HI 322Spring 2013Final Exam: May 6, 1:00pm
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE WOMEN’S POSITION IN SOCIETYDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION IN SOCIETYDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOUDESCRIBE WOMEN’SPOSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE WOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURING THE RENAISSANCE?
WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THERENAISSANCE?
WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THE RENAISSANCE?Carolus QuintusImperator(after LucasCranachthe Young) (1550)LondonBrit...
WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THE RENAISSANCE?TitianLa Bella1536FlorencePalazzo Pitti
HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PERSONALITY?ventor?
A HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE LEONARDO DA VINCI’SPERSONALITY?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
COMPARE BRUNELLESCHI’S DOME IN FLORENCE CATHDERAL WITHBRAMANTE’S TEMPIETTO IN ROME. WHICH OF THE TWO WOULD YOUSAY EMBODIES...
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRON INTHE RENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRON IN THERENAISSANCE?
HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBETHE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRONIN THE RENAISSANCE?
WHY DO YOU THINK THATPORTRAITURE DEVELOPEDIN RENAISSANCE ITALY (andIn Flanders, but we will justConsider Italy)?
WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE?WHY?
WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE?WHY?Palazzo Dandolo, 1400s)St. Mark Bas...
Édouard Manet, Olympia (1863), Musée d’Orsay, ParisGiorgione, Sleeping Venus (ca. 1510), Gemäldegalerie,DresdenFrancesco C...
Titian, Woman with a Mirror (ca.1514), Musée du Louvre, ParisGiovanni Bellini, Nude with a Mirror(1515), Kunsthistorisches...
WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODELSTATE?WHY
Still a myth.“Venice, half fairy tale and half tourist trap.” ThomasMann
WHY DO YOU THINK THE AMERICAN FOUNDING FATHERSLIKED THE VENETIAN ANDREA PALLADIO?
WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus (1545-54), Loggia deiLanzi, FlorenceBenvenuto Cellini,Self-Portrait (cc. 1560)WOULD YOU SAYTHAT...
Raphael, Portrait ofBaldassarCastiglione (ca.1515), Paris,Musée du LouvreDISCUSS THE FIGURE OF ‘COURTIER’ ASIT APPEARS IN ...
UrbinoPalazzo DucaleHOW WOULD YOU OUTLINE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ITALIAN COURTSFOR THE RENAISSANCE POLITICAL DISCOURSE?
Lente obiettiva di Galileo (fine 1609),Museo Galileo di FirenzeHOW WOULD YOU OUTLINTHE IMPORTANCE OF THITALIAN COURTS FOR ...
Milan, Sforza CastleHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Sforza Castle-MilanHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Naples, Maschio AngioinoHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Ferrara, Castello EstenseHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Ferrara, Palazzo SchifanoiaHall of the Months, April(1471)HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE...
Ferrara, Palazzo dei DiamantiHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Mantua, Ducal PalaceHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTUREREPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Mantegna, Camera deglisposi(1465-1474), Ducal PalaceGiulio Romano,Sala di Psyche (1527-1528),Mantua, Palazzo del tèHOW DOE...
Mantua, Palazzo del tèHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Florence, Fortezza da BassoHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Trento, Buonconsiglio Castle Trento, Palazzo delle AlbereHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE ...
Palazzo Venezia-RomaHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
Palazzo della Cancelleria-RomeHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OFTHE STATE?
HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OFTHE STATE?
TO WHAT EXTENT DOESTHE BEGINNING OFMODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THERENAISSANCE?
TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THEBEGINNING OF MODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THE RENAISSANCE?
Engraving of Ferrante Imperato’s museum, from Ferrante Imperato,Dell’historia naturale (Naples: Vitale, 1599)
A MUSEUM
A MUSEUM
The First Modern Museum? Laoocon, an icon
TO WHAT EXTENT DOESTHE BEGINNING OFMODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THERENAISSANCE?
WAS WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543)WAS COPERNICUS A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
WAS WAS THYCO BRAHE A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
Johannes Kepler(1571-1630)WAS KEPLER A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
WAS GALILEO A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
WHY WAS ART SO CENTRAL TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THERENAISSANCE?Cupid (Michelangelo)
WHY WAS ART SO CENTRAL TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THERENAISSANCE?
WHY WAS ART SO CENTRALTO OUR UNDERSTANDINGOF THE RENAISSANCE?
Hi322 final review
Hi322 final review
Hi322 final review
Hi322 final review
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  • Veronese,Veronica Franco, Worcester, MA.Chopines were one of the most literal representation of women’s social inability to walk alone. Veronica, one of the most successful women in town, was tried by the Inquisition.
  • Carlo daCamerino, Madonna Lactans (1380 ca.). The same female prototype portrays both the Virgin and Eve: the typological redemption theme is explicated by 1. clothes/no clothes, 2. bare breast for child/male gaze
  • Enter distancing devices: Elevation, Idealization, Aristocratic Bearing and so on make the Madonna (here Domenico Ghirlandaio, Madonna and Child w/ St. Dominic) easy to insert in traditional iconography.But what does this do to the ‘average’ woman?“And although I have endeavored to show in these conversations the qualities and conditions of those who are named therein, I confess that I have not even suggested, let alone expressed, the qualities of the Duchess, because not only is my style incapable of expressing them, but my mind cannot even conceive them, and if I be censored for this or for any other thing deserving of censure […]”
  • PierodiCosimo,SimonettaCattaneo Vespucci (?).The portrait dexterously negotiates an imagery of profane love and sacred virginity: she is naked at the same time she is a visual metaphor for the subject’s constant, virtuous love (Cleopatra’s asp entwined around her neck).
  • Lorenzo Lotto, Lucrezia Valier(early 1530s).NO SHAME LIVES IN THE EXAMPLE OF LUCREZIA). The (contemporary!) male gaze has discussed Lucrezia’s virtue, w/out coming to a conclusion: would have a man been discussed in these terms?
  • Titian, Sacred and Profane Love supposedly depicts the bride dressed in white, sitting beside Cupid and being assisted by Venus in person. It was a typical Renaissance allegory that shows two kinds of truths/felicity, which frequently used an idealized nude female figure for the higher, abstract principle and an ordinarily dressed female figure for the earthly version. In fact, nudity represents the fallacy of the idea that ordinary people w/o clothes offer any satisfaction to a seeker of pure truth, while clothes represents truth in worldly experience. However, the sensuality of the representation is an hallmark of Venice.
  • Luxury could emerge only in an economy able to spare resources for its leisure class (after 1000).Still, clothing was not gendered.The CALAMITOUS 14TH CENTURY, the emergency of ostentation, and the fear of confusion. How to incorporate the new societal instances w/o changing society? Do the clothes make the man? Or, is it the armature that makes the man? What is masculinity? Fear of confusion is extreme in the Renaissance, when the mercantile elites fashion themselves in upper classes, CHALLENGING THE HYERARCHY OF APPEARANCE.
  • RIGHT: Emperor Charles V, represented with his famous motto« Plus oultre » (Lucas Cranach the Younger, 1550).LEFT:Book of the Tailor.
  • Da Vinci's parachute flies: “Leonardo Da Vinci was proved right on Monday, over 500 years after he sketched the design for the first parachute. A British man, Adrian Nicholas, dropped from a hot air balloon 3,000 metres (10,000 feet) above the ground, after ignoring expert advice that the canvas and wood contraption would not fly. Attempts to fully test the parachute in the UK earlier this year failed due problems of wind and safety near populated areas - it weighs a hefty 85 kilograms (187 pounds). But in the wide open spaces of Mpumalanga, South Africa, Mr. Nicholas safely floated down, saying the ride was smoother than with modern parachutes. Heathcliff O'Malley, who photographed the drop from a helicopter, told BBC News Online: "It was amazing, really beautiful. But none of us knew if it would fold up and Adrian would plummet to Earth.” He added: "It works, and everyone thought it wouldn't." Mr. Nicholas cut himself free when he reached 600m (2,000 ft) and deployed a second modern parachute. This ensured the heavy device did not crash down on top of him on landing. The parachute's great weight was due to the use of materials that would have been available in medieval Milan, rather than modern fabrics. Period tools were also used. The original design was scribbled by Da Vinci in a notebook in 1483. An accompanying note read: "If a man is provided with a length of gummed linen cloth with a length of 12 yards on each side and 12 yards high, he can jump from any great height whatsoever without injury." Tuesday, 27 June, 2000, (BBC News Online,Dr Damian Carrington)
  • IS THE FRESCO A CIPHER? Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper. Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper on a dry wall rather than on wet plaster, so it is not a true fresco. Because a fresco cannot be modified as the artist works, Leonardo instead chose to seal the stone wall with a layer of pitch, gesso and mastic, then paint onto the sealing layer with tempera. Because of the method used, the piece began to deteriorate a few years after Leonardo finished it. Henry James called it "the saddest work of art in the world," because it had for hundreds of years been on the verge of falling into invisibility.
  • A CIPHER? The painting was among the first portraits to depict the sitter before an imaginary landscape and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective. Owing to the expressive synthesis that Leonardo achieved between sitter and landscape it is arguable whether Mona Lisa should be considered as a traditional portrait, for it represents an ideal rather than a real woman. The sense of overall harmony achieved in the painting—especially apparent in the sitter's faint smile—reflects the idea of a link connecting humanity and nature.Mona Lisa has no clearly visible eyebrows or eyelashes. Some researchers claim that it was common at this time for genteel women to pluck these hairs, as they were considered unsightly. n 2007, French engineer Pascal Cotte announced that his ultra high resolution scans of the painting provide evidence that Mona Lisa was originally painted with eyelashes and with better visible eyebrows, but that these had gradually disappeared over time, perhaps as a result of over-cleaning. For modern viewers the nearly missing eyebrows add to the slightly abstract quality of the face.
  • Raphael, School of Athens. Philosophers had enjoyed the higher intellectual status for century, and Plato and Aristotle were the ultimate masters. Raphael’s fresco, for the pope’s library, makes no distinction b/n them and the artists that were at the court.“I send you this book as a portrait of the Court of Urbino, not by the hand of Raphael or Michelangelo, but by that of a lowly painter and one who only knows how to draw the main lines, without adorning the truth with pretty colors or making, by perspective art, that which is not seen to be.”
  • Raphael self-portrait, 1504. The one on the right disappeared during WWII.Raphael’s grace and beauty, not to mention his rich clothing, re-affirm the artist belief in his own social worth.
  • Rapahel, School of Athens, detail (self-portrait).
  • Raphael, Portrait with a Friend (Giulio Romano?), 1514-18.Raphael was a generous master, whose school would churn out the best artist of Mannerism.
  • Michelangelo, Last Judgment, detail: St. Matthew with his skin (self-portrait of Michelangelo?).Social role given for granted, Michelangelo uses his art to express his feelings. Even in one of the holiest place of Christendom, he has no problem inscribing his feelings (let’s remember Charon too).
  • Both, actually. The homage to the classic past, and the projection toward a daring future.Plus, the importance of patronage, and the centrality of Rome and Florence.
  • The early instances of portraits’ subject appear—unless very prominent, like monarchs—under guise of donors. Andrea Mantegna, Madonna dellaVittoria, end of 15th century (Francesco Gonzaga)
  • Domenico Ghirlandaio, Confirmation of the Rule of Saint Francis (1480-85).“Either the patron wants his appearance to conform to the currently dominant type, or he regards the uniqueness of his own personality as the thing worth showing: and he accordingly edges the art of portraiture toward the typical or toward the individual.” (Warburg).
  • Justus of Ghent (Flemish, fl. ca. 1460-ca. 1480) or Pedro Berruguete (Spanish, ca. 1450-1504)? Double Portrait of Federico daMontefeltro and His Son Guidobaldo (ca. 1475). He engaged the best copyists and editors in his private scriptorium to produce the most comprehensive library outside of the Vatican; he supported the development of fine artists, including the early training of the young Raphael. Also, he was a famous commander (armature+Garter), the founder of a dynasty, and more.
  • Giuliano de’ Medici, by Botticelli. A number of portraits were ordered for public display to serve both as memorials and as warnings to other plotters. Botticelli's painting may have been the prototype for others, and lent symbolic gravity to Guiliano’s passing, showing him as an icon, almost a saint. The open window and mourning dove were familiar symbols of death, alluding to the flight of the soul and the deceased's passage to the afterlife. Some scholars, noting the lowered eyelids, suggest this portrait was painted posthumously from a death mask.
  • Like FraFilippo Lippi, **Portrait of a Woman and a Man at a Casement (ca. 1440-1444), the earliest surviving early portrait, the 1st to place a female sitter in a notional interior, and the 1st one to include a landscape background. “Her lofty forehead, of good proportions, was without a wrinkle, and her arched eyebrows were dark and slender… Her nose was straight in contour, evenly dividing her rosy cheeks…. A small and well-shaped mouth… Nothing in that body but was praiseworthy, for her exterior witnessed to her inner beauty.” Story of two Lovers, EneaSilvioFioenzuola, On the Beauty of Women: “The body is somewhere between lean and fat, plump and juicy, of the right proportions, one in which we find agility and dexterity, together with a something that suggests the aura of a queen”.
  • Sandro Botticelli, Ideal Portrait of a Lady (1475-1480); Simonetta Vespucci?
  • Leonardo da Vinci, Lady with an Ermine (1489-91?), Cecilia Gallerani, teen ager lover of duke Ludovicoil Moro.The issues informing 15th-century portraits reach a climax: the need to create around perception, the trajectory from likeness to perceptivity. The final work will be convincing only if it constructs things in accordance with the way we see them, not if it aim for absolute mimetic equivalence with nature. In short, Leonardo resolved the problem of a pic’s inability to capture the character of a subject by freeing himself from the constraint of fidelity to nature.The ermine (which protects its fur’s purity at the risk of death) is quasi-heraldic, while the elongated hand seems to be ready to grasp. But the ermine cannot have been Cecilia, a mistress; Ludovico had been iducted into the Order of the Ermine established by King Ferrante in 1465. Could the ‘sfumato’ on the left being the merging of ermine and mistress, with a self-surrender that is a choice of keeping a pure love? These fanciful art historians!
  • The momentous 13th century: from the 4th Crusade to the Gran Serrata (1298). Marin Faliero (1285-1355) attempted a coup d’etat in 1355, at the time being Doge himself, but with the intention of declaring himself Prince. This failed action is mostly attributed to a combination of a strong hatred for nobility and his senility (he was in his seventies at the time). He pleaded guilty to all charges and was beheaded and his body mutilated. Ten additional ringleaders were hanged on display from the Doge’s Palace. He was condemned to damnatiomemoriae, and as such his portrait displayed in the Hall of the Great Council in the Doge's Palace was removed and the space painted over with a black shroud, which can still be seen in the hall today.Faliero's move was consistent with a prevailing trend in Italian cities,DURING THE EARLY RENAISSANCE, to move away from oligarchic government to absolute, dynastic rule.[
  • The inimitable style of Venice reminds its visitors that its first model was the sophisticated Byzantine East, only later traded for the Latin West. The first St Mark's was a temporary building in the Doge's Palace (828), when Venetian merchants stole the relics of Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria. This was replaced by a new church on its present site in 832; from the same century dates the first bell tower. The new church was burned in a rebellion in 976, rebuilt in 978 and again to form the basis of the present basilica since 1647. The basilica was consecrated in 1673. The building also incorporates a low tower, believed by some to have been part of the original Doge's Palace.Within the first half of the 18th century the narthex and the new façade were constructed, most of the mosaics were completed and the domes were covered with higher wooden, lead-covered domes in order to blend in with the Gothic architecture of the redesigned Doge's Palace.
  • The painting, one of the last works by Giorgione, portrays a nude woman whose profile seems to follow that of the hills in the background. Giorgione put a great deal of effort into painting the background details and shadows. The choice of a nude woman marked a revolution in art, and is considered by some authorities one of the starting points of modern art. The painting was unfinished at the time of his death. The landscape and sky were later finished by Titian, who later painted the similar Venus of Urbino. Underlying erotic implications are made by Venus's raised arm and the placement of her left hand on her groin. The sheets are painted in silver, being a cold color rather than the more commonly used warm tones for linens, and they are rigid looking in comparison to those depicted in similar paintings by Titian or Velázquez. The landscape mimics the curves of the woman's body and this, in turn, relates the human body back to being a natural, organic object. The pose of the figure has been connected with a figure in one of the woodcut illustrations to HypnerotomachiaPoliphili of 1499, but a nude of this size, as a single subject, was unprecedented in Western painting, and to a large extent determined the treatment of the type for centuries to come. Although prints had contained many more nude female figures, the two famous paintings of Botticelli, the Birth of Venus and the Primavera, are the closest precedents in painting.
  • Was Venetian draw toward sensuality, from painting to festivities, the expression of a ‘bread and circus’ politics?
  • Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese together created a body of work that defined a "Venetian style" through loose technique, rich coloring, and often pastoral or sensual subject matter. Veronese (Battle of Lepanto, 1572) was the greatest colorist who ever lived—greater than Titian, Rubens, or Rembrandt because he established the harmony of natural tones in place of the modeling in dark and light that remained the method of academic chiaroscuro
  • A lot of (salty) water, but not enough (fresh) water, combined with close by forests, made Venice a capital of international trade from the very start. Supernatural tranquil inside, and impregnable to the outside,
  • Villa La Capra (or La Rotonda) by Palladio, 1552, outside Vicenza. It was constructed as a summer house with views from all four sides. The plan has centralized circular halls with wings and porticos expanding on all four sides. Palladio began to implement the classical temple front into his design of façades for villas. Monticello, VA. The house, which Jefferson designed, was based on the neoclassical principles described in the books of Palladio. Jefferson reworked it through much of his presidency to include design elements popular in late eighteenth-century Europe. Its name comes from the Italian "little mountain."
  • The statue's physique ,"a transvestite's and fetishist's dream of alluring ambiguity," (Mary McCarthy) contrasted with the absurdly large sword in hand, shows that David has overcome Goliath not by physical prowess, but through God (destiny?). However, the intention of Donatello is still debated among scholars. Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast during the Renaissance period, and the first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. It created a sensation when it was first shown, due to its portrayal of the nude young male. It depicts the young David with an enigmatic smile, posed with his foot on Goliath's severed head just after killing the giant. The youth is standing naked, apart from a laurel-topped hat and boots, bearing the sword of Goliath.The exact date of creation is unknown, but widely disputed, and dates vary between 1430 and the more accepted 1440s. Donatello had made a marble statue of David in 1408/1409, though this figure was a well-dressed and victorious king holding his sling, having slain the giant, Goliath's head resting between his feet. The physical frailty and effeminate physique, which Mary McCarthy called "a transvestite's and fetishist's dream of alluring ambiguity," contrasted with the absurdly large sword by his side shows that David has conquered Goliath not by physical prowess, but through the will of God. The boy's nakedness further enhances the idea of the presence of God, contrasting the youth with the heavily-armoured giant. The figure's contrapposto suggests that Goliath did not pose a threat to him.The statue originally belonged to Cosimo de' Medici, and was placed in the courtyard of the Palazzo Medici in Florence. After the expulsion of Piero de' Medici, it was confiscated, and ordered placed in the courtyard of the Palazzo dellaSignoria. It is now in the Bargello.David was a very controversial statue for many reasons. One reason was the fact that it depicted a nude young man, with much detail on the genitals. Also, a long feather coming from David's boot that caressed his leg and thigh, had, at the time, implied that David and/or Donatello (the artist), were homosexual. During Classical antiquity, homosexuality had been something that was practiced regularly, and men believed that could only achieve great love with other men. However, during the time of the renaissance, when the statue was created, sodomy was illegal, and over 14,000 people had been tried in Florence for this crime. As one of the greatest Florentine sculptors, Donatello invented the shallow relief technique. In the shallow relief technique the sculpture seems deep but is actually done on a very shallow plane. Greatly influenced by ancient Greek sculpture and Humanist theories, his statues display the human body as a functional organism where the human personality radiates a confidential individuality. In this sculpture, Donatello does not have David admiring the head of his slain victim, but rather at his own graceful and powerful body. It’s as if the result of his heroic triumph, he has become aware of his body’s beauty and strength. This admiration of thy self is a dominant theme in Renaissance art.Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is notable as the first unsupported standing work in bronze cast during the Renaissance period, and the first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. It created a sensation when it was first shown, due to its portrayal of the nude young male. It depicts the young David with an enigmatic smile, posed with his foot on Goliath's severed head just after killing the giant. The youth is standing naked, apart from a laurel-topped hat and boots, bearing the sword of Goliath.The exact date of creation is unknown, but widely disputed, and dates vary between 1430 and the more accepted 1440s. Donatello had made a marble statue of David in 1408/1409, though this figure was a well-dressed and victorious king holding his sling, having slain the giant, Goliath's head resting between his feet., The statue originally belonged to Cosimo de' Medici, and was placed in the courtyard of the Palazzo Medici in Florence. After the expulsion of Piero de' Medici, it was confiscated, and ordered placed in the courtyard of the Palazzo dellaSignoria. It is now in the Bargello.David was a very controversial statue for many reasons. One reason was the fact that it depicted a nude young man, with much detail on the genitals. Also, a long feather coming from David's boot that caressed his leg and thigh, had, at the time, implied that David and/or Donatello (the artist), were homosexual. During Classical antiquity, homosexuality had been something that was practiced regularly, and men believed that could only achieve great love with other men. However, during the time of the renaissance, when the statue was created, sodomy was illegal, and over 14,000 people had been tried in Florence for this crime. So this homosexual implication was very risky and dangerous. The fact that the Medici family had accepted this controversial statue was one of the reasons why Savonarola objected to the Medici's humanist ideas.As one of the greatest Florentine sculptors, Donatello invented the shallow relief technique. In the shallow relief technique the sculpture seems deep but is actually done on a very shallow plane. Greatly influenced by ancient Greek sculpture and Humanist theories, his statues display the human body as a functional organism where the human personality radiates a confidential individuality. In this sculpture, Donatello does not have David admiring the head of his slain victim, but rather at his own graceful and powerful body. It’s as if the result of his heroic triumph, he has become aware of his body’s beauty and strength. This admiration of thy self is a dominant theme in Renaissance art.
  • More than the other city-states, Florence was breeding ground for political competition and treachery, while at the same time are crucibles for great art and compelling ideas about human liberty. Lorenzo’s misappropriation of Florentine liberties was disturbing enough to produce Michelangelo’s David, carved for the republic. Michelangelo, David, 1501-1504.Because of the nature of the hero that it represented, it soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, threatened by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. The eyes of David, with a warning glare, were turned towards Rome, which might have been Savonarola’s inheritance.
  • Michelangelo, Battle of Cascina (cartoon).Vasari tells a story about the cartoons, which makes the ‘consecration of the unfinished.’ The unfinished cartoon IS a masterpiece, but also a relics (Vasari’s story has painters going to torn pieces away). It is the beginning of Mannerism.Mannerism emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance (1520 ca). It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it. It encompasses a variety of approaches influenced by, and reacting to, the harmonious ideals and restrained naturalism associated with artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and early Michelangelo. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial (as opposed to naturalistic) qualities: it favors compositional tension and instability rather than the balance and clarity of earlier Renaissance painting.
  • In 1504 Leonardo da Vinci was given the commission to decorate the Hall of Five Hundred. At the same Michelangelo, who had just finished his David, was designated the opposite wall. This was the only time that Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo worked together on the same project. The painting of Michelangelo depicted an episode from the Battle of Cascina, when a group of bathing soldiers was surprised by the enemy. However Michelangelo did not stay in Florence long enough to complete the project. He was able to finish his cartoon, but only began the painting. He was invited back to Rome in 1505 by the newly appointed Pope Julius II.Leonardo da Vinci drew his large cartoon, depicting a scene from the life of Niccolo’ Piccinino. He drew a scene of a violent clash of horses and a furious battle of men fighting for the flag in the Battle of Anghiari.
  • Lorenzo was shrewd and tough, but he needed his grandson’s cultural policy to acquire Magnificent status.
  • “Objective Lens,” (1609). Inscribed in an ebony frame in 1677.
  • The original construction began with the Visconti, in the 14th century, but if was with Francesco Sforza (1450) that it took the shape that is familiar to us today—although it was further modified through the centuries.
  • Build in the mid-15th century around a medieval house and tower, as a residence of a cardinal.
  • Built between 1489 and 1513, is considered the earliest Renaissance palace in Rome
  • Andreas Vesalius, frontispice, 1543.
  • An absolute novelty. Vesalius had no frame of reference to use in order to organize his material.
  • The Capitoline Museums are a group of art and archeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill. The museums are contained in three palaces surrounding a central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years. The history of the museums can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome and located them on Capitoline Hill.
  • The Vatican Museums trace their origin to one marble sculpture, purchased 500 years ago: Laocoön and his Sons. It was discovered 14 January 1506, in a vineyard near Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. Pope Julius II sent Giuliano da Sangallo and Michelangelo Buonarroti, who were working at the Vatican, to examine the discovery. On their recommendation, the pope immediately purchased the sculpture from the vineyard owner. The pope put the sculpture of Laocoön and his sons on public display at the Vatican exactly one month after its discovery.The Museums celebrated their 500th anniversary in October 2006 by permanently opening the excavations of a Vatican Hill necropolis to the public.
  • The Louvre opened on 10 August 1793, the first anniversary of the monarchy's demise. The public was given free access on three days per week, which was "perceived as a major accomplishment.” The collection showcased 537 paintings and 184 objects of art. Three quarters were derived from the royal collections, the remainder from confiscated émigrés and Church property.In 1794, France's revolutionary armies began bringing pieces from Northern Europe, augmented after the Treaty of Tolentino (1797) by works from the Vatican, such as Laocoön and His Sons and the Apollo Belvedere, to establish the Louvre as a museum and as a "sign of popular sovereignty"
  • Pope Gregory XIII commissioned the maps from his cosmographer, the multi-talented Italian priest IgnazioDanti. Danti had come to Rome from his post as mathematics professor in Bologna to help the pope with his efforts to correct the inaccurate Julian Calendar using modern Renaissance mathematics and astronomy.
  • Leonardo's Vitruvian Man is a study of the proportions of the human body, linking art and science in a representation of Renaissance Humanism.
  • Leonardo da Vinci, comparisonb/n human and dog’s leg
  • Leonardo da Vinci, section of skull
  • Leonardoda Vinci
  • Copernicus' vision of the universe in De revolutionibusorbiumcoelestium, 1643.PTOLEMY offered the most mathematically exact and the most successful system of predictive astronomy in late antiquity, plus a persuasive moral content. Because of this, a whole way of reading the Scripture was founded on the geocentric system.Nicolaus Copernicus measured and confirmed that Ptolemy’s system was producing larger and larger discrepancies, while study of antique sources revealed that Aristharchus of Samos had already designed a heliocentric universe. Only, at that time Ptolemy’s system worked better. Copernicus did not print until the end. The friend who supervised the publication put the dedication to the pope at the beginning. As long as a hypothesis allows reliable computation, it does not have to match what a philosopher might seek as the truth. Anyhow, the famous page that contains Copernicus’ diagram of the solar system was surrounded by a Neoplatonic hymn to the sun “which Hermes Trismegistus calls the visible God.”
  • The basics of the Tychonian geocentric system: the objects on blue orbits (the Moon and the Sun and the fixed stars) revolve around the Earth. The objects on orange orbits (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) revolve around the Sun. All is surrounded by a sphere of fixed stars (though they are fixed only with respect to each other, for the sphere revolves around the earth). The system is essentially geocentric, though everything except for the moon and the fixed stars and the earth centre itself revolves around the Sun.The crater Tycho on the Moon is named after him, as is the crater Tycho Brahe on Mars. The Tycho Brahe Planetarium in Copenhagen is also named after him.
  • Johann Kepler's Platonic solid model of the Solar system from MysteriumCosmographicum (1600).JOHANN KEPLER (d.1630) could demonstrate that the true shape of planetary motion was an ellipse, not a circle, and that the sun stood at one of the foci.Kepler probably was the first real astrophysicist, as we know the term in the modern sense, using physics to explain and interpret astronomicalphenomena. He was the first to explain that the tides are caused by the moon. In his book Astronomia Nova, he was the first to suggest that the sun rotates about its axis. In 1620 Kepler’s mother was being tried for witchcraft. Germany was well into the Thirty Years’ War, and in his adult life he was chased out of one town after another by the Counter-Reformation. He was excommunicated by his own church. Kepler was a believing Lutheran and would never become a Catholic, even when it would have benefited his career to do so. Galileo has come down to us through history as the martyr for science, while Kepler has been treated by some as a sort of embarrassment.
  • Back to a more traditional form, the dialogue, to usher in a revolution.The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems was a 1632 Italian language book comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system. It was translated to Latin in 1635. The book, which was dedicated to Galileo's patron, Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was on the Index of prohibited books until 1835.
  • CristianoBanti, 1857. Bertolt Brecht wrote Life of Galileo in 1937-38, while on the run from the Nazis. His Galileo uses the telescope to substantiate Copernicus’, and publishes in vernacular Italian, rather than traditional scientific Latin, so that it is accessible by the common people. His daughter's marriage to a well-off young man (with whom she is genuinely in love) fails because of Galileo's reluctance to distance himself from his unorthodox teachings!!!Galileo is brought to the Vatican for interrogation. Upon being threatened with torture, he recants his teachings. His students are shocked by his surrender in the face of pressure from the church authorities!!!Galileo, old and broken, living under house arrest, is visited by one of his former pupils, and gives him a book containing all his scientific discoveries, asking him to smuggle it out of Italy for dissemination abroad. Andrea now believes Galileo's actions were heroic and that he just recanted to fool the ecclesiastical authorities. However, Galileo insists his actions had nothing to do with heroism but were merely the result of self-interest.More subtly, Marx is sometimes interpreted as advocating technological determinism (really? Rather, economic det), which is reflected in the telescope (a technological change) being the root of the scientific progress and hence social unrest.
  • Raphael, School of Athens, AGAIN.
  • Michelangelo,Birth of Adam, AGAIN.
  • In 1496, when he was a young man, Michelangelo sculpted a sleeping cupid. He, or an accomplice, then buried it in acidic earth to give it an appearance of great age. The plan was to pass it off as an antiquity, which would allow it to fetch a higher price. The artificially aged sculpture was sold through a dealer to Cardinal RaffaelloRiario of San Giorgio. Eventually the Cardinal learned of the forgery, and he demanded his money back from the dealer. However, the Cardinal was so impressed by Michelangelo's obvious talent that he didn't press charges against the young artist. To the contrary, he allowed him to keep his percentage of the sale.
  • Found ad Anzio, nearby Rome, at the end of the 1400s, it was a COPY of a Greek bronze statue from the 4th century BC. Since the mid-1700s, it has been considered a masterpiece, but also a perfect aesthetic model (?).
  • Hi322 final review

    1. 1. HI 322Spring 2013Final Exam: May 6, 1:00pm
    2. 2. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE WOMEN’S POSITION IN SOCIETYDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    3. 3. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION IN SOCIETYDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    4. 4. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
    5. 5. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBEWOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
    6. 6. HOW WOULD YOUDESCRIBE WOMEN’SPOSITION INSOCIETY DURINGTHE RENAISSANCE?
    7. 7. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE WOMEN’S POSITION INSOCIETY DURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    8. 8. WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THERENAISSANCE?
    9. 9. WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THE RENAISSANCE?Carolus QuintusImperator(after LucasCranachthe Young) (1550)LondonBritish Museum
    10. 10. WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF FASHION DURING THE RENAISSANCE?TitianLa Bella1536FlorencePalazzo Pitti
    11. 11. HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE LEONARDO DA VINCI’S PERSONALITY?ventor?
    12. 12. A HOW WOULD YOU DEFINE LEONARDO DA VINCI’SPERSONALITY?
    13. 13. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    14. 14. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    15. 15. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    16. 16. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    17. 17. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    18. 18. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE SOCIAL ROLE OF THE ARTISTDURING THE RENAISSANCE?
    19. 19. COMPARE BRUNELLESCHI’S DOME IN FLORENCE CATHDERAL WITHBRAMANTE’S TEMPIETTO IN ROME. WHICH OF THE TWO WOULD YOUSAY EMBODIES RENAISSANCE IDEAS/IDEALS? WHY?
    20. 20. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRON INTHE RENAISSANCE?
    21. 21. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRON IN THERENAISSANCE?
    22. 22. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBETHE ROLE OF ARTISTIC PATRONIN THE RENAISSANCE?
    23. 23. WHY DO YOU THINK THATPORTRAITURE DEVELOPEDIN RENAISSANCE ITALY (andIn Flanders, but we will justConsider Italy)?
    24. 24. WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
    25. 25. WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
    26. 26. WHAT WAS THAT THERENAISSANCE ARTISTSTRIED TO REPRESENTIN A PORTRAIT?BEAUTY, WEALTH, POWER,PERSONALITY, …?
    27. 27. WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE?WHY?
    28. 28. WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE?WHY?Palazzo Dandolo, 1400s)St. Mark Basilica
    29. 29. Édouard Manet, Olympia (1863), Musée d’Orsay, ParisGiorgione, Sleeping Venus (ca. 1510), Gemäldegalerie,DresdenFrancesco Colonna,Hypnerotomachia Poliphili(Aldo Manuzio, 1499)WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE?WHY?
    30. 30. Titian, Woman with a Mirror (ca.1514), Musée du Louvre, ParisGiovanni Bellini, Nude with a Mirror(1515), Kunsthistorisches Museum,ViennaFollower of Titian, Alfonso d’Esteand Laura dei Dianti (ca. 1520),National Gallery of Art, WashingtonTitian, Vinus with a Mirror (ca.1555), National Gallery of Art,WashingtonWOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCE VENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    31. 31. WOULD YOU SAY THAT RENAISSANCEVENICE WAS MORE OF APOLITICAL MYTH, OR A MODELSTATE?WHY
    32. 32. Still a myth.“Venice, half fairy tale and half tourist trap.” ThomasMann
    33. 33. WHY DO YOU THINK THE AMERICAN FOUNDING FATHERSLIKED THE VENETIAN ANDREA PALLADIO?
    34. 34. WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    35. 35. WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    36. 36. WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    37. 37. WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    38. 38. WOULD YOU SAY THATRENAISSANCE FLORENCE WASMORE OF A POLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE? WHY?
    39. 39. Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus (1545-54), Loggia deiLanzi, FlorenceBenvenuto Cellini,Self-Portrait (cc. 1560)WOULD YOU SAYTHAT RENAISSANCEFLORENCE WASMORE OF APOLITICAL MYTHOR A MODEL STATE?WHY?
    40. 40. Raphael, Portrait ofBaldassarCastiglione (ca.1515), Paris,Musée du LouvreDISCUSS THE FIGURE OF ‘COURTIER’ ASIT APPEARS IN BALDASSARRE CASTIGLIONE.
    41. 41. UrbinoPalazzo DucaleHOW WOULD YOU OUTLINE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ITALIAN COURTSFOR THE RENAISSANCE POLITICAL DISCOURSE?
    42. 42. Lente obiettiva di Galileo (fine 1609),Museo Galileo di FirenzeHOW WOULD YOU OUTLINTHE IMPORTANCE OF THITALIAN COURTS FOR THERENAISSANCE POLITICALDISCOURSE?
    43. 43. Milan, Sforza CastleHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    44. 44. Sforza Castle-MilanHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    45. 45. Naples, Maschio AngioinoHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    46. 46. Ferrara, Castello EstenseHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    47. 47. Ferrara, Palazzo SchifanoiaHall of the Months, April(1471)HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    48. 48. Ferrara, Palazzo dei DiamantiHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    49. 49. Mantua, Ducal PalaceHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTUREREPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    50. 50. Mantegna, Camera deglisposi(1465-1474), Ducal PalaceGiulio Romano,Sala di Psyche (1527-1528),Mantua, Palazzo del tèHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    51. 51. Mantua, Palazzo del tèHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    52. 52. Florence, Fortezza da BassoHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    53. 53. Trento, Buonconsiglio Castle Trento, Palazzo delle AlbereHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    54. 54. Palazzo Venezia-RomaHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    55. 55. Palazzo della Cancelleria-RomeHOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OF THE STATE?
    56. 56. HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OFTHE STATE?
    57. 57. HOW DOES RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE REPRESENT THE EVOLUTION OFTHE STATE?
    58. 58. TO WHAT EXTENT DOESTHE BEGINNING OFMODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THERENAISSANCE?
    59. 59. TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THEBEGINNING OF MODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THE RENAISSANCE?
    60. 60. Engraving of Ferrante Imperato’s museum, from Ferrante Imperato,Dell’historia naturale (Naples: Vitale, 1599)
    61. 61. A MUSEUM
    62. 62. A MUSEUM
    63. 63. The First Modern Museum? Laoocon, an icon
    64. 64. TO WHAT EXTENT DOESTHE BEGINNING OFMODERN SCIENCEBELONG TO THERENAISSANCE?
    65. 65. WAS WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
    66. 66. WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
    67. 67. WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
    68. 68. WAS LEONARDO DA VINCI A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
    69. 69. Nicolaus Copernicus(1473-1543)WAS COPERNICUS A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
    70. 70. WAS WAS THYCO BRAHE A SCIENTIST? WHY OR WHY NOT?
    71. 71. Johannes Kepler(1571-1630)WAS KEPLER A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
    72. 72. WAS GALILEO A SCIENTIST?WHY OR WHY NOT?
    73. 73. WHY WAS ART SO CENTRAL TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THERENAISSANCE?Cupid (Michelangelo)
    74. 74. WHY WAS ART SO CENTRAL TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THERENAISSANCE?
    75. 75. WHY WAS ART SO CENTRALTO OUR UNDERSTANDINGOF THE RENAISSANCE?

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