vocational qualifications accredited by the Finnish National Board of Education. Images credits: Tiimiakatemia
    15. 15. Compelling examples but a different reality in many universities
    16. 16. Gap btw labour market needs & competencies acquired in HEIS – Graduates’ views (Scale 1-7) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Use computers and the internet Use time efficiently Assert your authority Come up with new ideas and solutions Negotiate effectively Write and speakin a foreign language Alertnessto new opportunities Coordinate activities Perform well under pressure Present products, ideasor reports Knowledge of other fields Make your meaning clear to others Mastery of your own field Question yourown and others' ideas Mobilize the capacities of others Write reports, memosor documents Work productively with others Rapidly acquire new knowledge Analytical thinking Required Acquired
    17. 17. What are the common issues?
    18. 18. Gaps Lack of strategic anchoring within HEIs and HE policy; limited legitimacy within HEIs A lack of system coherence and a co-ordination deficit within and among HEIs Weak evidence base and supply- driven delivery Disconnect between graduate enterprise, knowledge transfer & regional growth
    19. 19. How to reform education so that its supports entrepreneurship and regional growth? JAANA.PUUKKA@INNOVATIONENGAGE.COM
    20. 20. reforming education • Courses with the local/global needs; ALIGN graduate enterprise/entrepreneurship training with regional industry development Align • Employability skills, work-based learning, internship, entrepreneurialism in all curriculaEmbed • Learning pathways from schools to LLL to ensure flexible learning, up- skilling, re-training and entrepreneurshipCreate • Data about labour market needs. DEVELOP student/graduate tracking and USE the data strategically.Develop • With employers in course design & delivery; CREATE links between support for graduate enterprise development and business support in the local area Co-operate 20
    21. 21. JAANA PUUKKA Tel: +33 6 18 33 26 12 (m) Skype: puukka.jaana Follow my tweets on: @jaanapuukka