Before the 1800’s
Puppetry is the first recorded reference to film in our worlds history. It has been
around for 30,000 years and considered as an art form. They is evidence that puppetry
was used by the Ancient Egyptians.
Back in history puppetry was a main source of entertainment. Within Europe it was
scene as dirty and was frowned upon by the upper social class.
The Magic Lantern
This was the first projector of hand drawn images and it was created by Athanasus
Kircher. This magic lantern is an simple image projection devise that uses a single light
source such as a candle and projects the hand drawn images painted of a reflective
surface through a lens on the wall.
Within this period magic lanterns popularity increased and the rich saw them as
entertainment for dinner parties they called them Motion toys.
First motion picture ever made
In 1872 Eadweard began experimenting on capturing moving images. He placed 12
cameras on a horse race track, spread through across a track, and attached the thread
into contact with a cameras shutter. Once the horse ran through and broke the treads it
caused the cameras to operate in sequence. The result were 12 photos showing a
horse running. With the invention of his Zoopraxiscope he could quickly protect his
images.This is the first movie to ever exist.
The invention of Film
In 1885, two men named George Eastman and William H Walker developed the very
first reel of film. Film was sensitized paper created with a gelatin emulsion.
Eddison’s Kintegraph and Kintesscope
The kintegraph was an machine that could capture a sequence of images which was
similar to a camera only it took a picture of the moving image every half second.
This was created by Thomes Edison’s British employee William Kennedy Laurie
Dickenson. These images were then places in a other invention the Kintescope.This
device had a motor and shutter mechanism that ran a loop of film past an electric
light source. The spectator would then peer through a small window to see the
From this period they was a race to who could create the best invention for film so
the Germans , English , Italian and Americans were very keep to make new
cameras. This helped film into the 1900 as new equipment was created and its
popularity was growing.
Within this time period the use of editing, backdrops and a different approach to the
flow time in cinema were becoming into view.
Some of the earliest special affects were used due to the use of editing. Techniques
such as making the transition of a distant shot to a close up were first created during
this time. This was done by mounting the camera man on wheels and then on a track
which physically moved the camera closer to what was being shot. This ancient movie
technique was used for the very first time in the movie filmed in 1904 called
Photographing of a Female Crook.
With in early 1900 it would have been seen cool to see an event of a movie played
again at different angles for example A trip to the moon this used this technique a
rocket was shown take off several times.
The Nickelodeon era
In 1905 an inexpensive way to create movies was created. The five cent theatre. By
having theatre tickets so cheap movies was becoming popular and easier to access.
These movies increased the appeal for films in the 1920’s.
The Rise of Hollywood
This was the birth of the star and the start of the studio. Majority of film making
actually took place in the Hollywood area. In the 1920’s around 800 movies were
created each year.
Hollywood was the initial birth place of the studio. They were important when it came
to Americas image of film making.
Studios were put in 3 different types: The Big Five, The Little Three, and Poverty Row.
The Big Five: Warner Brother Pictures, Paramount, RKO, Metro Golden Meyer, 20th
The little Three: Universal, United Artists, Columbia Picture.
Poverty Row: Disney, Monogram , Republic , 20th Century Pictures.
Received more recognition during the 1920’s because they was using there own
unique styles. Without limitation of movie directing the director's role in Hollywood
This was the worst time for stars as there life's would be monitored they were used
as publicity to advertise there film. They would be told where to eat how to dress
and what leisurely activates they should do.
The Golden Age Of Hollywood
What set apart the 1930's in film history from any other decade was the use of sound
in movies. Within this time was femme fatal and the beginning of Hollywood’s role in
Films were poor quality and most where dialogue dominated play adaptions with poor
acting and unmoving cameras.
.The 1930's were also the birth of many new film genres such as gangster films,
musicals, newspaper-reporting films, historical biopics, social-realism films, light-
hearted screwball comedies, westerns and horror flicks.
Within this period documentaries and non-Fiction films were popular. Due to the
World War 2 on the rise they were many documentary opportunities.
Film Industry During the War
Within this time technology was progressing making films more modern. In 1964 the
film industry raked its highest profiles with a all time theatre attendance. Many films
were about war and in 1942 the government office of war was foundered. They served
as a major propaganda agency during world war two and used the film industry to
record and capture the nation's war time activities.
Hollywood's Role in World War Two
During this time period films dramatically changed, going from the typical happy -go-
lucky dance movies to a more realistic tone.
One of the many ways Hollywood helped during the war was by putting together
various patriotic extravaganzas solely made for entertaining the troops.
The Youth Oriented Market
Following World War II, most films were idealized with conventional portrayals of
women and men, but the younger generation wanted new and exciting portrayals of
rebellion. Hollywood responded to the younger audience's demands by casting various
anti-heroes such as James Dean, Paul Newman, and Marlon Brando and anti-heroines
like Ava Gardner, Kim Novak, and the blonde bombshell Marilyn Monroe.
The Threat of Television
Studios were beginning to lose money, so they were forced to find new innovative ways
to make money from television. Hollywood studios began to produce more hours of
film for TV that for feature films. This marked the major Hollywood studios into
With such a high production cost of making films in Hollywood and the decrease in
studio size, most studios decreased their internal production and increased move
making outside of the country. Britain was one of the most used country for foreign
film making. The country was an economically advantageous production base, making
big budget and big picture films
Financial Difficulties in the Film Industry
Hoping this will appeal to audiences, the average film ticket price was lowered to only a
dollar, causing the average film budget to be slightly over 1.5 million dollars. By the end
of the decade, the film industry was very depressed and troubled and was experiencing
an all time low that had been in the works for 25 years.
The Search for A Blockbuster
The Renaissance of Hollywood was primarily based upon traditional film genres of its
successful past with bigger block-buster dimensions. Most of the time, studios invested
heavily on only handful of bankrolled films, hoping that one or two would succeed
New Markets for Hollywood's Products
The 70's provided Hollywood with the opportunity of fining emergence in new things.
Hollywood was able to increase its profits by moving opening nights to Fridays and
Saturdays, making it available for more people to see. It also started advertising its new
releases on television. This tactic was fist shown to be successful when the move Jaws
made $700,000 just through TV marketing.
What did the 80's have in store for us?
The 1980's consolidated the gains made in the 70's instead of trying to initiate any new
trends. Packaged and perfectly designed for audience appeal, few 80's films became
classics. This decade was characterized by the introduction of high concept films with
cinematic plots that could be easily characterized by 25 words or less. This made the
movies of the 80's easily marketable and understandable.
Big Business Entertainment
The budget of films greatly increased due to the use of special affects and inflated the
names of many actors. Big Businesses eventually took control over movies which
allowed foreign companies to own properties of Hollywood.
High Cost Demanding Stars
Actors and actresses such as Mel Gibson, Tom Cruise, Eddie Murphey, Jim Carrey, Julia
Ronerts, Demmie More, and others all demanded script approval before filming, image
publicity approval, studio paid jet travel, and various extras (personal trainers and
nutritionists), making them the most expensive stars in film history.
The Digital Age and Home Video
VCR's were still very popular in the 90's and the rentals and purchases of videotapes
and big businesses were much larger than the sales of movie tickets.
During the first couple of years in the 90's decade, the economic recession of 1991
lowered the box office revenue greatly. For the most part, the cinema attendance was
up due to the multi screen Cineplex complexes
The new millennium was a turning point in film history with a strong use of special
affects. Well into our second century of filmmaking, the medium of film has already
documented remarkable achievements such as the invention of the blue ray disc and
3D cinema experiences.