The general body plans of animals. biology

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The general body plans of animals. biology

  1. 1. The General Body Plans of Animals<br />Prepared by:<br />Group 1 Morning <br />Joseph Martin Paet<br />Gladys Kim Remolacio<br /> Jesebel Garlan<br />Ruby Cocal<br />Jeremy Nacido<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Most animals are bilaterally symmetric, including humans.<br />It could be divided into matching halves by drawing a line down the center.<br />It permits streamlining, favors the formation of a central nerve center, contributes to cephalization, and promotes actively moving organisms.<br />
  3. 3.  Radially symmetric animals are symmetrical about an axis extending from the center of the oral surface.<br />Radial Symmetry<br />Coral<br />Jelly Fish<br />
  4. 4. Asymmetrical<br />Do not show definite symmetry.<br />
  5. 5. REGIONS<br />Segmentation the division of some animal body plans into a series of repetitive sections. “Advanced” animals have body segments, and specialization of tissue.<br />Metamerism  segments are similar with each other.<br />Tagmatization  segments are different and may become fused to fused to a functional groups/tagmata.<br />
  6. 6. Terms to be Familiar With<br />Anterior head-end<br />Posterior  tail-end<br /> Cephalic  toward the head<br /> Caudal  toward the tail<br />Dorsal back side<br />Ventral belly side <br /> Lateral  on or toward the side<br /> Medial  on or toward the middle<br />Proximal  toward the central part<br />Distal  toward the extremities<br /> Peripheral  near the surface of the body<br />
  7. 7. The Sea Star<br /> The sea star has a radial symmetry.<br />
  8. 8. PARTS OF A STAR FISH<br />Figure 7.1<br />
  9. 9. The Roundworm<br />Ascarislumbricoides, a common intestinal roundworm having a bilateral symmetry. It lacks true segmentation and appendages.<br /> It is covered with a tough, elastic cuticle, bearing minute striations.<br /> Four whitish longitudinal lines extended along the body, one dorsal, one ventral, and two lateral.<br /> The mouth opens at the anterior end between three rounded lips.<br /> The anus is a transverse slit close to the posterior end of the ventral surface.<br />Figure 7.2<br />
  10. 10. The Earthworm<br /> The Pheretima has a bilaterally symmetrical body, long and cylindrical, bluntly tapered at each end, and somewhat depressed posteriorly.<br /> The body is organized in a linear series of similar segments (somites/metameres) which is called mesmerism.<br /> The mouth is in the first somite and the vertically oval anus, in the last somite.<br /> The clitelium is a conspicuous glandular swelling over the somites 32 to 37.<br /> Setae – minute, rod-like chitinous appendages. <br />Anus<br />Somites<br />Mouth<br />Figure 7.3<br />Clitelium<br />
  11. 11. It is divided into three segments.<br /> The segments are not similar and is referred to as tagmata.<br />The Cockroach<br />
  12. 12. 1. The Head<br />Compound eyes (ommatidia)<br />Antennae<br />Gena<br />Ocelli<br />Figure 7.4<br />
  13. 13. 2. The Thorax<br />Cervix<br /> The cervix (neck) connects the head to the thorax.<br />
  14. 14. 2. The Thorax<br />Pretarsus<br />Pulvillus<br />Figure 7.5<br />
  15. 15. 2. The Thorax<br />Prothoracic plate<br />Figure 7.6<br /> The prothoracic plate is a broad plate located anteriorly.<br />
  16. 16. 2. The Thorax<br />Forewing/Elytrom<br />Cercus<br />Hindwing<br />Figure 7.6<br />Forewing spread in the mesothorasic area while the hind wing is on the metathorasic area.<br /> The hindwing is the one used in flight.<br />
  17. 17. 2. The Thorax<br />Figure 7.7<br />
  18. 18. 3. The Abdomen<br /> Male<br />Female<br />Spiracles are apertures for gas exchange.<br />
  19. 19. The Shrimp<br />Figure 7.8<br />The head and the thorax are fused at the cephalothorax.<br />
  20. 20. The Toad<br />
  21. 21. 1. The Head<br />Nictitating Membrane<br />Parotid Glands<br />
  22. 22. 2. The Trunk<br />Female<br />Forearm<br />Hump<br />Finger<br />Foreleg<br />Belly<br />Anus<br />Thigh<br />Hindleg<br />Foot<br />Shank<br /> Male<br />Ankle<br />Webs<br />
  23. 23. Figure 7.9<br />
  24. 24. Answers to Self Assessment Question<br />1. Compare and contrast the following invertebrates based on the following:<br />
  25. 25. 2. Compare and contrast the tod with fish, other amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals based on the following:<br />
  26. 26. What is the adaptive significance of segmentation in animals?<br />Segmentation is the division of an animal into similar parts. It's main significance is that it provides a simple way of making a small animal into a larger one - basically by duplicating a segment two or more times an animal can be made bigger without complex alterations. This has particular significance in evolution where it is generally believed that larger animals evolved through a simple genetic mutation which generated multi-segmented forms from non-segmented forms.<br />Segmentation is visible to one extent or another in virtually all larger fauna - from insects and earthworms to vertebrates (the spinal column is an example of segmentation - the repeated use of vertebral disks to create a larger creature than would easily be possible by simple enlarging one vertebra)<br />
  27. 27. THE END<br />

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