Socrates

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  • Socrates is guilty of refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state, and of introducing new divinities.  He is also guilty of corrupting the youth.  The penalty demanded is death.trial of Socrates took place over a nine-to-ten hour period in the People's Court, located in the agora, the civic center of Athens. -Critias - the cruel leader of the Thirty Tyrants. Un-democratic- concluded from Socrates that piety cannot be defined, that it is permissible to be disrespectful to the gods , went on a bloody rampage from 404-403
  • Works by producing a gradual paralysis of the central nervous system so death was neither quick nor painless.
  • Socrates

    1. 1.
    2. 2. Early Life<br />Information derived from three contemporary sources:<br /><ul><li>Dialogues of Plato
    3. 3. Xenophon
    4. 4. The plays of Aristophanes.</li></ul>Son of the statuary Sophroniscus and of the midwife Phaenarete.<br />Born in Athens 469 B.C.E.<br />In his youth he learned gymnastics and music.<br />In his later years he learned geometry, astronomy and studied the methods and doctrines of the leaders of Greek thought and culture.<br />Began life as a sculptor.<br />
    5. 5. Life<br />Married Xanthippe <br />Had three sons: <br />Lamprocles<br />Sophroniscus<br />Menexenus.<br />Only unofficial occupation was discussing philosophy.<br />Denied payment for his teachings in a sophist school.<br />In Apology Socrates cites his poverty as a proof he is not a teacher.<br />Took over profession of stonemasonry.<br />
    6. 6. Life<br />Served in the Athenian army druing the Potidaea, Amphipolis and Delium campaigns.<br /> In 406 he was a member of Boule.<br />In 404 the Thirty Tyrants wanted to ensure the loyalty of those opposed to them by making them complicit in their activities. <br />Socrates and four others were ordered to bring Leon of Salamis from his home for unjust execution. <br />Socrates quietly refused, his death averted only by the overthrow of the Tyrants soon afterwards.<br />
    7. 7. Philosophy of Socrates<br />Did not record any of his teachings or ideas<br /> Much of what is known about Socrates comes from the works of Plato<br /> Preferred means of inquiry and discerning truth was what is today known as the Socratic Method<br /> Philosophically, was primarily concerned with the well-being of the inner soul and self-development<br /> Again, difficult to confirm and distinguish from Plato's own philosophy <br />
    8. 8. Socratic Method<br /><ul><li> Dialectical method
    9. 9. A discussion involving opposing views.
    10. 10. Begins with commonly held truths and opinions.
    11. 11. Questions are then asked to test the logic behind these views.
    12. 12. Contradicting ideas are eliminated until consistency is reached.
    13. 13. Socrates believed this was the ultimate way of discovering truth.</li></li></ul><li>
    14. 14. “I only know that I know nothing.”<br />Socrates' views also tied into things like knowledge and politics.<br /> Believed that wrongdoing was a result of ignorance.<br /> Nobody truly desires to do evil<br /> Those who possess knowledge (virtue) can do no wrong.<br />Socrates argued that those capable of governing a society are those who have knowledge<br />He referred to these individuals as “Philosopher-Kings”<br />
    15. 15. STUDENTS<br />PLATO<br />considered one of the greatest philosophers in the history of civilized man.<br />ALCIBIADES<br />a military genius.<br />ARISTIPPUS <br />founder of the Cyrenaic school of hedonism.<br />ANTISTHENES<br />founder of the Cynic school of philosophy.<br />XENOPHON<br />a military leader and historian.<br />CRITO<br />one of the wealthiest men in Athens. <br />
    16. 16. PHILOSOPHER AND TEACHER<br />Devotion to Ethics<br />Development of the Inductive Method of reasoning.<br />Linking Knowledge to Happiness. <br />Rationalism. <br />=<br />
    17. 17. TEACHING METHOD<br />SOCRATIC METHOD:<br />Problem Centered. <br />Based Upon Student Experience. <br />Critical Thinking. <br />Teaching Is a Drawing Forth Rather Than a Telling. <br />Learning Is Discovery. <br />What is the <br /> Good life?<br />
    18. 18. Trial<br />Meletus initiated criminal proceedings<br />Charged with impiety and corrupting the youth.<br />Faced a jury of 500 men.<br />Most damaging <br /> accusation:<br />Association with Critias<br />
    19. 19. Findings and Penalty <br />280 jurors guilty<br /> 220 jurors for acquittal<br />There was no judge.<br />Each side proposes punishment jurors choose:<br />The accusers of Socrates proposed the punishment of death.<br />Socrates asks the jury for free meals in the Prytaneum.<br />Finally suggested a fine of one mina of silver.<br />360 jurors voted for death<br /> 140 for the fine<br />
    20. 20. Final Words and Death<br />“This conviction resulted from my unwillingness to address you as you would have liked me to do.”<br />“History will come to see this conviction as shameful for Athens“<br />"The hour of departure has arrived, and we go our ways--I to die, and you to live.  Which to the better fate is known only to God.“<br />His final hours were spent in an Athenian jail cell.<br />Athenian law required <br /> death sentence to be by <br /> hemlock.<br />
    21. 21. Instant legacy<br />Socrates' students and followers continued in his footsteps, pushing his beliefs and methods throughout Athens.<br />His pupil Plato continued on to become more influential than his teacher.<br />His effect on the other schools of thought in Athens.<br />
    22. 22. Effect in History<br />Socrates' teachings trickled down into later philosophers, such as Aristotle.<br />His methods and thoughts on cities helped shape later views on them.<br />Socrates' ideas and philosophies are present in later civilizations and governments.<br />
    23. 23. Socrates Today<br />Socrates is known as the father of modern philosophy.<br />Revered as beginning western philosophy.<br />Ideas and philosophy is found today in <br />The structure of the United States<br />The idea of a persons relationship to their government.<br />His teachings and applications of:<br />Logos- Logic<br />Stance on argument<br />Philosophies of debate <br />all used in everyday life and legal<br />studies today.<br />
    24. 24. Questions:<br />What was Socrates’ first profession?<br />What was the most damaging accusation in Socrates’ trail?<br />

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