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ECSM 2010 Conf._Budapest

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Sewage to Energy in Focus!

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ECSM 2010 Conf._Budapest

  1. 1. ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge ManagementBudapest, Hungary 9 & 10 September, 2010SEWAGE SLUDGE AS RENEWABLEENERGYIstván ZsiraiVice President, Global Supply Chain,GE Power & Water,Water & Process Technologies,Trevose, US 1/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  2. 2. Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy1. SEWAGE SLUDGE VOLUME INCREASE IN THE EU REGION2. CURRENT STRATEGIES AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES TO HANDLE ORGANIC SLUDGES3. SEWAGE SLUDGE AS RENEWABLE ENERGY4. FACTORS INFLUENCING FUTURE SLUDGE HANDLING STRATEGIES5. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS 2/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  3. 3. SEWAGE SLUDGE VOLUMEINCREASE IN THE EU REGION
  4. 4. Sewage Sludge volume increase in the EU Region Sludge Production Volume Tds/a In the Member States of EU the agriculture Countries 2010 estimate 2020 estimate usage of sewage sludge reaches 42% avg. and USA 7.000.000 10.000.000 there are more than 7 countries within the EU27 Austria 273.000 280.000 where the usage is beyond 60% in agriculture. UK 1.640.000 1.640.000 There are also more than 7 countries with less Scotland 200.000 200.000 than 3% up to zero. Sludge is applied to less than Spain 1.280.000 1.280.000 5% of agriculture land in EU and contributes <5% Sweden 250.000 250.000 of the total amount of organic manure used. France 1.300.000 1.400.000 Germany 2.000.000 2.000.000 Many states have stopped the Sludge to Land Italy 1.500.000 1.500.000 recycling in the last 5 years. Romania 165.000 520.000 The EU Sewage Sludge Directive was adopted Portugal 420.000 750.000 more than 20 years ago with a view to encourage Poland 520.000 950.000 the application of sewage sludge in agriculture Hungary 175.000 200.000 and to regulate its use as to prevent harmful EU27 11.500.000 13.500.000 effects on soil, vegetation, animals and humans . EU27 2010 distribution estimate % EU27 2020 distribution estimate % Recycled to Land Incineration Landfill Other Recycled to Land Incineration Landfill Other 42 27 14 16 44 32 7 16 Global Sludge Production > 50M Tds/a 4/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  5. 5. Expected Trend for the next 10-30 years• The population of the EU will grow slowly, from about 499 million in 2010 to just under 514 million in 2020 (according to Eurostat projections)• While industrial production will grow, process improvements, pollution prevention and improved on-site treatment will reduce sludge coming from industry.• Continued increased level of sewer connection and wastewater treatment across the EU27, which means more sewage sludge being produced which will need proper sludge management.• Increased industrial water pre-treatment and pollution prevention, reducing or eliminating discharge of toxic substances (heavy metals, chemicals) and improving sludge quality.• General phasing out of sludge being sent to landfill due to EC restrictions.• The use of raw sludge will be no longer accepted, sludge shall be treated.• Due to global population growth ( to 8 billion/2030) the demand for clean water will be trippled and the demand for electricity will have two folds growth.• Main alternative to „sludge to land” is likely to be incineration with energy recovery.This will compensate landfill disposal discontinuation.• Due to Climate Change Policy and Renewable Energy Policy the sludge management will be influenced with novel technologies like AAD, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Fuel Crops, SCWO, Incineration,Biodiesel, Bio-hydrogen,etc. 5/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  6. 6. Global 2030 needs 62.2Billions of kW hours (In billion cubic meters) 2x Electricity 3x Water 50.240,000 Emerging35,000 Developed30,000 20 *at same consumption rate 19.925,00020,000 1515,000 1010,000 55,000 0 0 2008 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 n S. ia Ja ia ria ce a Ru n Fr a Sp l Al ia i ai in az pa re U. ss d an ab ge In Ch Ko Br i Ar ud Sa 6/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  7. 7. CURRENT STRATEGIES ANDAPPLIED TECHNOLOGIES TOHANDLE ORGANIC SLUDGES
  8. 8. Approved method for stabilization/disinfection in sludge Source:Ødegaard, H., Paulsrud, B., Karlsson, I. “Sludge disposal strategies and corresponding treatment technologies aimed at sustainable handling of wastewater sludge”, 2010 8/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  9. 9. Multiple-stage utilization of sewage & organic sludge Regional/rural Sewage transported sludge Road transport Organic food waste water (fecalia) Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewate treatment Sludge handling Concentrated raw sludge Brown coal and/or Dewatered sludge lignit coal Treated wastewater I. Anaerob injection Solar digestion dewatering biogas-energy drying production Digeste sludge d Composting Agricultural utilization Irrigation - Sludge disposal Bioethanol, Biodiesel flora Energy Flora * rape, maize, sweet sorghum, Other agricultural utilization process Dr. Stadler patented elephantgrass, sunflower, built environment energy grass energy forest* energyhemp, chinese reed stb * sludge disposal only in the year of planting II. Biomass Liquid fuel production heat + electric energy production Heat energy prod. Electric energy prod. l l III. Pelet, briquette, compost fuel production heat + electric energy production Source: Endre Juhász dr. publication, 2007. 9/ Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  10. 10. SEWAGE SLUDGE ASRENEWABLE ENERGY
  11. 11. Renewable Energy generation from Sewage Source: Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, UK April, 2007 number 282 Modified by Istvan Zsirai 11 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  12. 12. Aqua Citrox® SWCO technology (Chematur Eng.AB) Under normal conditions, water is seen in any of its three states: steam, liquid water, or ice. If water is heated and compressed to sufficiently high temperature and pressure, water enters a 4th state known as the super critical state. In the case of water this occurs above 374 °C and 221 barIn the reactor oxygen is injected to start theoxidation reaction. The reaction is exothermicand temperatures increase as the reactionprogresses. After passing through the reactorthe effluent flows through the economiserwhere it heats the incoming stream. In largerplants the heat of reaction can be recoveredvia a steam generator for power generation.District heating is also an option depending onthe plants location. Following any heatrecovery the effluent is cooled to its exittemperature by a cooler prior to passingthrough the pressure reduction system wherethe pressure is lowered to <10 barg. Theeffluent then passes to a gas /liquid separatorwhere the CO2, N2 and residual O2 areseparated from the liquid stream. Theinorganic residue is removed from the liquid Source: J. O’Regan, S. Preston, A. Dunne:stream. This stream has a COD of <5mg/ltr. Supercritical Water Oxidation of Sewage Sludge 12 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  13. 13. Sludge Gasification Process ( Primenergy LLC.) Source: Primenergy, A Safe AlternativeThe steps in this integrated process design are:1. High moisture content sewage sludge at 25% solids, either digested or undigested, is introduced into a thermal dryer. The two common types of dryers are direct contact, which uses heated air as the drying medium, or indirect contact, which uses steam or heated oil as the drying medium.2. Dried biosolids are discharged from the dryer. Moisture content is reduced to approximately 10%, creating a quality biosolids fuel.3. The dried biosolids are fed into the gasification and energy conversion process.4. The remnant ash is discharged from the gasification process. At this point over 85% of the weight of the wet sludge has been removed.5. The synthesis gas is oxidized in a series of stages and the released thermal energy is captured either in heated air or in the production of steam.6. The thermal energy is directed to the dryer, providing the energy necessary for the evaporation of the moisture contained in the wet sludge.7. Environmentally compliant dryer exhaust, spent productions of combustion and moisture, are vented to the atmosphere. 13 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  14. 14. Global Renewables Wind & Solar PV annual installations (GWs) 55 CAGR Wind Wind ~41% 40% 40% GR 37 CA Solar PV Solar PV 24% <1% ~22% <1%ConcentratedConcentrated 17 Solar <1% Solar <1% Solar PV 8 4 Wind ‘00 ‘03 ‘06 ‘09 ‘12 Biomass Biomass Source: REN21 2006 update + EER 19% 19% Sewage Sludge to EnergySmall hydroSmall hydro will grow drastically in the next 32% 32% 20 years and get significant % Sludge on the Renewable Energy map Tidal Tidal ?% <1% <1% 14 /GeothermalGeothermal Focusing on electricity growth rates Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management <1% <1% Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  15. 15. Sludge to EnergyGlobal production of Sewage Sludge exits 50M Tds/aRaw Sludge 25.5 MJ/kgds [ 100 %]Surplus active sludge 20.9 MJ/kgds [ 88 %]Digested raw sludge 11.6 MJ/kgds [ 45 %]Digested mixed sludge 13.4 MJ/kgds [ 52 %]Biobriquette, biopellet app.14.0 -18,0 MJ/kg [~ 63 %] 15 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  16. 16. FACTORS INFLUENCING FUTURESLUDGE HANDLING STRATEGIES
  17. 17. Factors Influencing Future Sludge Handling Strategies 1. Legislation, Law Enforcement • EU Urban Wastewater Treatment Directives, EU Waste Management Licensing Regulation • EU Water Framework Directives, EU Sewage Sludge Directives • EC Bathing Water Directive, EU Animal By-product Regulation • EU 20-20-20 Directives, EU ETS & CCA’s,EU Directives on Renewable Energy • Kyoto Protocol,reduction of GHG emission, Upcoming Regulation on EDC’s. 2. Economical incentives • Government fundings, special incentives for Renewable Energy investments • Water-Energy Relationship • Energy and Sewage Relationship 3. Public concerns, acceptance • Odour, dust, noise of traffic movement • Problems of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in sewage sludge • Sewage sludge contains a number of volatile organic compounds • Environment quality goals for a poison-free environment 4. Technology development • Beside of implemented incineration and biogas generation processes there are lot of novel technologies on market offering more benefits, better and easier sludge handling • Leading global companies are developing and implementing new sludge mgmt processes • Sewage Sludge is a new target for renewable energy generation 5. Product development • There are matured product on market enabling to turn sludge to energy in an economic way • Jenbacher generators • Anvanced Anaerob Digestion • SWCO • Etc….. 17 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  18. 18. EU 20-20-20Reduction of GHG by 20%Increase Renewable Energy ratio by 20 %Decrease primer energy usage by 20%1. Speed up the coal free energy implementation Mandatory target of EU to achieve till 2020 minimum 20%Renewable Energy ratio in the total energy mix. For the Bio-Diesel ratiothere is a special target a minimum 10% , which shall be achieved..2. Energy efficiency As per the Commettee the primer energy usage shall bedecreased by 20% till 2020.3. GHG reduction As per the Commettee the GHG emission shall be reduced by20% till 2020. 18 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  19. 19. GE Power & WaterUpdate on GE’s
  20. 20. GE is a world leader in renewable energy solutions Wind EFS Solar ecomagination ecomagination Jenbacher $5B invested since ‘02 20 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  21. 21. Jenbacher gas enginesA leading manufacturer of gas-fueled reciprocating engines for PG• Power range from 0.25MW to 4MW, 4 platforms (Type 2, 3,4 & 6) / 11 products• Generator sets, cogeneration systems, container solutions• Delivered engines: about 8,500 units / ~10000 MW• Diversified customer base: farmers, small Industries, Commercial buildings, IPPs, utilities …• , Service offerings: CSA’s,T&Ms,parts,repairs upgrades,Remote diagnostics 21 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  22. 22. Jenbacher solutions Landfill Gas Biogas 1MW saves 5,000 cows 32,000 CO2 fuel 1MW tons/y (eq. 15,000 cars) Coal Mine Gas Cogeneration 1MW saves J624 (4MW) 32,000 CO2 avoids 32,000 tons/y barrels of oil Approx. 70% of JB ….. 22 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  23. 23. DISCUSSIONCONCLUSIONS
  24. 24. Conclusion The Sewage Sludge is not waste, rather a potential source of energy, throught its components is such a Raw Material, which directly or indirectly – via appropriate changeover – able to replace or to complement primer materials (chemical fertiliser) and/or energy (termal, electrical) ! 24 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010
  25. 25. Key Takeaways• Focus on „Sludge to Energy”• Energy objectives to Sewage Treatment• Sludge is a growing part of Renewable Energy• Sludge might effect the EU 20/20/20 results• $30B market by 2020 25 / Sewage Sludge as Renewable Energy ECSM 2010 – 2nd European Conference on Sludge Management Istvan Zsirai Budapest, Hungary, 9&10 September, 2010

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