Vitamins
Vitamins <ul><li>Organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Not built in a definite pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy providin...
Vitamins <ul><li>Amt. required varies with age </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble vs fat soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Vitamins A  (Pg. 69 Biology Textbook) <ul><li>Functions:  </li></ul><ul><li>formation of retina </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain...
Vitamin A deficiency
Vit. B complex <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Important co-enzymes in cellular respiration (several) </li></ul><ul><l...
Vit. B deficiency <ul><li>Anemia is a condition where RBCs are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues </li></ul><ul...
Vit. B deficiency
Vit. C <ul><li>Water soluble vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Function(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for formation of intercellula...
Scurvy <ul><li>caused by a dietary lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Ascorbic acid is important in the f...
Scurvy &quot;warning signs&quot; Gingival Hemorrhage  Corkscrew Hair  Periungual Hemorrhage  (swollen and bleeding gums wi...
Vit. D <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes absorption of calcium + phosphor...
Rickets Knock knee deformity  (genu valgum)   Bowleg deformity  (genu varum)  Wrist enlargement  Ankle enlargement  - Poor...
Excess Vit. D <ul><li>Demineralisation of bones  -> multiple fractures -> widespread calcification of soft tissues </li></...
Water
Water <ul><li>Essential component of protoplasm (very impt.) </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : </li></ul><ul><li>Medium in whi...
Water requirements <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Activity of person (active?) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental cond...
Minerals
Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic salts </li></ul><ul><li>Do not provide energy </li></ul><ul><li>Indispensable to bodily functio...
Minerals <ul><li>Refer to pg. 71 of textbook </li></ul>
Dietary fibre (roughage)
Dietary fibre <ul><li>Refers to indigestible fibrous materials present in diet e.g. cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Functions ...
Balanced diet
Balanced diet <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the right amount of carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals,...
Basal metabolic rate <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of energy required to carry on vital life processes of ...
Energy balance <ul><li>Ideally there should be a balance between energy intake and expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>If energy...
Losing weight <ul><li>Reduced intake of fats and carbohydrates (not other food nutrients e.g. protein) </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 3 - Vitamins, water, fibre and a balanced diet

3,081 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,081
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
17
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 3 - Vitamins, water, fibre and a balanced diet

  1. 1. Vitamins
  2. 2. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Not built in a definite pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Not energy providing </li></ul><ul><li>Required in small amts (for normal growth & development) </li></ul><ul><li>Diff. vitamins found in diff. foods (varied diet -> ensure we get most of our vitamins ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Vitamins <ul><li>Amt. required varies with age </li></ul><ul><li>Water soluble vs fat soluble vitamins </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms (characteristic signs) appear if vitamin deficient (mild/severe) </li></ul><ul><li>Mild deficiency (symptoms: person irritable/feels run-down) </li></ul>Cannot be stored in body -> need to be supplied in diet Can be stored in fats of the body
  4. 4. Vitamins A (Pg. 69 Biology Textbook) <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>formation of retina </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining healthy epithelial tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Fish liver-oils </li></ul><ul><li>Green leafy vegetables </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vitamin A deficiency
  6. 6. Vit. B complex <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Important co-enzymes in cellular respiration (several) </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><li>Yeast </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Bran </li></ul>
  7. 7. Vit. B deficiency <ul><li>Anemia is a condition where RBCs are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Many types and causes of anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Pernicious anemia is caused by a lack of intrinsic factor, a substance needed to absorb vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 is necessary for the formation of red blood cells </li></ul>- large, dense, oversized, red blood cells (RBCs) - occur when there is a deficiency of vitamin B-12.
  8. 8. Vit. B deficiency
  9. 9. Vit. C <ul><li>Water soluble vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Function(s): </li></ul><ul><li>Needed for formation of intercellular substances (btw cells; hold cells together) </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary for maintaining healthy epithelial tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh citrus fruits (oranges, lemons) + fruits (bananas, guava, papaya, tomatoes) </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh green vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Fruits juices (blackcurrent + rose hip syrups) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Easily destroyed by heat; excess is excreted by body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scurvy <ul><li>caused by a dietary lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) </li></ul><ul><li>Ascorbic acid is important in the formation of collagen (an element of normal tissues), and any deficiency interferes with normal tissue synthesis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scurvy &quot;warning signs&quot; Gingival Hemorrhage Corkscrew Hair Periungual Hemorrhage (swollen and bleeding gums with loosened teeth) (soreness and stiffness of the joints)
  12. 12. Vit. D <ul><li>Fat-soluble vitamin </li></ul><ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes absorption of calcium + phosphorous (from intestine) -> form teeth + bones </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><li>Fish liver oils (cod & halibut), eggs, yolk, milk & margarine </li></ul><ul><li>Ultraviolet rays in sunlight ( ergosterol in skin -> Vitamin D) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rickets Knock knee deformity (genu valgum) Bowleg deformity (genu varum) Wrist enlargement Ankle enlargement - Poor teeth and bone formation - Childrens’ bones are soft; pliable; bent under body weight
  14. 14. Excess Vit. D <ul><li>Demineralisation of bones -> multiple fractures -> widespread calcification of soft tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Calcification: </li></ul><ul><li>99% of calcium entering the body is deposited in bones and teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining 1% of calcium is dissolved in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>When a disorder affects the balance between calcium and other minerals or hormones, calcium can be deposited in other parts of the body, such as arteries, kidneys, lungs, and brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium deposits in these parts of the body can cause problems with the function of these organs. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Water
  16. 16. Water <ul><li>Essential component of protoplasm (very impt.) </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : </li></ul><ul><li>Medium in which various chemical rxns take place </li></ul><ul><li>Transporting agent for </li></ul><ul><li>- digested food substances (intestines -> other parts of body) </li></ul><ul><li>- excretory products (tissue cells -> excretory organs) </li></ul><ul><li>- hormones (from place of origin -> regions of body that require them) </li></ul><ul><li>Major/essential component of </li></ul><ul><li>- lubricant found in joints </li></ul><ul><li>- digestive juices </li></ul><ul><li>- blood </li></ul>
  17. 17. Water requirements <ul><li>Depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>Activity of person (active?) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental conditions (hot & dry -> more water required) </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering from disease? (e.g. diabetes -> water lost through urine) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Minerals
  19. 19. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic salts </li></ul><ul><li>Do not provide energy </li></ul><ul><li>Indispensable to bodily functions </li></ul><ul><li>Obtained from animals or plants </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements vary for diff. minerals </li></ul><ul><li>(K, Na, Cl, P, Fe -> large amts.) </li></ul><ul><li>Trace elements (minerals required in minute amts.) e.g. I, Zn, Mn </li></ul>
  20. 20. Minerals <ul><li>Refer to pg. 71 of textbook </li></ul>
  21. 21. Dietary fibre (roughage)
  22. 22. Dietary fibre <ul><li>Refers to indigestible fibrous materials present in diet e.g. cellulose </li></ul><ul><li>Functions : </li></ul><ul><li>Provides bulk to intestinal contents </li></ul><ul><li>Helps peristalsis (wavelike, muscular contractions of walls of digestive tract -> propels food to move along digestive canal ) </li></ul><ul><li>-> lack will cause constipation </li></ul><ul><li>Sources : </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Bran </li></ul><ul><li>Cereals </li></ul><ul><li>Wholemeal bread </li></ul>
  23. 23. Balanced diet
  24. 24. Balanced diet <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the right amount of carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, water and roughage to meet the daily requirements of the body </li></ul><ul><li>- Varies with lifestyle, activities and age </li></ul>
  25. 25. Basal metabolic rate <ul><li>Definition : </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of energy required to carry on vital life processes of the body when it is in complete rest </li></ul><ul><li>Affected by: </li></ul><ul><li>Climate (cold -> lose more heat -> more energy to maintain body temp.) </li></ul><ul><li>Body size (big/small; big -> more energy for basal metablism) ) </li></ul><ul><li>Age (young/old; young -> more energy needed for growth ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sex (male/female; males have higher heat production because they have less amt. of fatty tissue) </li></ul><ul><li>Health of individual (thyroxine levels determined by activity of thyroid gland; more thyroxine -> high basal metabolic rate) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation (active -> more energy -> higher basal metabolic rate) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Energy balance <ul><li>Ideally there should be a balance between energy intake and expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>If energy intake high; expenditure low -> body gains weight </li></ul>
  27. 27. Losing weight <ul><li>Reduced intake of fats and carbohydrates (not other food nutrients e.g. protein) </li></ul><ul><li>High protein intake discouraged -> excessive amt. of nitrogen -> removed by liver (urea) -> excreted by kidneys in urine (overwork liver and kidneys -> damage) </li></ul>

×