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IWMW 1997: Next Year's Web

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http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/web-focus/events/workshops/webmaster-jul1997/

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IWMW 1997: Next Year's Web

  1. 1. 1 Next Year's Web and How To Get There "If I were you I wouldn't start from here!" Brian Kelly UK Web Focus UKOLN University of Bath B.Kelly@ukoln.ac.uk
  2. 2. 2 Structured Documentation Store web resources in a rich structured open master format Why: To overcome HTML deficiencies Barriers: Lack of standards. HTML provides little structure How: XML Familiarisation: Jumbo browser See also http://www.textuality.com/xml/
  3. 3. 3 Web Visualisation Visualisation of a web site to aid end user navigation Why: To make navigation easier for end users To provide tailorable views (e.g. only show "personal home pages") Barriers: Lack of standards. Proprietary, licensed software. How: Web Collections Familiarisation: MAPA, NetObjects Fusion See also WebCutter at http://www6.nttlabs.com/ HyperNews/get/PAPER40.html See also WebCutter at http://www6.nttlabs.com/ HyperNews/get/PAPER40.html http://www.dynamicdiagrams.com/
  4. 4. 4 Better Searching (1) Why: Time wasted in searching Barriers: Lack of metadata standards. Lack of tools How: Dublin Core Familiarisation: Read UKOLN resources at http://www. ukoln.ac.uk/ metadata/ Take part in pilot
  5. 5. 5 Better Searching (2) Application of heuristic techniques in searching Why: Time wasted in searching Barriers: Lack of organisational guidelines How: Heuristics. Consistency in URLs across institution Familiarisation: Ahoy! http://ahoy.cs. washington.edu:6060/
  6. 6. 6 A Manageable Web (1) Use of metadata for site management Why: Site metadata on authoring tools, authoring methods, document types, .. Barriers: Lack of standards How: Dublin Core, PICS, XML,... Familiarisation: UKOLN metadata work Metadata to assist with following requests: • Find all pages created using Internet Assistant v1 • Find all pages which use Jscript • Find pages where author = {find author from departed-staff} Metadata to assist with following requests: • Find all pages created using Internet Assistant v1 • Find all pages which use Jscript • Find pages where author = {find author from departed-staff}
  7. 7. 7 A Manageable Web (2) Use of server side management techniques Why: Single copy to minimise maintenance Barriers: Performance, cost of software, Unix How: Server side includes, Familiarisation: MS Active Server Pages, Netscape Suitespot, PHP/FI, ... <If useragent=netscape1.1 then else if useragent= …> <P>This resource is copyright ... Adding code / text to static HTML resource: • complex • difficult to maintain Adding code / text to static HTML resource: • complex • difficult to maintain <#If useragent=netscape1.1 then else if useragent= …> <#include copyright-1.txt> Server side management tools: • HTML resource clean • easier to maintain Server side management tools: • HTML resource clean • easier to maintain
  8. 8. 8 <SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript"> <!-- Hide this from JavaScript-challenged browsers var FirstSlide = 1;var LastSlide = 17; var CurrentSlide = FirstSlide;var ImageWidth = 708 - 8; var ImageHeight = 520; var CurImageWidth = ImageWidth; var CurImageHeight = ImageHeight; /* This function concerts numbers to strings */ function CvtNtoS(iNum) {return ("" + iNum);} /* This function prefixes strings with the correct # of 0's */ function ZeroFill(iNum, iDigits) { var sNum = CvtNtoS(iNum); while (sNum.length < iDigits) sNum = "0" + sNum; return sNum;} /* this function handles the setting the navigation buttons. The name of navigation control is used here so change it if it is renamed */ function ItemClicked(iIndex, iNoteOnly) {var sIndex = ZeroFill(iIndex, 3); var sNoteHref = "note" + sIndex + ".htm"; var sSlideImage = "img" + sIndex + ".htm"; if (!iNoteOnly) // not active X, update image and nav btns frames["SlideImage"].location.href = sSlideImage; frames["Notes"].location.href = sNoteHref; CurrentSlide = iIndex;} <STRONG>Demise of Tags</STRONG> Demise of text editor for authoring Why: HTML will be too complex Barriers: Inertia. Too many tools! How: Recommendations on authoring tools Familiarisation: Front Page, Netobjects Fusion, ... <HTML><BODY > <A HREF="JavaScript:parent. ItemClicked(1, 0)"> An Introduction to Metadata </A><BR> <A HREF="JavaScript:parent. ItemClicked(2, 0)"> UK Web Focus </A><BR><A HREF="JavaScript: parent.ItemClicked(3, 0)"> Early Days of the Web (1) </A><br> HTML><BODY > <base target="_top"> <A HREF="JavaScript: parent.OutlineExpand(0)"><IMG SRC="collapse.gif" BORDER=0 ALT="Collapse"></A> <A HREF="JavaScript: parent.OutlineExpand(1)"><IMG SRC="expand.gif" BORDER=0 ALT="Expand"></A>
  9. 9. 9 Richer Hyperlinking Richer forms of hyperlinking Why: Increased functionality Barriers: Lack of standards How: XML, Javascript Familiarisation: SoftQuad HiP, http://www.w3.org/ XML/ XML-Linking Multi-way links Link destination: • Replaces existing document • Included inline in document • Displayed in new window Resolve link at: • document load • user action XML-Linking Multi-way links Link destination: • Replaces existing document • Included inline in document • Displayed in new window Resolve link at: • document load • user action See further instructions Reference Tutorial English French
  10. 10. 10 An Accessible Web Web resources accessible to people with disabilities Why: Equality. Spinoffs for "temporarily able- bodied persons" Barriers: Lack of standards, lack of awareness, misuse of HTML How: WAI, Institutional policies Familiarisation: WAI pages Technologies • Style sheets: control over appearance needed by designers, but with end user ability to change appearance (not achievable with images) • Aural style sheets: e.g. <STRONG> rendered as LOUD voice, or pause before phrase, <DT>, <DD> rendered using male / female voices, columns in tables using left and right stereo channels Technologies • Style sheets: control over appearance needed by designers, but with end user ability to change appearance (not achievable with images) • Aural style sheets: e.g. <STRONG> rendered as LOUD voice, or pause before phrase, <DT>, <DD> rendered using male / female voices, columns in tables using left and right stereo channels
  11. 11. 11 HTML Developments End user control over layout, better printing, ... Why: Increased functionality Barriers: Lack of standards How: CSS, HTML 4.0 (Cougar) Familiarisation: IE 4, Netscape 4 HTML 4.0 (Cougar) • Document Object Model (DOM): APIs (application program interface) for HTML/CSS elements. Provides a programming interface for HTML (hooks for Javascript, etc.) • Forms: Improved forms • Printing: Better control over printing • Layout: Absolute positioning of HTML elements, layering, etc HTML 4.0 (Cougar) • Document Object Model (DOM): APIs (application program interface) for HTML/CSS elements. Provides a programming interface for HTML (hooks for Javascript, etc.) • Forms: Improved forms • Printing: Better control over printing • Layout: Absolute positioning of HTML elements, layering, etc
  12. 12. 12 Increasing Use Of Java Expect to see increasing use of Java: Why: Provide extra functionality on client; Minimise support load for desktop applications Barriers: Performance concerns (real and imaginary - cf XMosaic) How: Standard web browser Familiarisation: http://www.gamelan .com/ Z39.50 clients are being developed using Java Z39.50 clients are being developed using Java
  13. 13. 13 A Customisable Web End user choice of preferred formats (HTML or PDF, GIF or PNG), features (frames or tables), languages, etc. Why: Choice for the end user, deployment of new features Barriers: Lack of standards, misuse of HTML How: TCN, Cookies Familiarisation: http://tips.iworld.com/ Replace this with use of cookies or transparent content negotiation
  14. 14. 14 Maths Mathematical formulae on the web. Why: Needed by scientists, images of formulae are slow and have no semantics Barriers: Lack of standards How: MML, XML, Java, ActiveX Familiarisation: http://www.w3.org/ MarkUp/Math/
  15. 15. 15 A Quicker Web More effective use of scarce bandwidth Why: The web is too slow! Barriers: Limitations of protocols (HTML, HTTP) How: Caching, HTTP/1.1, HTTP/NG, Education, Charging! Familiarisation: Monitoring web pages, Internet magazines, attending workshops Technologies • Caching: Essential! • HTTP/1.1: New protocol is more cache- aware, and avoids problems (e.g. stale information) which have occurred in the past • HTTP/NG: Proposal for new protocol • Style sheets: Avoids need for large images for design effects Technologies • Caching: Essential! • HTTP/1.1: New protocol is more cache- aware, and avoids problems (e.g. stale information) which have occurred in the past • HTTP/NG: Proposal for new protocol • Style sheets: Avoids need for large images for design effects
  16. 16. 16 Collaborative Tools Use of collaborative and conferencing web tools. Why: Provide rich collaborative tools Barriers: Lack of locking, notification systems, HTML deficiencies How: WebDAV work, Cougar Familiarisation: Amaya, http://union.ncsa. uiuc.edu/HyperNews/ get/hypernews.html
  17. 17. 17 Push Technologies Use of push technologies. Why: Push information, teaching and learning services to end users Barriers: Lack of standards, bandwidth concerns How: CDF Familiarisation: Pointcast IE 4
  18. 18. 18 Conclusions • The web is still developing rapidly • Conformance to standards is important • Institutions will have to continually monitor new developments • There is a real danger that the costs in providing web services will increase when chasing new developments

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