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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins


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Chapter 4 Nutrients Lesson 2 - Fats and proteins

  1. 1. Fats
  2. 2. Question: <ul><li>Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lesson objectives: <ul><li>Function of fats </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of fats </li></ul><ul><li>Occurrence of fats </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated vs unsaturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Activity: <ul><li>In pairs, list the possible functions of fats in animals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Function of fats <ul><li>Fats serve as: </li></ul><ul><li>An efficient source & storage of energy </li></ul><ul><li>As an insulating material (beneath the skin to prevent excessive heat loss) e.g. blubber in whales </li></ul><ul><li>As a solvent for fat-soluble vitamins , sex hormones & related hormones </li></ul><ul><li>As a constituent of protoplasm (esp. in protoplasmic mb) </li></ul><ul><li>As a means to restrict water loss from skin surface -> oily secretion by sebaceous glands in skin forms thin layer over surface ; reduces rate of water evaporation & heat loss </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fats <ul><li>Energy-providing foods </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly used as food stores (esp. animals) </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of elements -> carbon, hydrogen, oxygen [ less O:H than carbohydrates ] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fats <ul><li>Split by hydrolysis into simpler compounds </li></ul>
  8. 8. Occurrence <ul><li>Food rich in fats e.g. butter, cheese, fatty meat, nuts, leguminous plants </li></ul><ul><li>Liver of fish e.g. sharks </li></ul><ul><li>Fish like herring fish, salmon (oily fish) </li></ul><ul><li>Humans & other mammals can manufacture own fat requirements (not essential in diet) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Saturated vs unsaturated fats <ul><li>Saturated fats: </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (fatty substance) found together with saturated fats </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition of cholesterol in arteries -> heart attack </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable oil </li></ul><ul><li>Do not cause heart diseases (should be used as substitutes for animal fats) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Question: <ul><li>Do sumo wrestlers eat fat to gain mass? </li></ul>No!
  11. 11. Sumo wrestlers fatten up on chankonabe <ul><li>caloric staple of the sumo diet of sumo </li></ul><ul><li>consider chanko a nutritious food that helps make your bones denser </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients: tofu, carrots, cabbages, leeks, potatoes, lotus roots, daikon radishes, shiitake mushrooms, and giant burdock into a boiling chicken broth </li></ul><ul><li>form their MoonPie-shaped sumo bodies by swilling prodigious portions, along with rice, beer, and an occasional side dish of omelets, shrimp dumplings, and fried chicken. Then they take a long nap </li></ul>
  12. 12. Proteins
  13. 13. Lesson objectives: <ul><li>Structure of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Function of proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Protein deficiency </li></ul>
  14. 14. Proteins <ul><li>Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (often sulphur & phosphorus present) </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules largest & most complex </li></ul><ul><li>Basic units = amino acids (a.a) </li></ul><ul><li>a.a. possess an amino grp.(-NH 2 ) + acidic grp (-COOH) + a hydrocarbon side chain (R) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Structure of proteins
  16. 16. Amino acids
  17. 17. Proteins <ul><li>22 naturally occurring a.a. in plant & animal proteins </li></ul><ul><li>a.a. link with each other to form long chains </li></ul><ul><li>If ≥ 3 a.a link up by peptide bonds = polypeptide/ peptone </li></ul>
  18. 18. Proteins <ul><li>Protein molecules made of one or more polypeptide chains </li></ul><ul><li>Chains are coiled up to give a distinctive 3D shape </li></ul><ul><li>Coils are held in place by weak cross-links ( H bonds) -> broken easily by heat, acids & alkalis -> denaturation </li></ul>
  19. 19. Functions of proteins <ul><li>Essential for protoplasm synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Used for enzyme & hormone synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Used for antibodies formation to combat disease </li></ul><ul><li>Source of energy </li></ul>
  20. 20. Protein deficiency <ul><li>Average adult requires 50-100g of proteins a day </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency -> kwashiorkor </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>swollen abdomen (children) </li></ul><ul><li>Cracked scaly skin </li></ul>