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Assisted	Interaction	for	Improving	Web	
Accessibility:	An	Approach	Driven	and	
Tested	by	Users	with	Disabilities	
PhD	Dissertation	
Candidate: 	J.	Eduardo	Pérez	
Supervisors:	 	Myriam	Arrue	
	Julio	Abascal	
Donostia/San	Sebastian	–	Fri.	6	Nov.,	2020	
Informatika	Fakultatea,	Dept.	of	Computer	Architecture	and	Technology	
Laboratory of Human-Computer
Interaction for Special Needs
Presentation	Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Approach	
–  Methodology	
–  General	objectives	
–  Phases	of	the	research	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	
–  Overall	conclusions	
–  Main	contributions		
–  Future	work	
2/43
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Approach	
–  Methodology	
–  General	objectives	
–  Phases	of	the	research	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
Presentation	Overview	
2/43
Motivation	
•  The	Web	has	become	essential	in	our	lives	
•  Potential	to	promote	social	inclusion	and	participation	of	people	
with	disabilities	
•  Many	initiatives	(guidelines,	policies,…)	to	build	accessible	web	
sites	[1,	2,	3]	
•  Need	for	research	on	web	accessibility:	
-  Majority	of	websites	include	a	single	design	to	fit	all	users	
-  Vast	diversity	within	users	with	similar	impairments	
-  Decline	in	productivity	&	satisfaction	of	users	on	web	navigation	
[1]	“Web	Content	Accessibility	Guidelines	(WCAG	1.0,	2.0,	2.1),”	by	W3C	(1999,	2008,	2018).	
[2]	“Accessibility	of	the	websites	and	mobile	applications	of	public	sector	bodies,”	by	European	Union	(2016).	
[3]	“Section	508	of	the	Rehabilitation	Act	of	1973,”	by	US	Congress	(1998).	
Part	I	–	Introduction	
3/43
Approach	
•  Transcoding	systems	for	web	accessibility:	
-  Invented	to	help	people	with	disabilities	access	inaccessible	Web	pages	[1]	
-  Intermediary	server	to	convert	the	content	automatically	without	asking	the	author	
-  Need	of	an	annotation	process	to	achieve	more	complex	adaptations	
-  Several	examples	of	transcoding	systems	[2]	mainly	for	people	with	visual	impairments	
•  Virtual	enhancements	for	assisting	target	selection:	
-  Assist	the	use	of	pointing	devices	to	select,	click,	drag,	etc.,	but	also	for	tactile	interaction	
-  Mainly	aimed	at	users	with	motor	impairments	[3]	
•  Explore	two	disabilities:	
-  People	with	motor	impairments		(lack	of	dexterity	in	upper	limbs)	
-  People	with	low	vision		
Part	I	–	Introduction	
[1]	Asakawa	et	al.	(2019)	“Transcoding,”	In	Web	Accessibility:	A	Foundation	for	Research.	
[2]	Asakawa	&	Itoh	(1998)	“User	interface	of	a	home	page	reader,”	In	ASSETS	’98.	
[3]	Trewin	et	al.	(2006)	“Developing	steady	clicks:	a	method	of	cursor	assistance	for	people	with	motor	impairments,”	In	ASSETS	’06.	 4/43
Methodology	
①  Observational	studies	of	human	behaviour	and	personal	
interviews	
-  To	identify	web	accessibility	issues	of	target	user	populations	
②  Literature	review	
-  To	select	appropriate	guidelines,	standards	and	techniques	to	support	web	accessibility	
③  Follow	usability	and	accessibility	principles,	as	well	as	UCD	
techniques	
-  To	foster	acceptance	and	compatibility	of	developed	adaptation	techniques	and	
interaction	aids	
④  Conduct	user	tests	
-  To	evaluate	proposed	advancements:	performance	and	satisfaction	metrics	
Part	I	–	Introduction	
5/43
General	Objectives	
§  To	analyse	the	needs	of	users	with	disabilities	on	the	Web	
§  To	search	adaptation	techniques	and	alternative	interaction	
methods		
§  To	develop	and	test	an	evaluation	tool	to	conduct	user	tests	
and	record	user	interactions	
§  To	develop	technical	aids	(interface	adaptations	and	other	virtual	
enhancements	for	target	selection)	
§  To	test	and	evaluate	the	technical	aids	developed		
§  To	propose	criteria	to	enhance	web	accessibility	
Part	I	–	Introduction	
6/43
Phases	of	the	research	
Remotest	tool	
conception,	
development	and	
test	
Point	&	click	
assistance	through	
virtual	cursors	
UI	adaptations	
through	
transcoding	
II.	Remotest	
functionality	
evaluation	
III.	Remotest	
accessibility	
evaluation	
IV.	Touch	screen	
for	motor	
impairment	
V.	Desktop	for	
low	vision	
	
VII.	Longitudinal	
study	
	
VI.	In	situ	
study	
														
	
Part	I	–	Introduction	
7/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	web-based	
user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
8/43
Rationale	
Part	II	–	“Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Study	user	behaviour	on	the	Web	requires	conducting	
experimental	sessions	
•  We	built	the	RemoTest	platform	to	assist	experimenters	with	
remote	and	in	situ	experimental	sessions	
•  In	this	paper	we	presented:	
–  A	proof	of	concept	developed	to	evaluate	Remotest	validity		
•  To	define	and	conduct	experiments	with	users	
•  To	analyse	the	interaction	data	collected	
9/43
RemoTest	platform	
•  Experimenter	Module	define	all	
components	of	experiments	
•  Coordinator	Module	stores	&	
manages	experiments	defined	with	
the	Experimenter	Module	
Part	II	–	“Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Result	Viewer	Module	organizes	and	
presents	the	abundant	interaction	
data	gathered	in	an	experiment,	
provided	by	the	Coordinator	Module	
•  Participant	Module	add-on	for	
FireFox	browser	
10/43
Objective	&	Methodology	
•  Objective:	
–  Compare	results	from	manual	video	recording	analysis	about	navigation	
behaviours	of	participants	with	automatically	calculated	measures	by	
RemoTest	
•  Methodology:	
–  16	participants	
•  11	users	with	motor	impairments	and	5	without	impairments	
–  3	tasks:	
•  Filling	a	questionnaire	about	demographic	data	
•  Free	navigation	task		
•  Searching	task	
Part	II	–	“Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
11/43
Results	&	Conclusions	
•  RemoTest	was	successfully	used		
–  To	define	and	conduct	the	experimental	sessions,		
–  To	gather	interaction	data	from	participants	
–  To	analyse	interaction	data	
	
•  Results	automatically	obtained	were	useful		
–  to	characterize	cursor	movement	and		
–  To	identify	profiles	
Part	II	–	“Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
12/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	
inclusive	in	situ	and	remote	
experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
13/43
Rationale	
Part	III	–	“Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	Platform”	(IJHCI)	
•  To	ensure	RemoTest	can	be	used	remotely	by	a	wide	range	of	
users,	needs	to	meet	accessibility	requirements	
•  In	this	paper	we	presented:	
–  Evaluation	of	environments	created	by	RemoTest	by	mean	of	user	
tests	
–  Installation,	questionnaires	and	general	satisfaction	with	the	tool	
14/43
Methodology	
Part	III	–	“Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	Platform”	(IJHCI)	
In	situ	study:	
•  36	participants	with	different	disabilities:	
–  13	motor	impairment,	10	blind,	8	low	vision,	and	5	without	disabilities	
–  All	had	experience	with	computers	and	the	Web	
•  5	tasks:	
–  Installation,	questionnaires,	and	web	navigation	tasks	
•  Data	collection:	
–  Interaction	data,	video	recordings,	observations,	and	interviews	
15/43
Results	&	Conclusions	
Part	III	–	“Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	Platform”	(IJHCI)	
•  The	RemoTest	platform	proved	to	be	usable	and	accessible	for	
participants	with	different	disabilities	
•  Stimuli	generated	by	RemoTest	proved	to	be	accessible	both	in	remote	
and	in	situ	contexts	
•  Improvements	based	on	comments	by	participants	
–  Provide	shortcuts	
–  Numbering	the	questions	
–  Clear	instructions		
–  Larger	text	and	controls	
16/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
17/43
Rationale	
•  People	with	disabilities	face	aggravated	accessibility	barriers	
when	accessing	the	Web	from	mobile	devices	
•  In	this	paper	we	presented:	
–  A	transcoding	system	that	implements	adaptations	techniques	for	
assisting	people	with	motor	impairments	on	mobile	devices	
–  Four	alternative	tactile	interaction	methods	implemented	to	assist	
them	
–  Evaluation	of	the	enhancements	proposed	with	eight	users	with	motor	
impairments	
Part	IV	–	“Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(IwC)	
18/43
Transcoding	tool	architecture	
•  A	transcoding	system	
composed	of	four	modules	
–  Presentation	
–  Coordinator	
–  Knowledge	base	
–  Adaptation		
Part	IV	–	“Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(IwC)	
19/43
Methodology	
•  A	formal	evaluation	with	three	main	objectives:	
–  To	collect	general	characteristics	of	the	users	
–  To	test	different	interaction	techniques	
–  To	measure	the	results	of	applying	various	adaptation	techniques	
•  Participants:	
–  Eight	users	with	motor	impairments	in	upper	limbs	
–  Two	of	them	use	regularly	their	own	tablets	or	smartphones	
•  Experimental	setting		
–  A	Firefox	Web	browser	with	the	RemoTest	add-on	presenting	
stimuli	and	gathering	interaction	data	from	participants	
•  Tasks	
–  Phase	1:	navigation	tasks	
–  Phase	2:	target	acquisition	tasks	
Part	IV	–	“Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(IwC)	
20/43
Results	&	Conclusions	
•  Transcoded	pages	were	revealed	to	be	the	preferred	option	
for	most	of	the	participants,	as	they	require	less	physical	
effort.	
•  Alternative	interaction	methods	tested	by	motor	impaired	
users:	‘end	tap’	and	‘steady	tap’	proved	to	be	helpful	for	
people	with	less	finger	movement	control.	
Part	IV	–	“Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(IwC)	
21/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	
low	vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
22/43
Rationale	
•  People	with	low	vision	rely	on	assistive	technologies	
(magnification,	zooming)	to	access	the	Web	
•  However,	zooming	and	magnification	assistances	entail	other	
accessibility	issues	for	web	browsing	
•  In	this	paper	we	presented:	
–  Literature	review	and	an	observational	study	to	identify	adaptations	
techniques	to	assist	people	with	low	vision	
–  Results	of	an	experimental	session	with	12	users	with	low	vision	to	
evaluate	these	adaptations	techniques	
Part	V	–	“An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	for	people	with	low	vision”	(UAIS)	
23/43
Methodology	
Part	V	–	“An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	for	people	with	low	vision”	(UAIS)	
•  First	phase	
–  Literature	review		
–  Observational	study	
•  Second	phase	
–  Exploratory	Study	
•  Twelve	participants	with	low	vision	having	a	high	level	of	web	navigation	
expertise	
•  Conducted	experimental	sessions	with	adapted	versions	of	the	web	
interfaces	&	gathered	user	interaction	data		
24/43
Results	&	Conclusions	
Part	V	–	“An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	for	people	with	low	vision”	(UAIS)	
•  The	advantages	of	the	adaptation	techniques	in	relation	to	
the	type	of	assistive	technology	used.		
•  Some	adaptation	techniques	were	helpful	only	for	screen	
magnifier	users,	but	not	for	browser	zoom	users.		
•  New	research	hypotheses	for	a	future	experimental	study	
obtained.	
25/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
26/43
Rationale	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
•  Link	selection	fundamental	action	for	web	browsing	but	
challenging	for	people	with	motor	impairments	
•  Despite	the	many	mouse	alternatives,	target	selection	is	still	
challenging	for	them	
•  Based	on	the	literature	and	on	previous	studies	we	developed	
and	evaluated	2	virtual	cursors	to	assist	link	selection:	
–  The	cross	cursor	(keyboard	based	assistance)	
–  The	area	cursor	(larger	activation	area)	
27/43
Virtual	cursors	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
•  Both	virtual	cursors	developed	as	browser	add-ons	using	JavaScript	(handle	
interactions	and	page	content)	and	SVG	(visual	representation)	
•  The	cross	cursor:	
–  Combine	cursor	movement	and	one-
letter	shortcuts	to	reduce	trajectories	
–  Links	at	reach	are	those	“crossed”	by	the	
cross	cursor	
•  The	area	cursor:	
–  Reduce	accuracy	required	for	clicking	
links	by	providing	a	larger	activation	
area	
–  If	more	than	one	link	within	fixed	size	
activation	area:	selectable	closest	to	
cursor	
28/43
Study	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
•  3	cursor	variants	(within-subjects	design):	
–  cross	cursor,	area	cursor,	and	original	unassisted	
•  15	participants:	
–  9	with	motor	impairments			
–  Expert	users	with	their	pointing	device	
–  Grouped	based	on	pointing	device:	
•  2	websites	used	as	stimuli:		
–  informational	[discapnet.com]	and	institutional	[gipuzkoa.eus]	
•  2	kind	of	tasks:		
–  4	searching	tasks	and	48	target	acquisition	tasks	with	each	cursor	variant	
Area	cursor	
Cross	cursor	
Original	cursor	
JU	group	
KU	group	 MU	group	
Keyboard	group	–	KU	 Joystick	&	trackball	group	–	JU	 Mouse	group	–	MU	
4	participants	 5	participants	 6	participants	
29/43
Measuring	performance	&	satisfaction	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
•  Six	metrics	to	study	performance	on	target	acquisition	tasks	
based	on	cursor	path	evaluation:	
–  Movement	time,	pointing	time,	clicking	time,	distance	travelled,	curvature	
index,	and	number	of	pauses	
•  Eight	categories	to	ask	about	participants	satisfaction	with	each	
cursor	variant:	
–  Learnable,	easy	to	remember,	accurate,	easy	to	use,	effortless,	natural,	fun,	
and	not	frustrating	
•  Participants	were	also	asked	to	rank	all	3	variants	from	most	to	
least	preferred	choice	for	browsing	the	Web	
30/43
Results	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
Results		of	performance:	
•  Keyboard	users	group	achieved	the	best	results	with	
the	cross	cursor	
31/43
Results	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
Results		of	performance:	
•  Keyboard	users	group	achieved	the	best	results	with	
the	cross	cursor	
•  Joystick	and	trackball	users	group	achieved	better	
results	with	the	area	cursor		
31/43
Results	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
Results		of	performance:	
•  Keyboard	users	group	achieved	the	best	results	with	
the	cross	cursor	
•  Joystick	and	trackball	users	group	achieved	better	
results	with	the	area	cursor		
•  Mouse	users	group	achieved	similar	results	with	both	
cursors	
31/43
Results	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
Results		of	performance:	
•  Keyboard	users	group	achieved	the	best	results	with	
the	cross	cursor	
•  Joystick	and	trackball	users	group	achieved	better	
results	with	the	area	cursor		
•  Mouse	users	group	achieved	similar	results	with	both	
cursors	
Results	of	satisfaction	
•  Overall	ranking	–	“preferred	choice	for	web	browsing”:	
•  Most	participants	with	motor	impairments	(7	/	9)	preferred	one	of	the	two	
virtual	cursor	proposed	
31/43
Conclusions	
Part	VI	–	“Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(IJHCS)	
•  Virtual	cursors	tested	proved	to	be	beneficial	for	participants	
with	motor	impairments	
•  Results	showed	improvements	in	their	performance		
•  Keyboard	users	achieved	best	results	with	the	cross	cursor,	
whereas	joystick	&	trackball	users	with	the	area	cursor.	
•  Promising	results:		
–  need	of	personalized	adaptations	to	assist	point	&	click	interactions		
–  they	suggested	a	performance	improvement	with	prolonged	use	of	virtual	
cursors	
32/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	
for	people	with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	
Information	Society,	2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	
access	to	people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	
Human-Computer	Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	
virtual	cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	
With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	
Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access,	
Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	work	
33/43
Rationale	
Part	VII	–	“Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access)	
•  Does	continuous	use	…	
…	enhance	the	performance?	
…	affect	satisfaction?	
•  We	performed	a	longitudinal	study	to	analyse:	
–  Learning	effect	
–  Influence	of	distractors	(other	links)	on	target	selection	
–  Satisfaction	evolution	over	time	
–  Significance	of	results	
34/43
Study	
•  2	pairs	of	cursors	(between-subjects	design):		
–  cross	vs	original	cursor	
–  area	vs	original	cursor	
•  3	target	configurations	to	study	influence	of	
distractors	
•  2	kind	of	tasks:		
–  Free	navigation	&	Target	acquisition	task	
•  8	participants	with	motor	impairments:	
–  Expert	users	with	their	pointing	device	
–  Grouped	based	on	pointing	device:	
•  6	weeks	long	unsupervised	study,	from	home	
with	their	personal	computers	
Keyboard	group	–	KU	 Joystick	&	trackball	group	–	JU	
4	participants	 4	participants:	1	trackball	+	3	joystick	
Part	VII	–	“Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access)	
Cross	cursor	 Area	cursor	
Original	cursor	 Original	cursor	
KU	group	 JU	group	
3	target	configurations	to	study	influence	of	distractors	
35/43
Measurements	
Part	VII	–	“Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access)	
•  Virtual	cursors	acceptance	based	on	measures	calculated	from	free	
navigation	
•  Effective	use	of	the	virtual	cursors	based	on	target	selection	without	
clicking	over	targets	
•  Seven	metrics	to	study	performance	on	target	acquisition	task	
–  Same	6	metrics	from	prev.	study,	plus	target	re-entry	
–  Also	the	throughput	(TP)	progression	on	target	acquisition	task	over	the	course	of	the	15	
sessions	
•  10	items	(SUS	questionnaire)	to	rate	(5-point	Likert	scale)	participants	
satisfaction	with	each	cursor	tested	
36/43
Results	on	performance	
Part	VII	–	“Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access)	
Users	 Movement	
Time	
Pointing	
Time	
Clicking		
Time	
Distance	
travelled	
Curvature	
Index	
No.	of	
pauses	
Target		
re-entry	
Keyboard	
	
3	Joystick		
&	1	trackball	
Users	 Movement	
Time	
Pointing	
Time	
Clicking		
Time	
Distance	
travelled	
Curvature	
Index	
No.	of	
pauses	
Target		
re-entry	
Keyboard	
	
3	Joystick		
&	1	trackball	
Users	 Movement	
Time	
Pointing	
Time	
Clicking		
Time	
Distance	
travelled	
Curvature	
Index	
No.	of	
pauses	
Target		
re-entry	
Keyboard	
	
3	Joystick		
&	1	trackball	
Target	configuration	1	–	close	distractors	
Target	configuration	2	–	distant	distractors	
Target	configuration	3	–	without		distractors	
37/43
Conclusions	
Part	VII	–	“Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	Navigation”	(IEEE	Access)	
•  Both	virtual	cursors	improved	the	performance	of	each	group:	
–  The	cross	cursor	to	keyboard	users	
–  The	area	cursor	to	joystick	and	trackball	users	
•  Positive	scores	on	satisfaction	after	a	prolonged	use	
–  Keyboard	users	improved	SUS	score	(90/100	è	93.1/100)	
•  Improvements	suggested:		
–  To	reduce	the	clicking	time		
–  To	improve	performance	of	the	standard	area	cursor	with	closely	spaced	links	
38/43
Overview	
•  Part	I:	Introduction	
–  Motivation	
–  Background	
–  Methodology	
–  Objectives	
•  Part	II:	A	platform	to	assist	user	testing	
–  “Assisted	Interaction	Data	Analysis	of	Web-Based	User	
Studies”	(INTERACT	2015)	
•  Part	III:	An	accessible	platform	for	inclusive	
in	situ	and	remote	experiments	
–  “Inclusive	Web	Empirical	Studies	in	Remote	and	In-Situ	
Settings:	A	User	Evaluation	of	the	RemoTest	
Platform”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	Interaction,	Vol.	
35,	Issue	7,	2019)	
•  Part	IV:	Adaptations	for	touch	screen	
tablets	
–  “Adapting	the	Web	for	People	With	Upper	Body	Motor	
Impairments	Using	Touch	Screen	Tablets”	(Interacting	
with	Computers,	Vol.	29,	Issue	6,	2017)	
•  Part	V:	Adaptations	for	people	with	low	
vision	
–  “An	exploratory	study	of	web	adaptation	techniques	for	people	
with	low	vision”	(Universal	Access	in	the	Information	Society,	
2020)	
•  Part	VI:	Virtual	cursors	for	people	with	
motor	impairments	
–  “Evaluation	of	two	virtual	cursors	for	assisting	web	access	to	
people	with	motor	impairments”	(Int.	J.	of	Human-Computer	
Studies,	Vol.	132,	2019)	
•  Part	VII:	Longitudinal	study	of	both	virtual	
cursors	
–  “Longitudinal	Study	of	Two	Virtual	Cursors	for	People	With	Motor	
Impairments:	A	Performance	and	Satisfaction	Analysis	on	Web	
Navigation”		
(IEEE	Access,	Vol.	8,	2020)	
•  Part	VIII:	Final	conclusions	&	future	
work	
39/43
Overall	conclusions	
•  Methodology	applied	was	valid	for	improving	web	
accessibility	to	different	groups	of	users	with	special	needs	
•  Technical	aids	tested	improved	web	access	to	specific	groups	
of	users.		
–  Assistive	technology	used	(screen	magnifiers	or	alternative	pointing	
devices)	was	a	determining	factor	to	select	the	most	appropriate.	
Part	VIII	–	Conclusions	&	future	work	
40/43
Overall	conclusions	
•  In	addition	to	performance	measures,	valuable	information	
from	interviews	with	participants	to	improve	techniques	
proposed	
•  Longitudinal	study	(remote	and	unsupervised)	provided	
insight	that	could	not	be	obtained	from	the	other	studies	
–  More	valuable	and	natural	interaction	data	from	unsupervised	
navigation	
–  Technology	acceptance	based	on	habits	of	use	
–  Greater	amount	of	data	to	analyse	significance	of	results	
–  Continuous	monitoring	allow	to	analyse	the	learning	effect	
Part	VIII	–	Conclusions	&	future	work	
41/43
Main	contributions	
•  A	platform	for	conducting	formal	web-based	user	studies	has	
been	developed	
•  A	new	heuristic	method	for	delimiting	point	and	click	cursor	
trajectories	for	link	selection	has	been	defined	
•  Additional	knowledge	about	what	difficulties	are	encountered	
in	the	Web	by	different	groups	of	users	has	been	provided		
•  Keyboard-only	users	with	the	novel	cross	cursor	significantly	
improved	their	performance	has	been	proved	
Part	VIII	–	Conclusions	&	future	work	
42/43
Future	work	
Part	VIII	–	Conclusions	&	future	work	
•  To	develop	downloadable	versions	of	technical	aids.		
•  To	apply	same	methodology	to	other	groups	of	users	(e.g.,	people	
with	intellectual	impairments),	and	to	other	contexts	(e.g.,	
smartphones)	
•  To	investigate	alternatives,	such	as	crowdsourcing	or	gamification	
techniques,	to	speed	up	the	annotation	process	
•  To	investigate	point	&	click	over	other	interaction	components	
(e.g.,	opening	dropdown	menus,	filling	forms,	etc.)	
43/43
Assisted	Interaction	for	Improving	Web	
Accessibility:	An	Approach	Driven	and	
Tested	by	Users	with	Disabilities	
Thank	you	for	your	attention	
Donostia/San	Sebastian	–	Fri.	6	Nov.,	2020	
Informatika	Fakultatea,	Dept.	of	Computer	Architecture	and	Technology	
Laboratory of Human-Computer
Interaction for Special Needs

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