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# Laboratory report of three surfaces of wood

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hardwood,softwood,three different wood surface.

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### Laboratory report of three surfaces of wood

1. 1. ASD2TC/2010 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Praise to the almighty Allah who give us His bless and opportunity to finish this assignment,without his blessed we cannot finished this work.Also not forgetting to Mrs. Junaiza binti Ahmad Zaki who had been so politely and a lot of commitment in helping his student to finished this assignment,to friend also who have been so kindly in sharing their knowledge and cooperation by helping us with this assignment.All of your behaviour we accept as away in learning. Thanks to you all.By the way , in the period of times to make this assignment fully finished we had a lot of wonderful moment and all of this memories will we keep and lock in the deep of our heart.Indirectly , we also learn so many things about the spirit in group like how to give good commitment while were in group.Thanks once again to Junaiza binti Ahmad Zaki, without you our assignment will not kerned all this sweetest things.Thanks once again to all, we will remember all of this happinest memories for the rest of our life. Thanks you so much.... Assalamualaikum.
2. 2. ASD2TC/2010 2 OBJECTIVES Upon completion, student undergoing this course should have good background in the following areas; Understanding various component of wood in their formation. Appreciating the important of various wood cells and their function. Identification of commercial species using hand lens and microscopes. Differentiating various wood species through their diagnostic features.
3. 3. ASD2TC/2010 3 LABORATORY WORK 1 TITLE: Understanding the three surfaces of wood OBJECTIVE: A) To makes sure that we understand the three different surfaces of wood- Cross, Radial, and Tangential. B) To differentiate the three surfaces especially between radial surface and tangential surface of wood. MATERIALS AND PROSEDURE: A) Wood cube, magnifier lens and knife. B) Prepare the three surfaces of wood using the knife C) Draw the three dimensional structure of wood
4. 4. ASD2TC/2010 4 Kelempayan (Neolamarckia cadamba) (Family: Rubiaceae) Main species Tree and distribution One species occurs in Peninsular Malaysia. - Medium-sized to large trees to 40 m tall, sometimes 45 m tall - bole straight and cylindrical, often branchless of up to 25 m and a diameter of up to 100 cm rarely up to 160 cm, sometimes with buttresses to 2 m tall. Distributed in lowland to mountain forests to 1000 m altitude; often by streams and rivers and in open sites in the forest. Characteristics and physical properties The sapwood is not well defined from the heartwood, which is white turning to yellow on exposure. Texture is moderately coarse and even. Vessels lines present. Grain is generally straight. The timber is light and soft with an air-dry density of 290 to 465 kg m~'. Macroscopic structures - Growth rings :moderately distinct, marked by layers of thicker fibres.
5. 5. ASD2TC/2010 5 - Vessels :medium sized to large, solitary and in radial multiples of 2 to 4, sometimes in clusters, - tyloses :absent, - deposit :gum-like deposit present. - Wood parenchyma :present but difficult to detect with the naked eye and just visible by using the lens due to the lack of contrast between the fibres and the parenchyma. Apotracheal parenchyma as diffuse and diffuse in aggregates, forming short uniseriate lines. Paratracheal parenchyma sparse and confine only to the immediate vicinity of the vessels. - Rays :of two distinct sizes, the broader rays can be- observed easily with a handlens. - Ripple marks :absent. - Intercellular canals :not observed. Figure 1 Kelempayan (Neolamarrkia cadainba) x 20 Uses A light-coloured and light-weight timber. The timber is suitable for use as picture frame, moulding, skiring, wooden sandals, disposable chopstick, general utility furniture, veneer and plywood.
6. 6. ASD2TC/2010 6 PROSEDURE: Step on preparing the surface of wood Step for preparing of specimen:
7. 7. ASD2TC/2010 7 HARDWOOD(Shorea spp.)
8. 8. ASD2TC/2010 8 RESULT: A) From the drawing, elaborate the three surfaces of wood THREE DIMENSION SURFACE B) Highlight the differences between the various surfaces TANGENTIAL SECTION(FLATSAWN) HARDWOOD - Ray in boat shaped - Vessel SOFTWOOD - Ray in boat shaped - Tracheid
9. 9. ASD2TC/2010 9 RADIAL SECTION(QUARTERSAWN) HARDWOOD - Ray in cube shaped - Vessels SOFTWOOD - Ray in cube shaped - Tracheid CROSS SECTION(END GRAIN) HARDWOOD - Pore - Gum duct - Intercellular canals SOFTWOOD - Tracheid - Resin canal - Growth ring
10. 10. ASD2TC/2010 10 DISCUSSION: CROSS SECTION - See growth ring boundaries,and interiors of cells,end view of log. TANGENTIAL SECTION - Cut longitudinally,more or less down parallel to growth rings,at right angles to rays. RADIAL SECTION - Cut longitudinally,more or less down at right angles to growth rings,and parallel to rays
11. 11. ASD2TC/2010 11 Hardwood Typical hardwood. The horizontal plane of a block of hardwood (for example, oak or maple) corresponds to a minute portion of the top surface of a stump or end surface of a log The vertical plane corresponds to a surface cut parallel to the radius and parallel to the wood rays. The vertical plane corresponds to a surface cut at right angles to the radius and the wood rays, or tangentially within the log. In hardwoods, these three major planes along which wood may be cut are known commonly a - end-grain, - quarter-sawed (edge-grain) - plain-sawed (flatgrain) surfaces Hardwoods have specialized structures called vessels
12. 12. ASD2TC/2010 12 SOFTWOOD Typical softwood. The rectangular units that make up the end grain of softwood are sections through long vertical cells called tracheids or fibers Because softwoods do not contain: - vessel cells The tracheids serve the dual function of transporting sap vertically and giving strength to the wood. Softwood fibers range from about 0.1 to 0.3 in. (3 to 8 mm) in length.
13. 13. ASD2TC/2010 13 CONCLUSION: A) Draw important conclusion on the laboratory work First,the tree cut down.then only certain part of the tree will taken.the part taken then is cut into small cubes.The cues then is alter to determined better view of the surfaces,that is cross section,tangetial section,and radial section. B) Discuss the benefit obtained from those laboratory work To determined the features of the wood surface and differentiate the various features in hardwood.
14. 14. ASD2TC/2010 14 LABORATORY WORK 2 TITLE: Observing and recognizing the true surfaces of solid wood OBJECTIVE: A) To observe closely the features on the three different surfaces of wood- Cross, Radial and Tangential. B) To recognize special features on the three surfaces of wood. MATERIALS: - Wood cube, hand lens and knife - Wood cube (kelempayan,Neolamarckia cadamba) - Microtome and safranine solution
15. 15. ASD2TC/2010 15 PROCEDURE: 1. The rough cubes that finished cut and clean by laboratory 1 was taken. 2. Then, the rough cubes in good sized and texture werw can be seen pores clearly were chosen. 3. Draw the three dimensional structure of wood. 4. Put wood cube into a beakers which contain water to boil it until it soft and easy to cut and label the wood cube. 5. After the cube has been boiled, take it out from the beaker. 6. Cut the wood cube using microtome until get the thinner / best slice of wood specimen. 7. Place the slice in the petri dish which contain a few drop of safranine red colour. 8. Then, immersed the specimen in 90%, 70%, 50%, 30% alcohol for 5 minutes for the less condense solution. 9. Cut the slice and place it onto suitable size of specimen slide. Drop a few drop of xylene. Next, put the specimen onto the slide and immediately cover it by using cover slip. Make sure no bubbles trap in the slide.
16. 16. ASD2TC/2010 16 Preparation of slide 1. Wood cube 2. Soak the wood cube into water. 3. Cut the wood cube into slices. 4. The slices of wood is transfer to the petri dish contain safranin red and being immersed for 10 minutes. 5. Soak it into alcohol.Then, the slices of wood is transfer to the 90% alcohol and immersed in it about 5 minutes. 6. After that, the slices of wood moved to the 70% alcohols.The slices are immersed in it about 5 minutes. 7. The slices of wood is moved into the 50% alcohols after being immersed in 70% alcohol.The slices of wood are immersed for 5minutes. 8. Then, the wood is take out from 50% alcohol and moved into 30% alcohol.The slices are immersed for 5 minutes.After immersed in 30% alcohol, the slices of wood is take out and put into xylene solution. 9. Make a slide specimen and look at the structure using light microscope.
17. 17. ASD2TC/2010 17
18. 18. ASD2TC/2010 18 RESULT AND DISCUSSION A) Prepared the three surface of wood using the knife SLIDE CROSS SECTION RADIAL SECTION TANGENTIAL SECTION
19. 19. ASD2TC/2010 19 B) Draw the three dimensional structure of wood. C) Label varios features found on different surfaces CROSS SECTION (x4) (x10)
20. 20. ASD2TC/2010 20 RADIAL SECTION (x4) (x40) TANGENTIAL SECTION (x4) (x10) (x4) (X10) (x40)
21. 21. ASD2TC/2010 21 CONCLUSION: A) Draw important conclusion The aim of this laboratory work is to determined the different character of the different surface in the wood that is produced in different way and have different function . B) Discuss the benefit obtained from this laboratory work. We can also found the type of rays in the hardwood which is consist of procumbent cell and upright cell called heterogenous.
22. 22. ASD2TC/2010 22 LABORATORY WORK 3 TITLE : Assessing the structural features of wood OBJECTIVE : A) To study the structural features of the commercial timbers of Malaysia B) To observe the various cells and important features in several : - heavy hardwood (balau,bitis,chengal, etc) -medium hardwood (kapur,kasai,kelat, keruing, etc -light hardwood(punah,rengas,simpoh, etc) C) To group wood species according to similar physical features observed above. D) To observe various physical features of wood such as color, density, texture, grain, latex traces, and included phloem. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A. Thirty species of hardwood mention above B. Study structural features(pores,parenchyma,rays) C. Note diagnostic features to differentiate between spp.
23. 23. ASD2TC/2010 23 METHOD: Wood samples of commercial species 1) the wood samples was arranged follow their colors.The colors that had been observed are yellowish, reddish, pinkish, purplish. 2) the wood samples was arranged follow their density.The density of wood samples is classified into three group, that is, • High density • Medium density • Low density 3) the wood samples was arranged follow their texture.The texture of the wood samples is classified into: • Coarse texture
24. 24. ASD2TC/2010 24 • Medium texture • Fine texture 4) the wood samples is arranged follow their figure.The figure of wood is classified into: • Ripple mark • Silver • Growth ring • Streaky 5) the wood samples is arranged follow their canals.The canals is classified into: • concentric canals • Diffuse canals 6) the wood samples is arranged follow odor.The odor of wood is classified into: • Camphor • Damar • Garlic • Spicy 7) The wood samples is arranged follow their grain.The grain is classified into: • Diagonal
25. 25. ASD2TC/2010 25 • Straight • Wavy 8) the wood samples that have the included phloem characteristic and latex traces characteristic is identified. Each wood has their own characteristic of color. With this characteristic, its may helps for the identification of the wood. Some woods are characteristically white, reddish, orangy, greenish and many more. However, the majority of wood are a blend of complex shades of color that are difficult to describe exactly. The color of wood is variable within range depending on such factors, such as location of tree, age of the tree, state of dryness, exposure conditions and so on. For examples are:  Wood cut from the extreme outside layer of a log is mainly sapwood and is generally of different color from inner layers or heartwood.  The outer layers of heartwood may be less colored than inner layers nearer the pith.  Wood from young trees is lighter in color than wood from more mature or older trees. From this laboratory work, we identified the type of colors of the wood samples.
26. 26. ASD2TC/2010 26 COLOUR Brownish color Wood species: Perupok, Bakau, Nyatoh, Mengkulang, Mahang, Sepetir, Gerutu, Sentang, Merpauh, Giam, Medang, Balau, Merawan, Kelat, Terap, Resak, Keranji, Keledang, Bitis, Kungkur. Reddish color Wood species: Bintangor, Kekatong, Meranti Bakau, Keruing, Kapur, Kasai, Geronggang. Rengas, Tualang, Simpoh, Dark red Meranti, Kempas, Merbau Yellowish color Wood species:Podo. Mempisang, Yellow Meranti, Mersawa, Ramin, Sesendok, Jelutong, Petai, Pulai, Malayan Kauri, Rubberwood, White Meranti, Kembang Semangkuk, Chengal, Tembusu, Meranti, Punah. Pinkish colours Wood species:Kedondong, Durian, Terentang, Penarahan, Melantai, Melunak, Mata Ulat, Light Red Meranti
27. 27. ASD2TC/2010 27 Purplish color Wood species:Red Balau, Kulim
28. 28. ASD2TC/2010 28 DENSITY High density Wood species: Giam, Kekatong, Keranji, Merbau, Resak, Bakau, Kempas, Keruing, Kulim, Mata Ulat, Meransi, Tembusu, Kasai, Rengas, Kelat, Keledang, Tualang, Chengal, Bitis, Red Balau, Balau. Medium density Wood species:Podo, Sepetir, Rubberwood, Ramin, Nyatoh, Mersawa, Mempisang, Melunak, Medang,Kungkur, Kembang Semangkuk, Meranti Bakau, Dark Red Meranti, White Meranti,
29. 29. ASD2TC/2010 29 Yellow Meranti,Merawan, Gerutu, Durian, Bintangor, Simpoh, Punah, Mengkulang, Merpauh, Kapur Low density Wood species: Sentang, Sesendok, Terap, Terentang, Geronggang, Light Red Meranti, Jelutong, Kedondong, Machang, Melantai, Perupok, Petai, Penarahan, Pulai, Malayan Kauri
30. 30. ASD2TC/2010 30 TEXTURE The term refers to the quality of wood which is determined by the relatives sizes of the basic structural elements and their arrangement. Texture is said to be fine, if the elements particularly vessels and rays are small in size, it is coarse if these elements are large. The texture is even if the major elements are of uniform sizes and distributed evenly, but uneven if the elements are of variables sizes or distributed unevenly. Coarse Wood species: - Geronggang, Durian, Meransi, Kempas, Tualang Medium Wood species: - Yellow Meranti, Meranti Bakau, Merpauh, Mengkulang, Punah, Light red Meranti, Dark Red Meranti, Petai, White Meranti, Mempisang, Jelutong, Pulai, Kedondong, Terap, Perupok, Sesendok, Malayan Kauri, Penarahan, Terentang, Kungkur, Kembang Semangkuk, Mersawa, Gerutu, Medang, Bintangor, Melunak, Melantai,Chengal, Machang. Fine Wood species:
31. 31. ASD2TC/2010 31 - Tembusu, Keruing, Merawan, Mata Ulat, Rengas, Nyatoh, Podo, Giam, Sepetir, Kulim, Simpoh, Bakau, Ramin, Keledang, Kelat, Red Balau, Bitis, Kekatong, Resak, Kasai, Balau, Merbau, Keranji, Sentang, Kapur, Rubberwood
32. 32. ASD2TC/2010 32 FIGURE This physical features is refers to the interesting figure of the wood that formed from the arrangement of elements or unarranged color. The figure that can be seen from the wood is: Growth ring Wood species: Podo, Malayan Kauri Ripple Mark Wood species:Chengal, Kapur, Kempas, Melunak Silver figure Wood species:Mempisang, Kembang Semangkuk, Resak Streaky figure Wood Species:Kekatong, Sepetir Intercellular canal - Concentric Wood species: Dark red meranti, Light red meranti, Meranti bakau, white meranti, Red balau, Yellow meranti, Melantai, Giam, Mersawa, Gerutu, Merawan, Kapur,
33. 33. ASD2TC/2010 33 - Diffuse Wood species : Keruing
34. 34. ASD2TC/2010 34 ODOUR The characteristic smell of wood is most reliable in freshly cut wood. However, in most woods smell fades or is completely lost in the process of drying and exposure. For testing smell, the surface layer should be removed and only newly exposed surface examine. Though presence of odor or smell is reliable feature, its absence may be transient, and hence has no bearing on identification. Camphor Wood Species: Kapur Dammar Wood species: Keruing Garlic Wood species: Kulim Spicy Wood species: Medang
35. 35. ASD2TC/2010 35 GRAIN Straight grain - applies to the fiber elements when they are aligned parallel to the axis of the log. - Wood species: Sentang, Meranti Bakau, Merbau, White Meranti, Simpoh, Kekatong, Jelutong, Mempisang, Sesendok, Punah, Bitis, Renags, Dark Red Meranti, Meransi, Podo, Kembang Semangkuk, Sepetir, Yellow Meranti, Ramin, Bintangor, Terentang, Medang, Penarahan, Kulim, Balau, Gerutu, Bakau, Kasai. Diagonal grain - refers to the elements that, as a result of bad sawing, do not run parallel to the length of a sawn board. - Wood species: Petai, Malayan Kauri, Mersawa, Mengkulang, Tembusu, Chengal, Melunak, Giam, Kelat, Kedondong, Kapur, Red Balau, Geronggang Wavy grain - Refers to the elements undulating in a regular manner or to the direction of constantly changing fiber. - Wood species:
36. 36. ASD2TC/2010 36 Resak, Durian, Keledang, Light Red Meranti, Rubberwood, Machang, Keruing, Kempas, Tualang, Merawan, Merpauh, Nyatoh, Perupok, Terap, Keranji, Pulai, Mata Ulat, Melantai, Kungkur. WOOD DEFECT Latex traces - Only found in Jelutong and Pulai. Included phloem - found only in Kempas and Tualang Pitch pocket - An accumulation of resinous material on the surface or in pockets below the surface of wood. Also called gum or sap.Found in softwood
37. 37. ASD2TC/2010 37 HEAVY HARDWOOD (GROUP 1) SPECIES EXPLANATION BALAU(Shorea spp.) Family: Dipterocarpaceae Species: Shoreaatrinervosa By drawing: General characteristics Sapwood : Well defined. Heartwood :colour yellow-brown. Lustre :planed surface with medium. Stripe figure : with subtle. Texture :moderately fine and even. Grain :interlocked. Density :over 800 kg/m³ to less than1155 kg/m³. Structure Growth rings: absent Vessels with: - simple perforation - medium-sized - moderately few - mostly solitary with few radial
38. 38. ASD2TC/2010 38 - oblique groups of 2 to 3 - fairly evenly distributed but with a tendency to form short - oblique lines - mostly with tylosis but without vessel deposits. Wood parenchyma: - both apotracheal and Para tracheal types present. Rays: - Fine - just visible to the naked eye on cross section: not prominent on a radial Surface. Ripple marks: - absent but a slight suggestion of storeying of element may be occasionally present. Intercellular canals: - vertical canals smaller in size than the vessel, arranged in concentric formation: - The canals are generally filled with resin
39. 39. ASD2TC/2010 39 BALAU MERAH (Shorea spp.) FAMILY :Dipterocarpaceae SPECIES: - Shoreacollina (balaumerah) - S. guiso - (balaumembatu) - S. kunstleri (balaulautmerah) By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood : well defined Heartwood : colour, heartwood purple-red or dark red-brown Luster : planed surface with variable (rather poor to medium) Stripe figure : occasionally with stripe figure Texture : rather coarse but even Grain : interlocked; hard to cut across grain; end cut generally shiny Density :air dry density ranging from 800 to 880 kg/m³ (50 to 55 lb/ft³); moderately durable. Structure Growth rings : absent Vessels with: - simple perforation - medium-sized to moderately large - few or moderately few - mostly solitary with a few radial or oblique groups of 2 to 4 - evenly distributed but with a tendency to form short oblique lines - mostly filled with tyloses; deposits absent. -
40. 40. ASD2TC/2010 40 Wood parenchyma : - both apotracheal and paratracheal types present - The apotracheal types consisting of irregularly spaced concentric bands and short or broken tangential lines. - The paratracheal form, generally aliform with a tendency to the confluent type. Rays : - ranging from fine to medium-sized (depending on the species) - barely visible to clearly visible to naked eye on cross-section Ripple marks : generally absent Intercellular canals : - vertical canals in concentric formation - often as large as the vessels and filled with white resin. BITIS(Madhuca utilis) Family :Sapotaceae Species : Madhucautilis(bitis) General Characteristic Sapwood : well defined Heartwood : Reddish-brown or chocolate red-brown in colours Luster : Occasional Stripe figure : On radial surface
41. 41. ASD2TC/2010 41 By drawing : Texture : Moderately fine and even Grain: Fairly stripe, very hard and horny to cut across grain, end cut shiny Density: From 280 to 1200 kg/m³(51 to 75lb/ft³) Durable: Even under adverse condition Structure Growths ring: Absent Vessle With: - simple perforation - medium size,moderatelyfew - mostly in radial multiple of 3 to 6 or more - unevenly in chain-like formation Tyloses :Common Wood parenchyma : - Exclusivelyapotrcheal, as closely and regularly spaced narrow Band. Ray: - Very fine - not visible to the nacked eye
42. 42. ASD2TC/2010 42 - not conspicuous on radial surface Ripple marks: Absent Intercellular canals : Absent CHENGAL (Neobalanocarpus heimii) Family :Dipterocarpaceae Species : Neobalanocarpusheimii By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood : well defined Heartwood : - yellow green when freshly cut - weathering to dark tan-brown in colour Luster : Planed surface Stripe figure :Often with vague Texture :Moderately fine and even Grain : Interlocked, hard to cut across grain Density : Ranging from over 915 to 980 kg/m³ (57 to 61 lb/ft³) Very durable :even under edverse condition Structure Growth ring : Absent
43. 43. ASD2TC/2010 43 Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-size - moderately numerous - others in radial pairs and multiples of 2 to 4 - evenly distributed without any clear arrangement Tyloses :Fill with tyloses Wood parenchyma : - abundant - both apotracheal and paratracheal, - apotracheal type consisting of irregularly spaced bands of variable thickness and short closely space.Tangential lines expending from rays - Paratracheal parenchyma sparse.As incomplete narrow borders, not clearly visible with lens. Rays : - moderately fine to medium-sized - visible to naked eye on cross-section - Not conspicuous on a radial surface Ripple mark : Characteristics and very distinct Intercellular :
44. 44. ASD2TC/2010 44 - Vertical canals typically smaller than the vessel in concentric formation canals GIAM(Hopea spp.) Family : Dipterocarpaceae Species: Hopea spp. By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :Only moderately distinct from heartwood unless bluestained Heartwood :Yellow-brown, sometime with light greenish tinge(like chengal)Weathering to a dark tan-brown. Luster : Planed surface not particularly. Texture :Fine and event. Grain : Spiral, wavy or interlocked, very hard and horny to cut across grain. Density :Ranging from over 865 to 1220 kg/m³ Very durable : Even under adverse conditions. Structure Growth rings : defined but concentric marking occasionally present. Vessel with : - simple perforation
45. 45. ASD2TC/2010 45 - small to medium-sized - mostly small - moderately numerous to numerous - mostly solitary with some radial or oblique pairs - radial multiples of 3 to 4 - evenly distributed, but with a tendency to form short oblique lines. Tyloses :variable, abundant in some species but only sparse in others. Wood parenchyma: - variable, ranging from sparse to abundant - a both the apotracheal and paratracheal types. Rays : - moderately fine to medium-sized - visible to the naked eye, distinct but not conspicuous on a radial surface. Ripple marks : absent. Intercellular canals : - the vertical type - mostly smaller than the vessel in size - arranged in concentric lines, filled with whitish resin.
46. 46. ASD2TC/2010 46 KEKATONG (Cynometra spp.) Family :Leguminosae Species:Cynometraspp By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :Lighter-coloured but not sharply differentiate from heartwood Heartwood : Dark red except for the brown black or chocolate- coloured corewood Lustrous : - Planed surface generally not lustrous - Mottled Attractively streaked on radial surface and mottled on tangential surface by the lighter-coloured wood parenchyma bands Texture : Moderately fine Grain : Spiral or shallowly interlocked, very hard and horny to cut across the grain Density :Air dried density Ranging from 800 to 1155 kg/m³ (55 to 72 lb/ft³) Durable : Moderately Structure Growth rings :ill-defined but vague concentric markings often visible Vessels with :
47. 47. ASD2TC/2010 47 - simple perforation - medium-size - few or moderately few - Generally in about equal proportion of solitary and radial group of 2 or 3 - evenly distributed without any clear arrangement Tylosis : Sparse. Deposits : Common Wood parenchyma : Abundant as closely space confluent bands Rays : - Moderately fine - just visible to naked eye on cross section - not conspicuous on a radial surface Ripple mark : Absent KERANJI(Diallium spp.) Family: Leguminosae Species: Dialiummarginatum General Characteristic Sapwood :distinct Heartwood : golden-brown, red-brown or dark red-brown Figure : light-colouredzig-zag markings on tangential surface Texture :ranging from moderately fine to moderately coarse and even
48. 48. ASD2TC/2010 48 By drawing: Grain : wavy and interlocked; very hard horny to cut across grain Density : from 755 to 1250 kg/m³ Moderately durable: exposed to severe condition Structure Growth ring: absent Vessels with: - simple perforation - medium-sized to moderately large - few or rarely moderately few - mostly solitary with a few in radial groups of 2 to 4 - evenly scattered without any clear arrangement. Deposits: yellow or white. Wood parenchyma: in regularly and closely spaced concentric bands Rays: - very fine to moderately fine - not visible to naked eye - not prominent on radial surface Ripple marks: very distinct
49. 49. ASD2TC/2010 49 Intercellular canals: absent MERBAU (Instia palembanica) Family: Leguminosae Species: Intsiapalembanica By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood : sharply Heartwood : orange-brown or dark red-brown Stripe figure :(made-up of alternating layer of darker and lighter colours) on radial surface and zig-zag markings produced by wood parenchyma on tangential surface Texture : coarse but even Grain : interlocked and often wavy Density : from 515 to 1040 kg/m³(32 to 65 1b/ft³) Structure Growth rings : demarcated mainly by terminal layers of wood parenchyma Vessels with : - simple perforation - moderately large or very large - very few or few - mostly solitary with some radial pairs and multiple of threes
50. 50. ASD2TC/2010 50 - evenly scattered without any arrangement Deposits :sulphur-yellow and dark-coloured Wood parenchyma : - apotracheal parenchyma as irregularly spaced concentric layers - the paratracheal type conspicuously surrounding the pores, as aliform or occasionally locally confluent Rays : - barely visible or just visible to the naked eye on cross-section, - not prominent on a radial surface Ripple marks : absent Intercellular canals: absent RESAK(Vatica spp.) Family: Dipterocarpaceae Species: Cotylelobiummelanoxylon General Characteristic Sapwood : moderately well defined Heartwood : yellow-brown or light-brown Figure :Silver figure on radial surface common Texture : fine and even Grain : shallowly interlocked; moderately hard to very hard to cut
51. 51. ASD2TC/2010 51 By drawing: across grain Density : 655 to 1152 kg/m³ Structure Growth ring : absent Vessels with : - simple perforation; - moderately small to medium-sized. Tyloses : few in the lighter varieties and abundant in the denser woods Deposits : white or dark-coloured resin secreted from resin canals may simulate vessel-deposits Wood parenchyma : - apotracheal parenchyma as diffuse strand or short narrow lined extending from ray to ray or narrow terminal line - the paratracheal type usually indistinct with a lens, consisting of narrow sheaths to the vessels. Ray : - two distance size - very fine and medium-sized - the letter distinct to the naked eye on cross-section and often
52. 52. ASD2TC/2010 52 conspicuous on a radial surface. Intercellular canals : - the vertical type present, generally they are in diffuse arrangements and therefore difficult to spot with a hand lens unless they are distinctly larger than the pores - occasionally a few cannal may be arranged in short tangential series. TEMBUSU (Fagraea spp.) Family: loganiaceae Species :Fragraeaelliptica By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood : not differentiated from heartwood by colour Heartwood : colour red or yellow-brown when freshly cut, weathering to a light orange –brown . Texture : ranging from moderately fine to moderately coarse. Grain : - slightlyinterloked and often wavy - moderately hard or hard to cut across grain Density : ranging from 640 to 1075 kg/m³ (40 to 67 lb/ft³) Structure
53. 53. ASD2TC/2010 53 Growth ring :absent Vessel with : - with simple peroration - medium-sized to moderately large - few or moderately few, - in variable proportions of solitary and radial multiples of 2 to 7, - evenly distributed without arrangement Tyloses :sparse to abundant as shiny films Wood parenchyma : as closely and regularly spaced band with tendency to form confluent bands Ray : - fine and not visible to the naked eye - not prominent on a radial surface Ripple mark :absent Intercellular canals : absent
54. 54. ASD2TC/2010 54 MEDIUM HARDWOOD (GROUP 2) KAPUR (Dryobalanops spp.) Family: Dipterocarpaceae Species : Dryobalanopsaromatica By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood : well defined Heartwood : rose-red or deep red Texture : rather coarse but even Grain : shallowly or heavily interlocked or spiral; hard to cut across grain Odour : often with camphor-like Density : from 575 to 815 kg/m³ Structure Growth ring : - absent but irregularly spaced - concentric layers of vertical canal, may simulate growth ring Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized to moderately large; - generally moderately few; almost axclusively solitary
55. 55. ASD2TC/2010 55 - evenly distributed but form short oblique lines Wood parenchyma : - both the apotracheal and paratracheal types - the former of irregularly spaced concentric lines and some diffuse strands and the latter as indistinct bordes to the vessels with a tendency to aliform Rays : - moderately fine to medium-sized - clearly visible to the naked eye. Ripple marks : generally present but only occasionally very distinct Intercellular canals : - vertical canals in concentric series - individual canals smaller than the vessel, filled with white resin or empty KASAI (Pometia pinnata) Family: Sapindaceae Species: Pometiaspp General Characteristic Sapwood : generally lighter-coloured and fairly well defined Heartwood : light-red brown or red-brown; weathering to a darker shade of red-brown Lustrous : planed surface moderately
56. 56. ASD2TC/2010 56 By drawing: Stripe figure : often with vague on radial surface Texture : moderately coarse and even Grain : interlocked; hard to cut across grain Density : from 735 to 915 kg/m³ Durable : when exposed to adverse condition Structure Growth ring : vague concentric marking produced by terminal layers of wood parenchyma may be visible on end surface Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized to moderately large - few in number - few solitary - other the radial groups generally of 2 to 3 but occasionally 3 to 8 - each such group consisting of a large pore with a tail-like appendage of 4 to 8 Tyloses : present but not abundant Deposits : orange-brown in colour Wood parenchyma :
57. 57. ASD2TC/2010 57 - both apotracheal and paratracheal types - paratracheal parenchyma as narrow borders to the pore and the apotracheal as concentric terminal bands. Rays : - very fined - not visible to naked eye on cross-section - not prominent on a radial surface Ripple marks : absent Intercellular canals : absent KELAT (Eugenia spp.) Family :Myrtaceae Species :Eugenia griffithii There are a lot of 200 species of Eugenia, but not all the species can attain commercial size. A rough count indicated that about 87 species are capable of producing boles of medium to large size, out of General Characteristic Sapwood : lighter colour but not always well ddefined Heartwood : grey-brown, deep brown or red-brown Luster : plained surfaced luster Texture : generally moderately fine Grain : interlocked, irregular or wavy; moderately hard or hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density, ranging from 570 kg/m³ to kg/m³ (35 to 59 lb/ft³) Durable :only the species of E.griffihii was tasted for its durability
58. 58. ASD2TC/2010 58 which only 50 bear specific epithets. By drawing: and was found to be moderately durable under adverse conditions. Structure Growth rings : indistinct but accasional concentric marking may be present. Vessels with : - simple perforation - moderately small to medium-sized - moderately numorous - generally angular in shape - mostly in radial multiples of 2 to 8 - fairly evenly distributed without any arrangement Tyloses : - Variable - from sparse to fairly abundant - occasionally with deposits. Wood parenchyma : - only of the paratracheal type - ranging from scant aliform (barely visible with a lens) to fairly well defined aliform or confluent. Rays :
59. 59. ASD2TC/2010 59 - very fine to moderately fine - Barely visible to the nacked eye or just visible on cross- section - not prominent on a radial surface. Ripple marks : absent. Intercellular canals :absent. KELEDANG (Artocarpus spp.) Family :Moraceae Species : Artocarpuslenceifolius By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :moderately or well defined Heartwood :orange yellow-brown; weathering to gold-brown; dark orange-brown; Walnut-brown or russet-brown Luster :planed surface moderately lustrous or very glossy Stripe figure :on radial surface Texture :moderately coarse but even; grain deeply interlocked Grain :moderately hard or hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 495 to over 945 kg/m³(31 to 59 lb/ft³) Durable :moderately durable in the case of A. integer var. sivestris and A. lanceifolius even under severe conditions of exposure; other are non durable.
60. 60. ASD2TC/2010 60 Structure Growth ring :absent or indistinct. Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized or moderately large - few in number or very rarely moderately few - solitary vessels and vessels in groups fairly well balanced about equal - radial group composed of 2 to 5 pores - fairly evenly scattered with occasionally a faint suggestion of local arrangement in short tangential lines; Tyloses :usually present but not abundant Deposits :chalky-white deposits often present. Wood parenchyma : - exclusively paratracheal - often conspicuously surrounding the pores as vasicentric - aliform or confluent ( mostlyaliform) - the colour of wood parenchyma is typically orange-brown. Rays : - two sized
61. 61. ASD2TC/2010 61 - the medium-sized rays clearly visible to the naked eye - the finer ones not; not prominent on a radial surface - colour of the rays typically orange- brown. Ripple marks :absent.`` Intercellular canals :absent. KEMPAS (Koompassia malaccensis) Family :Leguminosae Species : Koompassiamalaccensis By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :very well defined Heartwood :brick-red when freshly sawn, weathering to orange-erd speckled by yellow brown lines Luster :planed surface moderately lustrous Stripe figure :on radial surface Texture :coarse and even Grain :interlocked, spiral or wavy; concentric rings of abnormal tissue may be visible on cross-section of unsawn logs, very hard and horny to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 770 to 1250 kg/m³ (48 to 70 lb/ft³) Durable :moderately durable even under severe conditions of exposure.
62. 62. ASD2TC/2010 62 Structure Growth rings :indistinct or absent Vessel with : - small perforation - large or very large - very few or few - partly solitary and partly in radial groups of 2 to 6 - evenly distributed without any clear arrangement Tyloses :generally without tyloses Deposits :white coloured deposite rarely present. Wood parenchyma : - predominantly paratracheal - as conspicuous aliform - narrow terminal bands (apotrachaeal) may rarely occur. Rays : - moderately fine - just visible to the naked eye on cross-section - not conspicuous on a radial surface. Rapple marks :generally distinct.
63. 63. ASD2TC/2010 63 Intercellular canal :absent. Included phloem :Concentric bands of included phloem often present (but this is usually discarded during sawing and may not be seen except on logs). KERUING (Dipterocarpus spp.) Family : Dipterocarpaceae Species : Dipterocarpusgracilis By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :grey-brown and distinct Heartwood :red-brown or purple-red-brown Luster :planed surface with variable luster,mostly poor but some species fairly lustrous Stripe-figure :mostly with subtle Grain :hard or very hard and horny to cut across grain Density :air-dry density from 550 to 985 kg/m³ (34 to42 lb/ ft³) Durable :Some keruing are found to be moderately durable whereas others are not durables. Stucture Growth rings :present. Vessel with :
64. 64. ASD2TC/2010 64 - simple perforation - moderately large or very large - few ormoderately few in number - exclusively solitary - evenly distributed but often with a tendency to arrangement in short oblique lines Tyloses :bundant in some species but remarkably open in most species free of deposits. Wood parenchyma : - both apotracheal and paratracheal as scattered - confluent patches containing vertical resin canal and in some species with diffuse strands or short tangential lines independent of resin canals - the paratracheal parenchyma very sparse and as incomplete borders to the vessels but not always distinct with a hand lens. Ripple marks :rarely distinct but generally absent . Intercellulare canal ; - vertical canals as large or larger than the vessels in some species and smaller in other - arrangement diffuse or in short tangential lines containing 2 to 7 canals in a series - very rarely in continuous tangential series.
65. 65. ASD2TC/2010 65 Other features Burning splinter test : Splinter burns to ash. Froth test : negative KULIM (Scorodocarpus borneensis) Family : Olacaceae Species : Scorodocarpusborneensis By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :lighter-coloured and moderately distinct from heartwood Heartwood :dark purple-brown when fresh but losing much of the purple colour after weathering and turning to adark brown Luster :planed surface dull (without any luster) Stripe figure :on radial surface Texture :moderately fine and even Grain :interlocked , hard to cut across grain Odour :freshly cut wood with a strong garlic-like odour Density :air dry density averaging 835 kg/m³ (52 lb/ft³) Durable :moderately durable on land and believe to be very resistant to toredo attack. Structure
66. 66. ASD2TC/2010 66 Growth rings :absent. Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized - moderately numorous or accasionally numorous - very few as solitary - mostly in radial pairs or radial multiple of 3 to 8 in a series - rather unevenly distributed - with a distinctly radial arrangement Tyloses :generally abundant Deposites :common. Wood parenchyma : - exclusively apotracheal, as diffuse or as short and narrow tangential lines between the rays - sometimes in netlike formation (with a hand lens visibility of wood parenchyma is generally poor). Rays : - moderately fine - generally not clearly visible to the naked eye and not prominent on a radial surface. Ripple marks :absent.
67. 67. ASD2TC/2010 67 Intercellular canals :absent. MATA ULAT (Kokoona spp.) Family: Celastraceae Species :Kokoonacoriaceae By drawing: General Characteristic . Sapwood :not well defined Heartwood :brown with a pink tinge (some individuals with a distinctly defined, rose-coloured core ) Luster :planed surface faitly lustrous ; fine streaks on radial surface and decorative zig-zag markings on tangential surface Texture :very fine and even Grain : - shallowly interlocked - freshly sawn wood reported to have a distinct smell “ suggestive of carnations” which does not persist - very hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 880 kg/m³ to 1040 kg/m³ (55 to 65 lb/ft³) Durable :moderately durable in exposed conditions or in contact with the ground. Structure Growth rings :concentric terminal layers of wood parenchyma
68. 68. ASD2TC/2010 68 simulate growth rings. Vessels with : - simple perforation moderately numerous or numerous - exclusively solitary - slightly uneven distributed - often arranged in groups Tyloses :absent Deposits :white or yellow coloured deposit may be present. Wood parenchyma : - as broad terminal bands - the bands often an as toming or ending abruptly - conspicuous to the naked eye on all surface. Rays : - very fine - not visible to the naked eye - not conspicuous on aradial surface. Ripple marks :absent. Intercellulra canals :absent. Other features
69. 69. ASD2TC/2010 69 Burning splinter test : Splinter burns to ash. Froth test : Negative MENGKULANG (Heritiera spp.) Family : Sterculiaceae Species : Heritieraborneensis By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :lighter-coloured and fairly distinct Heartwood :occasionally pink-brown; more common red-brown or dark brown Luster :planed surface lustrous; with moderately conspicuous flecks on radial surface Texture :coarse and fairly even Grain :shallowly interlocked or wavy; moderately to cut across grain Density :air dry density on an average 752 kg/m³ ( 47lb/ ft³) Durable :moderately durable in exposed condition or in contact with the the ground. Structure Growth rings :rather indistinct but vague concentric markings generally visible. Vessel with : - simple perforation
70. 70. ASD2TC/2010 70 - moderately large or very large - few in number; few solitary, others in radial pairs and multiples of 3 to 8 - a few of the large vessels with a tail-like appendage of very small vessels - scattered without any arrangement Tyloses :absent Deposits :dark coloured deposits common. Wood parenchyma : - of both apotracheal and paratracheal present - apotracheal parenchyma are mostly diffuse - less commonly as short, narrow lines between the rays which in some areas are closely spaced and form a scalariform pattern - occasionally in narrow terminal lines - paratracheal parenchyma as narrow borders to the vessels, occasionally with a tendency to aliform. Rays : - of two distinct sizes - the wider rays distinct to the naked eye; the rays are distinctly dark coloured - produced characteristics speckles on tangential surface and
71. 71. ASD2TC/2010 71 conspicuous flecks on radial surface. Ripple mark :generally present. Intercellular canals : - of the traumatic type accasionally present - filled with dark-coloured gum-like substance - the arrangement of the cannals is concentric. MERPAUH (Swintonia spp.) Family :Anacardiaceae Species: Swintonia floribunda By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :lighter-coloured than heart-wood but not well defined Heartwood :grey-brown with or without a pink tinge or reddish brown Luster :planed surface very lustrous Stripe figure :on radial surface and ornamental zig-zag marking on tangential faces Texture :rather coarse but even Grain :interlocked; hard or moderately hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 655 top 880 kg/m³ (40 to 55 lb/ft³) averaging 47 lb/ft³ Durable :moderately durable in the case of S.floribunda var. penangiana; other species of merpauh are not durable.
72. 72. ASD2TC/2010 72 Structure Growth rings fairly distinct, produced by terminal layers of wood parenchyma . Vessel with : - with simple perforation - medium-sized;moderately large - generally few - rarely moderately few - as solitary and in pairs and multiples of 3 to 7 in a series - evenly distributed without any arrangement Tyloses :often present but well developed Deposites :absent. Wood parenchyma : - both apotracheal - as irregularly spaced concentric bands ( terminal) and paratracheal - as narrow incomplete borders borders to the vessel. Rays : - very fine - not visible to the naked eye except for occasional medium- sized rays containing horizontal canals
73. 73. ASD2TC/2010 73 - fairly prominent on radial surface due to the significant contrast in colour between the rays and the background. Ripple marks :absent. Intercellular canals :of the horizontal type characteristic.
74. 74. ASD2TC/2010 74 LIGHT HARDWOOD GROUP 3 PUNAH (Tetramerista glabra) Family :Tetrameristicaceae Species:Tetrameristaglabra By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :not defined when freshly cut but fairly clearly demarcated in seasoned timber Heartwood : - straw-coloured or yellow-pink, weathering to a pink-brown with splashes of an orange-brown tinge Luster :planed surface rather dull(without luster) Stripe figure :without figure Texture :coarse but even Grain :straight or shallowly interlocked or spiral; moderately hard or hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 625 to 800 kg/m³ (39 to 50 lb/ft³) Durable :moderately durable if exposed to adverse conditions. Structure Growth rings :absent.
75. 75. ASD2TC/2010 75 Vessels with : - simple perforation - moderately large - moderately few in number - very few solitary, the others in radial pairs and multiples of up to 6 or more - unevenly distributed - radial in arrangement Tyloses :present but sparse Deposits :pink coloured deposits common. Wood parenchyma : - apotracheal - diffuse often in short tangential lines extending from ray to ray. Rays : - two distinct sizes - the border rays distinct the naked eye. Ripple marks :absent. Intercellular canals :absent.
76. 76. ASD2TC/2010 76 SIMPOH (Dillenia spp.) Family: Dilleniaceae Species: - Dilleniaalbiflos (simpohputih) - D. excels ( Simpohungu) - D. grandifolia (simpohdaunMerah) - D.indica(Simpoh). By drawing: General Characteristic Sapwood :light red-brown not sharply differentiated from heartwood Heartwood : red-brown or dark red-brown often with purple tinge Luster :planed surface not particularly lustrous Silver figure :on radial surface Texture :moderately coarse and even; grain interlocked Grain :moderately hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 675 to 815 kg/m3 (43 to 51lb/ft3 ) and averaging at 735kg/m3 (46lb/ft3 ) Durable :not durable. Structure Growth ring :absent Vessels with : - scalariform perforation plates - medium sized,generally moderately few but occasionally moderately numerous - exclusively solitary but overlapping vessel segments may produce the illusion of tangential pairs
77. 77. ASD2TC/2010 77 - diffuse without any arrangement Tyloses :absent Deposits : white colored deposits common. Wood Parenchyma : - Sparse - mainly apotrachel, - sometimes not visible even with a lens except at scattered speaks but commonly visible (with a lens) as diffuse strands or short tangential lines between the rays - paratracheal type present(as par tracheal diffuse) but this is not visible with a lens. Rays : - two distinct sizes - fines rays barely visible to the naked eye - broad rays distinct producing conspicuous silver figure on radial surface. Ripple marks: absent. Intercellular canals: absent.
78. 78. ASD2TC/2010 78 TUALANG (Koompassia excelsa) FAMILY: Lugiminosae SPECIES: Kompassiaexselsa By drawing: General characteristics Sapwood: grey-white and distinct Heartwood : red-brown or dark red-brown,weathering to dark brown Stripe figure: on radial surface and feathery tracery on tangential surface Layers of of abnormal tissue: (included phloem of the concentric type) generally present in large size specimens Texture: coarse and even Grain: interlocked Density: ranging from 800 to 865 kg/m(50 to 54 lb/ft) Moderately durable: under severe conditions of exposure Structure Growth ring: absent Vessel with : - simple perforation - large,generally few in numbers - sometimes the solitary vessels predominating - sometimes the radial pairs
79. 79. ASD2TC/2010 79 Tyloses : absent Wood parenchyma: - abundant and visible to the naked eye as wavy confluent band a occasional narrow terminal lines which are less wavy Rays: - moderately fine - not generally visible to the naked eye due to lack of contrast in colour from the ground mass of fibers Ripple marks: absent Intercellular canals: absent Include phloem: concentric layers of included phloem distinct visible on the cross section of log BINTANGOR (Calophyllum spp.) Family :Guttiferae Species : -Calophyllumaustrocoriaceum -C.biflorum General characteristic: Sapwood :light pink-brown in colour and distinct from heartwood Heartwood :colour of heartwood pink-brown, orange-red brown Luster :planed surface very lustrous Stripe figure :on radial surface an dark colouredzig-zag markings on tangential surface
80. 80. ASD2TC/2010 80 -C.canum (bintangormerah) -C.coriaceum (bintangorgunungdaunbesar) -C.cuneatum (bintangorgunungdaunkecil) -C.curtisii (bintangorbunga) - C.depressinervosum (bintangorlekok) -C.enervosu -C.ferrugineum -C.ferrigineumvar. nerifolium -C.flavo-romulum -C.floribundum -C.fraseri -C.incrassatum (bintangordaunpanjang). Texture :coarse and uneven Grain :interlocked,spiral or wavy;moderately hard to cut across grain Density :air dry density ranging from 465 to 865 kg/m³(29 to 54 1b/fţ³)averaging 688 kg/m³1b/fţ³) Durable :not durable if exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground except the species of C.retusum which is classified as moderately durable. Structure Growth ring: present produced by terminal layers of wood parenchyma. Vessels with : - simple perforation - medium-sized - moderately large or occasionally very large - exclusively solitary and arranged in bunches - radially oblique festoons or flare-like pattern Tyloses : - sparse and occasionally abundant - gum-like deposits sparse. Wood parenchyma :abundant apotracheal type as widely spaced
81. 81. ASD2TC/2010 81 By drawing : concentric bands visible to the naked eye. Rays: - very fine not visible to the naked eye - not prominent on a radial surface. Ripple marks: absent. Intercellular canals: absent. DURIAN (Durio spp.) Family:Bombacaceae Species: -Coelostegiaborneensis (punggaidaunbesar) -C.griffithii(punggai) General Characteristics Sapwood :lighter-coloured and distinct Heartwood : pink-brown,red-brown or deepred –brown except C.griffithii which is orange-brown Luster :Planed surface without luster Texture :coarse and uneven Grain :only slightly interlocked Density :ranging from 450-815 kg/m3 (28-51Lb/ft3 ) and averaging 688
82. 82. ASD2TC/2010 82 -Durio -carinatus(durianpaya) -D.graviolens(durian merah) -D.lowianus (durian daun) By drawing: kg/m3 (43 lB/ft3 ) Durable :Not durable if exposed to the weather or incontact with the ground. Structure Growth rings: Absent Vessels with : - simple perforation - moderately large or very large - very few or few innumbers - a few solitary - majority in radial pairs or multiples of 3-8 or rarely more and a few clusters - distributed without any arrangement Tyloses : absent; gum-like deposit common. Wood parenchyma: f the paratracheal type not visible with a hand lens. Rays : - Rays of two distinct sizes - the finer rays not visible to the necked eye but the broadermedium sizes ray distinct. Ripple marks : Present but not always clearly visible.
83. 83. ASD2TC/2010 83 Intercellular canals : Of the traumatic types filled with gummy substance rarely present. Other features Burning splinter test : Splinter burns to ash. Froth test: Negative. GERONGGANG (Cratoxylon borescens) Family:Hipericaceae Species: Cratoxylumarborescens By drawing: General Characteristics Sapwood :lighter-coloured and distinct from heartwood Heartwood :colour of heartwood brick-red or deep pink Luster :planed surface very lustrous without figure Texture :moderately coarse but even Grain :interlocked ,soft to cut cross section Density :air dry density ranging from 350 to 610 kg/m3 (22 to 38 lb/ft3 ) Structure: Vessel with : - simple perforation
84. 84. ASD2TC/2010 84 - medium size Tyloses : -variable sometimes absent occasionally present Wood parenchyma :sparse paratracheal Ray :fine and visible to the naked eye(occasionally not visible because of lack of colour contrast with the back ground fiber Ripple marks :absent Intercellular canals :absent GERUTU (Parashorea spp.) Family : Dipterocarpacea Species : -Parashoreadensiflora General characteristic Sapwood :whitish yellow Heartwood :moderately distinct from the heartwood,which is light golden brown and darkening to a deep brown on exposure. Luster :Planed surface with luster Texture :moderately coarse and even
85. 85. ASD2TC/2010 85 (gerutupasir) -P.globosa (gerutupasirdaunbesar) -P.stellata(gerutu-gerutu). By drawing: Grain :interlocked Density :air dry density ranging from 640 to 770kg/m³(40 to 48 1b/ft³) Durable :the timber is not durable in contact with the ground or exposed situations. Structure: Growth ring :present Vessels with : - simple perforation - medium-sized or moderately large - few or moderately few in number - predominantly solitary - the others in radial or oblique pairs and radial groups of up to 4 - unevenly distributed in groups or in short obliques lines Tyloses :present Deposit :absent. Wood parenchyma : - both apotracheal and paratracheal types - paratracheal parenchyma incomplete vasicentric,aliform or
86. 86. ASD2TC/2010 86 confluent - with the aliform type predominant - apotracheal type as concentric bands containing resin canals occasional narrow - terminal band - diffuse strands - narrow or broad discontinuous tangential layers. Rays : - fine or medium-sized - visible or distinct to the naked eye on cross section - or not conspicuous on a radial surface. Ripple marks :absent. Intercellular canals :vertical canals of the concentric type filled with white resin. JELUTONG (Dyera costulata) Family: Apocynaceae Species: Dyeracostulata General Characteristic Sapwood and heartwood : - not different by colour - wood cream-white when freshly cut - weathering to a pale straw colour
87. 87. ASD2TC/2010 87 By drawing: Luster :planed surface lustrous or very lustrous Texture: moderately fine and even Grain: almost straight Density: - ranging from 415 to 495 kg/m3 (26 to 31 lb/ft3 ) - not durable and very susceptible to blue stain fungi attack Structure Growth ring: absent but concentric layers simulating growth ring often visible on cross section produced by periodic without wood parenchyma Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized - moderately few - a few solitary Tyloses: absent Deposits: absent Wood parenchyma : exclusively apotracheal,as narrow only on very cleanly cut surface
88. 88. ASD2TC/2010 88 Ray: - medium-sized and clearly visible to the naked eye - not prominent on a radial surface Intercellular canals: latex canal simulating small horizontal canals occur in the ray Latex traces: - large radial passages which appear lens-shaped on a tangential surface (up to 12mm high) occur in whorls. - This however,may be observed only in large boarded KEDONDONG (Family of Burseraceae) Family:Burseraceae Species: -Canariumapertum (kedondong) -C.denticulatum (kedondong) -C.littorale General Characteristics Sapwood :Lighted-coloured than heartwood but the boundary is not clearly demarcated Heartwood : pink-brown or red-brown Texture :moderately fine and even Grain :wavy and interlocked; moderately hard to cut across grain Density :air dry Density ranging from 495 to 975 kg/m³ (31-61 lb/ft³). Durable :Moderately durable if exposed to the weather or in contact with the ground.
89. 89. ASD2TC/2010 89 (kedondongbulan) -S.griffithii (kedondongkerantai) By drawing: Structure Growth ring: absent Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized;moderatelyfew - generally mostly solitary - the rest in radial pairs and multiples of 2-6 in a series - often with avague suggestion of arrangement in short oblique lines Tyloses :sparse or ill-developed in some species but well developed and moderately abundant in other Deposit : absent. Wood parenchyma :indistinct or absent Rays: - fine or moderately fine - barely visible or just visible to the naked eye on cross section. Ripple mark: absent Intercellular canals : of the horizontal type present in some species but these are not always visible with a 10× hand lens.
90. 90. ASD2TC/2010 90 RENGAS (Gluta spp.) Family:Anacardiaceae Species: -Gluta aptera (rengas kerbau jalang) -G.becarii -G.curtisii By drawing: General Characteristics Sapwood :Lighted-coloured than heartwood but the boundary is not clearly demarcated Heartwood : pink-brown or red-brown Texture :moderately fine and even Grain :wavy and interlocked; moderately hard to cut across grain Density :air dry Density ranging from 672-992 kg/m³ Durable :Medium Structure Growth ring: absent Vessel with : - simple perforation - medium-sized;moderatelyfew - generally mostly solitary - the rest in radial pairs and multiples of 4 or more in a series - often with avague suggestion of arrangement in short oblique lines Tyloses :sparse or ill-developed in some species but well developed
91. 91. ASD2TC/2010 91 and moderately abundant in other Deposit : absent. Wood parenchyma :apotracheal and paratracheal Rays: - fine or moderately fine - barely visible or just visible to the naked eye on cross section. Ripple mark: absent Intercellular canals : of the horizontal type present in some species.
92. 92. ASD2TC/2010 92 HARDWOOD (GROUP 1) BITIS(Madhuca utilis) BALAU(Shorea spp.) BALAU MERAH(Shorea spp.) GIAM(Hopea spp.)
93. 93. ASD2TC/2010 93 KEKATONG(Cynometra spp.) CHENGAL(Neobalanocarpus heimii) MERBAU(Instia palembanica) TEMBUSU(Fagraea spp.)
94. 94. ASD2TC/2010 94 KERANJI(Diallium spp.) RESAK(Vatica spp.)
95. 95. ASD2TC/2010 95 HEAVY HARDWOOD (GROUP 2) KEMPAS(Koompassia malaccensis) KELAT(Eugenia spp.) MATA ULAT(Kookona spp.) MENGKULANG(Heritiera spp.)
96. 96. ASD2TC/2010 96 MERPAUH(Swintonia spp.) KELEDANG(Artocarpus spp.) KAPUR(Dryobalanops spp.) KASAI(Pometia pinnata)
97. 97. ASD2TC/2010 97 KULIM(Scorodocarpus borneensis) KERUING(Dipterocarpus spp.)
98. 98. ASD2TC/2010 98 LIGHT HARDWOOD (GROUP 3) PUNAH(Tetramerista glabra) RENGAS(Gluta spp.) GERONGGANG(Cratoxylon arborescens) KEDONDONG(Family of Burseraceae)
99. 99. ASD2TC/2010 99 JELUTONG(Dyera costulata) BINTANGOR(Calophyllum spp.) TUALANG(Koompassia excelsa) DURIAN(Durio spp.)
100. 100. ASD2TC/2010 100 SIMPOH(Dillenia spp.) GERUTU(Parashorea spp.)
101. 101. ASD2TC/2010 101 Conclusion : From this practical, we can differentiate the physical structure of wood. We can conclude that each wood specimens hold their own characteristics as their recognisation. There have wood that have same characteristics and also have only one type of wood that have the characteristic such as the odor. From this, we know that not all wood have the same characteristics. We can identify the wood based on their specific characteristic such as: - Dipterocarpus spp. have gum duct series while Shorea spp. have concentric series. - Bintangor have festoon pore. - Jelutong and pulai have latex traces. - Merbau have black and yellow deposit. - Punah have pink deposit.
102. 102. ASD2TC/2010 102 LABORATORY WORK 4 TITLE : Assessing wood features from slide specimen OBJECTIVE : - To observe various wood features from the section or slide specimen-cross section,radial section and tangential. - To compare features observed in two categories of wood specimens-hardwood and softwood MATERIALS : - Light microscope - Slide specimens representing hardwood and softwood METHODS : - The specimen of hardwood and softwood which have been provided was perceive. - The three section of wood which is in cross section,radial section and tangential section were inspected by using light microscope. - Finally, the important wood features of both hardwood and softwood figure was identified.
103. 103. ASD2TC/2010 103 Hardwood Typical hardwood. The horizontal plane of a block of hardwood (for example, oak or maple) corresponds to a minute portion of the top surface of a stump or end surface of a log The vertical plane corresponds to a surface cut parallel to the radius and parallel to the wood rays. The vertical plane corresponds to a surface cut at right angles to the radius and the wood rays, or tangentially within the log. In hardwoods, these three major planes along which wood may be cut are known commonly a - end-grain, - quarter-sawed (edge-grain) - plain-sawed (flatgrain) surfaces Hardwoods have specialized structures called vessels
104. 104. ASD2TC/2010 104 SOFTWOOD Typical softwood. The rectangular units that make up the end grain of softwood are sections through long vertical cells called tracheids or fibers Because softwoods do not contain: - vessel cells The tracheids serve the dual function of transporting sap vertically and giving strength to the wood. Softwood fibers range from about 0.1 to 0.3 in. (3 to 8 mm) in length.
105. 105. ASD2TC/2010 105 THREE SLIDES OF HARDWOOD Mersawa (Anisoptera spp.) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
106. 106. ASD2TC/2010 106 Shorea lepidota Cross section Radial section Tangential section
107. 107. ASD2TC/2010 107 Meranti tembaga (Shorea leprosula) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
108. 108. ASD2TC/2010 108 Red balau (Shorea spp.) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
109. 109. ASD2TC/2010 109 SOFTWOOD Dammar minyak(Agathis borneensis) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
110. 110. ASD2TC/2010 110 Mersawa (Anisoptera spp.) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
111. 111. ASD2TC/2010 111 Shorea lepidota Cross section Radial section Tangential section
112. 112. ASD2TC/2010 112 Meranti tembaga (Shorea leprosula) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
113. 113. ASD2TC/2010 113 Red balau (Shorea spp.) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
114. 114. ASD2TC/2010 114 Dammar minyak(Agathis borneensis) Cross section Radial section Tangential section
115. 115. ASD2TC/2010 115 Conclusion : - Softwood and hardwood have their own structural features weather in anatomy or physical. All of its features are useful such as parenchyma and rays function is for food storage. - Fibers and latewood tracheid make mechanical support to the tree. Furthermore, pores or vessels and earlywood tracheid function are used to be conduction of water. All of this type make the tree are in good quality and more hardy. - From this experiment works, we got more information about wood structural, wood function, wood anatomical, wood physical, wood diagnostic features and others. For the examples, we had studied how to know about wood diagnostic features such as ripple mark for Melunak and Chengal, ring porous structure for Surian, jati and Sena, very big pores for Durian, and many more.