Joint Monitoring and Assessment
in transboundary basins:
obligations and experience under the
Convention
Addis Abbeba, 14 ...
ifferent levels of co-operationifferent levels of co-operation
• InternationalInternational levellevel
•
• National levelN...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
International levelInternational level
UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and ...
A legal frame for co-operation to assure
the protection of water and ecological resources and their
sustainable use in the...
Trans NationalTrans National
Monitoring NetworkMonitoring Network –– TNMNTNMN
TNMNTNMN until 2007until 2007
 Based on national monitoringBased on national monitoring
networksnetworks
 Data from 77 s...
Major Objective –Major Objective –
Revised TNMNRevised TNMN
 The major objectiveThe major objective
 overview of theover...
TransNationalTransNational
Monitoring NetworkMonitoring Network
TNMNTNMN
1st yearbook 19961st yearbook 1996
- Harmonise or...
JDS2 JOINT DANUBE PROGRAMME 2008JDS2 JOINT DANUBE PROGRAMME 2008
•96 sites were successfully sampled along the
2,600 km stretch of the Danube River
•Survey gathered comprehensive informat...
HUNGARYHUNGARY
AUSTRIAAUSTRIA
SLOVAKIASLOVAKIA
UKRAINUKRAIN
ROMANIAROMANIA
YUGOSLAVIAYUGOSLAVIA
CROATIACROATIA
SLOVENIASLO...
History:History:
started with flood defenses,started with flood defenses,
followed by data exchange andfollowed by data ex...
Hungary - Romania
Sub-committeesSub-committees
-- on the protection against floods and excess waterson the protection agai...
RegulationsRegulations
Transboundary levelTransboundary level
• on the frontier crossing of the responsible authoritieson ...
National levelNational level
- Cooperation among- Cooperation among thethe water relatedwater related
ministries and relat...
Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary
monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment
- In the...
Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary
monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment
In gener...
Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary
monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment
In gener...
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
Transboundary levelTransboundary level
Flood control
Hydrological data exchange
Water quality protection
Surface water man...
RegulationRegulation of mutual communication ofof mutual communication of
meteoro-meteoro-logical and hydrological data an...
RegulationsRegulations
Transboundary levelTransboundary level
• rules of procedure of the HU-SK Committeerules of procedur...
Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation
of water qu...
Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation
of water qu...
Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation
of water qu...
Regulation on the activities during the accidental pollution
of the Hungarian -Slovakian transboundary waters (1995)
Trans...
Objectives of the DRPCObjectives of the DRPC
• Ensure sustainable and equitable water management;
• Ensure conservation, i...
IT
CH
PL
MK
AL
ICPDR
DE
AT
CZ
UA
MD
HU
SI
CS
BG
RO
SK
HRBA
– coordination
– information exchange
– develop strategy for RB...
COUNTRY
GERMANY
AUSTRIA
of the state
POPULATION*
in DRB
82,398,326 9.300 11.49
8,188,207 7.700 9.51
CZECH REPUBLIC 10,249,...
• 10% of Europe
• 83 mil inhabitants
• 19 countries
Most international
river basin in the
world
Catchment levelCatchment level
Convention on Co-operation for the ProtectionConvention on Co-operation for the Protection
...
•Important tool for the preparation of the Danube
River Basin Management Plan
•Generally improving trend along the main Da...
Joint Monitoring and Assessment in transboundary basins: obligations and experience under the Convention
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Joint Monitoring and Assessment in transboundary basins: obligations and experience under the Convention

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Zsuzsanna BUZÁS
Presentation at the 2nd Targeted Workshop for GEF IW Projects in Africa on Economic Valuation in November 2012 in Addis Ababa.

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  • The coordinated Monitoring Network has been upgraded.
  • Joint Monitoring and Assessment in transboundary basins: obligations and experience under the Convention

    1. 1. Joint Monitoring and Assessment in transboundary basins: obligations and experience under the Convention Addis Abbeba, 14 November 2012 Zsuzsanna BUZÁS Hungary PhotoWWF
    2. 2. ifferent levels of co-operationifferent levels of co-operation • InternationalInternational levellevel • • National levelNational level • River basin levelRiver basin level Transboundary levelTransboundary level
    3. 3. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses andof Transboundary Watercourses and International LakesInternational Lakes (Helsinki Convention)(Helsinki Convention) World Meteorological OrganisationWorld Meteorological Organisation • • Hydrology and Water Resources ProgrammeHydrology and Water Resources Programme • - Guide to Hydrological Practice- Guide to Hydrological Practice • - Technical Regulations- Technical Regulations
    4. 4. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakesof Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes -The Convention entered into force in 1996 but already in 1994The Convention entered into force in 1996 but already in 1994 started the Task Force on Monitoring and Assessment (which laterstarted the Task Force on Monitoring and Assessment (which later on became the Working Group on Monitoring and Assessment)on became the Working Group on Monitoring and Assessment) with the main task developing Guidelines,with the main task developing Guidelines, - these guidelines aimed to assist the Governments and jointthese guidelines aimed to assist the Governments and joint bodies for common management of transboundary waters (surfacebodies for common management of transboundary waters (surface and groundwaters)and groundwaters) - the guidelines were revised based on findings of the pilot projectsthe guidelines were revised based on findings of the pilot projects that aimed to implement of given guidelines in practicethat aimed to implement of given guidelines in practice
    5. 5. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakesof Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes Guidelines and Strategies Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment ofGuidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality of Transboundary Rivers, 1996Water Quality of Transboundary Rivers, 1996 (revised in 2000)(revised in 2000) Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment ofGuidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Groundwaters, 2000Transboundary Groundwaters, 2000 Guidelines on MA of Transboundary andGuidelines on MA of Transboundary and International Lakes (2002)International Lakes (2002) Strategies for Monitoring and Assessment ofStrategies for Monitoring and Assessment of Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters,Transboundary Rivers, Lakes and Groundwaters, 20062006
    6. 6. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakesof Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes Guidelines on Monitoring and Assessment ofGuidelines on Monitoring and Assessment of Water Quality of Transboundary Rivers, 1996Water Quality of Transboundary Rivers, 1996 (revised in 2000)(revised in 2000) Content: - Identification of river-basinContent: - Identification of river-basin management issuesmanagement issues - information needs- information needs - strategies for monitoring and assessm.- strategies for monitoring and assessm. - monitoring programmes- monitoring programmes - data management- data management - reporting- reporting - joint co-ordinated action and institutional- joint co-ordinated action and institutional aspectsaspects
    7. 7. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakesof Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes - pilot projectspilot projects were good tools to learn how could the countrieswere good tools to learn how could the countries put into practice the guidelinesput into practice the guidelines - it started with MoU signed by the two Parties, in which theyit started with MoU signed by the two Parties, in which they declared with river basin – lake – or groundwater would be thedeclared with river basin – lake – or groundwater would be the topic,topic, - usually they got some special financial support both for theusually they got some special financial support both for the implementation itself and for the reporting about the findings,implementation itself and for the reporting about the findings,
    8. 8. International levelInternational level UN/ECE Convention on the Protection and UseUN/ECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakesof Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes - the final reports were handed overthe final reports were handed over bothboth to the MA Working Groupto the MA Working Group andand the given joint bodies for further consideration,the given joint bodies for further consideration, - pilot projects were useful instrument not only for the trialpilot projects were useful instrument not only for the trial implementation and developing guidelines, but for the furtherimplementation and developing guidelines, but for the further cooperation of the involved countries,cooperation of the involved countries, - but had some problems as well: planned 2 years were neverbut had some problems as well: planned 2 years were never enough, language (English reports had to be translated)enough, language (English reports had to be translated) andand sometime financial problemssometime financial problems
    9. 9. A legal frame for co-operation to assure the protection of water and ecological resources and their sustainable use in the Danube River Basin It was developed parallel with UNECE Water Convention The Danube River Protection ConventionThe Danube River Protection Convention signed: 29 June 1994, Sofia entered into force: 22 October 1998 Permanent Secretariat: since 1 October 1999
    10. 10. Trans NationalTrans National Monitoring NetworkMonitoring Network –– TNMNTNMN
    11. 11. TNMNTNMN until 2007until 2007  Based on national monitoringBased on national monitoring networksnetworks  Data from 77 sampling stationsData from 77 sampling stations providedprovided  52 determinands in water52 determinands in water  Minimum sampling frequencyMinimum sampling frequency 12/year (chem) 2/year (biol)12/year (chem) 2/year (biol)
    12. 12. Major Objective –Major Objective – Revised TNMNRevised TNMN  The major objectiveThe major objective  overview of theoverview of the overall status and long-termoverall status and long-term changeschanges of surface water andof surface water and –– wherewhere necessarynecessary –– groundwater on a basin-wide scalegroundwater on a basin-wide scale  particular attention paid to theparticular attention paid to the transboundarytransboundary effectseffects like pollution loadlike pollution load link Danube nutrient loads and eutrophication Blacklink Danube nutrient loads and eutrophication Black SeaSea monitoring of nutrient sources and pathways ofmonitoring of nutrient sources and pathways of nutrients in the DRB and the effects of measures tonutrients in the DRB and the effects of measures to reduce the nutrient loads into the Black Sea.reduce the nutrient loads into the Black Sea.  address alladdress all biological quality elementsbiological quality elements
    13. 13. TransNationalTransNational Monitoring NetworkMonitoring Network TNMNTNMN 1st yearbook 19961st yearbook 1996 - Harmonise or make comparable the monitoring and assessment methods - Develop communication and data processing facilities - Elaborate joint programmes for monitoring the riverine conditions in the Danube catchment as basis for the assessment of transboundary impacts
    14. 14. JDS2 JOINT DANUBE PROGRAMME 2008JDS2 JOINT DANUBE PROGRAMME 2008
    15. 15. •96 sites were successfully sampled along the 2,600 km stretch of the Danube River •Survey gathered comprehensive information about riverine hydromorphology, biology and chemistry; microbiological and isotope analysis was performed as well •Strengthened basin-wide cooperation among the scientific community •Increased public awareness toward water quality protection JDS2JDS2 ObjectivesObjectives
    16. 16. HUNGARYHUNGARY AUSTRIAAUSTRIA SLOVAKIASLOVAKIA UKRAINUKRAIN ROMANIAROMANIA YUGOSLAVIAYUGOSLAVIA CROATIACROATIA SLOVENIASLOVENIA Transboundary levelTransboundary level Bilateral co-operation isBilateral co-operation is essential for the dailyessential for the daily water management inwater management in Hungary, because 96 %Hungary, because 96 % of the water resourcesof the water resources is originated from theis originated from the neighbouring countriesneighbouring countries 7 neighbours7 neighbours
    17. 17. History:History: started with flood defenses,started with flood defenses, followed by data exchange andfollowed by data exchange and water quality controlwater quality control Co-operation through commities based on the WaterCo-operation through commities based on the Water Convention principles, organised according toConvention principles, organised according to • technical issues, ortechnical issues, or • catchmentscatchments only commitees related to water quality exist in all relationsonly commitees related to water quality exist in all relations Co-operation in water resources management have startedCo-operation in water resources management have started Co-operation in groundwater related question is the next stepCo-operation in groundwater related question is the next step Common implementation ofCommon implementation of EUEU WFD is the new taskWFD is the new task Co-operation are based on regulationsCo-operation are based on regulations Hungarian experience at transboundary levelHungarian experience at transboundary levelHungarian experience at transboundary levelHungarian experience at transboundary level
    18. 18. Hungary - Romania Sub-committeesSub-committees -- on the protection against floods and excess waterson the protection against floods and excess waters -- on water management anon water management and hydrometeorologyd hydrometeorology,, -- on water qualityon water quality Hungary - Slovakia Subsidiary bodiesSubsidiary bodies - Danube sub-committee- Danube sub-committee - Ipoly/Ipel- Ipoly/Ipel sub-committeesub-committee - Tisza sub-committee- Tisza sub-committee - Sub-committee on water quality- Sub-committee on water quality - Expert group on hydrology- Expert group on hydrology - Expert group on the implementation- Expert group on the implementation on WFDon WFD Transboundary levelTransboundary levelTransboundary levelTransboundary level
    19. 19. RegulationsRegulations Transboundary levelTransboundary level • on the frontier crossing of the responsible authoritieson the frontier crossing of the responsible authorities • on the mutual visual aerial observations underon the mutual visual aerial observations under criticalcritical situations caused by floods asituations caused by floods annd excess watersd excess waters • on flood defenon flood defencces,es, • of mutual communication of meteorological andof mutual communication of meteorological and hydrological data and informationhydrological data and information • on the water quality of transboundary surface waters,on the water quality of transboundary surface waters, • on the procedures in the cases of unexpected, hazardous pollutionon the procedures in the cases of unexpected, hazardous pollution • on the defences against excess waters,on the defences against excess waters, • on the concerted operation ofon the concerted operation of some hydraulicsome hydraulic structures,structures, • on the regular hydrological observation andon the regular hydrological observation and commoncommon identification of water resourcesidentification of water resources of watercoursesof watercourses Romania - Hungary
    20. 20. National levelNational level - Cooperation among- Cooperation among thethe water relatedwater related ministries and related institutionsministries and related institutions including monitoring activitiesincluding monitoring activities (surface and groundwater, quantity and(surface and groundwater, quantity and qqualityuality!!)) - Responsibility for co-operation on- Responsibility for co-operation on the transboundary, catchmentthe transboundary, catchment and international leveland international level
    21. 21. Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment - In the Hungarian practice:In the Hungarian practice: - we revised the already existing transboundary water- we revised the already existing transboundary water agreements based on Helsinkiagreements based on Helsinki ConventionConvention and EU WFDand EU WFD (the river basin principle and new(the river basin principle and new taskstasks)) - in the regulations under the Agreements were introducedin the regulations under the Agreements were introduced the groundwater and new biological parameters, partlythe groundwater and new biological parameters, partly based on the outcomes of the pilot projects under UNECEbased on the outcomes of the pilot projects under UNECE
    22. 22. Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment In general (1):In general (1): - being Parties to the UNECE Water Convention gives not onlybeing Parties to the UNECE Water Convention gives not only obligations, but neutral field for discussions ofobligations, but neutral field for discussions of water relatedwater related problems, between downstream and upstream countries,problems, between downstream and upstream countries, -importance of personal contacts and understanding, commonimportance of personal contacts and understanding, common work, including common measuraments and projects withwork, including common measuraments and projects with involvment all the interested institutions and the public,involvment all the interested institutions and the public, - Parties should try to translate all relevant documents,- Parties should try to translate all relevant documents, guidelines into their national languageguidelines into their national language
    23. 23. Lessons learnt on transboundaryLessons learnt on transboundary monitoring and assessmentmonitoring and assessment In general (2):In general (2): - both the transboundary agreement and the regulation- both the transboundary agreement and the regulation under it dealing with MA tasks should include surface andunder it dealing with MA tasks should include surface and groundwater, quality and quantity elements event thoughgroundwater, quality and quantity elements event though the monitoring for these elements on national level belongthe monitoring for these elements on national level belong to different ministries and institutions,to different ministries and institutions, - sign the Agreement on high political level and implement- sign the Agreement on high political level and implement on regional, expert level, having the feedback connectionon regional, expert level, having the feedback connection
    24. 24. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTIONTHANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
    25. 25. Transboundary levelTransboundary level Flood control Hydrological data exchange Water quality protection Surface water management Groundwater management commoncommon river basinriver basin managementmanagement plansplans commoncommon river basinriver basin managementmanagement plansplans
    26. 26. RegulationRegulation of mutual communication ofof mutual communication of meteoro-meteoro-logical and hydrological data andlogical and hydrological data and informationinformation • • Romania - Hungary 1. Article – Introduction 2. Article – Aim of the mutual exchange of meteorological and hydrological data and information 3. Article – Regular daily meteorological data exchange 4. Article – Water – snow equivalent data exchange 5. Article – Meteorological warnings 6. Article – Daily precipitation forecasts exchange 7. Article – Regular daily hydrological data exchange 8. Article – Hydrological warnings 9. Article – Exchange of hydrological forecasts 10. Article – Replacement of daily met and hydrological data 11. Article – Exchange of yearly hydrological data 12. Article – Exchange of groundwater data 13. Article – Information of the changes of basic data 14. Article – Exchange of weather radar and radar warnings data 15- Article – Long-term hydrological forecasts 16. Article – Protocols and methods of exchange of data and information Transboundary levelTransboundary level
    27. 27. RegulationsRegulations Transboundary levelTransboundary level • rules of procedure of the HU-SK Committeerules of procedure of the HU-SK Committee on Transboundary Waterson Transboundary Waters • in the defense against floods, excess waters and icein the defense against floods, excess waters and ice • during accidental pollutionsduring accidental pollutions • on the sampling, analyses and evon the sampling, analyses and evaaluation of water qualityluation of water quality • on the activities during the accidental pollutionon the activities during the accidental pollution • • of the cooperation in the exchange of hydrological data andof the cooperation in the exchange of hydrological data and informationinformation Slovakia - Hungary
    28. 28. Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation of water quality performed by the authorities of theof water quality performed by the authorities of the Hungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in theHungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in the watercourses forming the frontier or crossed by itwatercourses forming the frontier or crossed by it Transboundary levelTransboundary level • • Slovakia - Hungary 1 Article – Aim of the regulation 2 Article – Institutions involved 3 Article – Sampling places 4 Article – Water quality parameters 5 Article - Sampling methods 6 Article – Fulfilment of physical, chemical and biological samplings 7 Article – Compliance of the results 8 Article – Evaluation of the results 9 Article – Applied threshold limits 10 Article – Qualification of the results 11 Article – Periodical survey of the water quality changes 12 Article – Reporting obligations of the Water quality sub- commission 13 Article – Closing resolutions
    29. 29. Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation of water quality performed by the authorities of theof water quality performed by the authorities of the Hungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in theHungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in the watercourses forming the frontier or crossed by itwatercourses forming the frontier or crossed by it Transboundary levelTransboundary level • • Slovakia - Hungary Annexes 1. Data of involved institutions 2. List of the sampling places and frequencies 3. List of the parameters, units and yearly frequencies of given parameters 4. Sampling, conservation, transport and storage methods 5. Fulfilment of physical, chemical and biological samplings 6. Protocol for common sampling results 7. Protocol for evaluation of the results 8. Threshold values for evaluation 9. Summary table 10. Protocol for the water quality changes of given rivers
    30. 30. Regulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluationRegulation on the sampling, analyses and the evaluation of water quality performed by the authorities of theof water quality performed by the authorities of the Hungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in theHungarian Republic and the Slovak Republic in the watercourses forming the frontier or crossed by itwatercourses forming the frontier or crossed by it Transboundary levelTransboundary level • • Slovakia - Hungary 4 Article – Water quality parameters - general physical and inorganic chemical parameters - general organic parameters - inorganic industrial pollutants parameters - organic industrial pollutants parameters - biological parameters (including based on WFD: phytoplankton, - - macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrate fauna) 12. Article – Reporting obligations of the Water quality sub- commission - evaluation of water quality in written from and with general tabulators - general summary of the yearly water quality changes - reasons of the changes
    31. 31. Regulation on the activities during the accidental pollution of the Hungarian -Slovakian transboundary waters (1995) Transboundary levelTransboundary level • • Slovakia - Hungary 1-2. Article – Introduction and aim of the regulation 3. Article – Information exchange 4. Article – Evaluation of the risk and vulnerability 5. Article – Contingency plans 6. Article – Warning systems 7. Article – Information about the events 8. Article – Post-evaluation of accidental pollutions List of annexes 1. Data of the institutions which have to be informed in case of accidental pollutions (two responsible national ministries) 2. Data of other institutions involved into accidental events information exchange 3. Protocol for reporting 4. Technical means for identification of accident 5. Contingency plans’ content 6. Information protocol about the accidental pollution
    32. 32. Objectives of the DRPCObjectives of the DRPC • Ensure sustainable and equitable water management; • Ensure conservation, improvement and rational use of surface and groundwater; • Control discharge of wastewaters, inputs of nutrients and hazardous substances from point and diffuse sources of emissions; • Control flood and ice hazards; • Control hazards originating from accidents (warning and preventive measures); • Reduce pollution loads of the Black Sea from sources in the Danube catchment area;
    33. 33. IT CH PL MK AL ICPDR DE AT CZ UA MD HU SI CS BG RO SK HRBA – coordination – information exchange – develop strategy for RBM Plan – develop DRB roof report for EC – harmonisation of methods and mechanisms Co-operation (example) Bilateral agreements (examples) RBM EG Co-operation (example) Sub-river basin co-operation (example: Tisa, Sava River) Co-ordination mechanisms in the DRB
    34. 34. COUNTRY GERMANY AUSTRIA of the state POPULATION* in DRB 82,398,326 9.300 11.49 8,188,207 7.700 9.51 CZECH REPUBLIC 10,249,216 2.800 3.46 SLOVAKIA 5,430,033 5.200 6.42 HUNGARY 10,045,407 10.045 12.60 capita million % SLOVENIA 1,935,677 1.700 2.10 CROATIA 4,422,248 3.000 3.71 SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO 10,655,774 9.800 12.11 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA 3,989,018 2.900 3.58 BULGARIA 7,537,929 3.500 4.32 ROMANIA 22,271,839 21.000 25.94 MOLDOVA 4,439,502 1.100 1.36 UKRAINE 48,055,439 2.650 3.27 ICPDR TOTAL 219,618,615 80.850 99.88 ALBANIA 3,582,206 0.010 0.01 ITALY 57,998,353 0.020 0.02 MACEDONIA 2,063,122 0.010 0.01 POLAND 38,622,660 0.040 0.05 SWITZERLAND 7,318,638 0.020 0.03 BASIN TOTAL 329,203,593 80.950 100.00 of the state TOTAL AREA in DRB 357,021 56,184 7.01 83,858 80,423 10.03 78,866 22,870 2.85 48,845 47,084 5.87 93,030 93,030 11.61 km2 km2 % 20,273 16,422 2.05 56,542 34,965 4.36 102,350 88,635 11.06 51,129 36,636 4.57 110,910 47,413 5.92 237,500 232,193 28.97 33,843 12,834 1.60 603,700 30,520 3.81 1,877,867 799,209 99.72 28,748 126 0.01 301,230 565 0.07 25,333 109 0.01 312,685 430 0.05 41,290 1,809 0.23 2,587,153 802,248 100.00 % in state DRB 15.74 95.90 29.00 96.39 100.00 81.00 61.84 86.60 71.65 42.75 97.77 37.92 5.06 0.44 0.19 0.43 0.14 4.38 *) as of July 2003 name statusflag EU CP − − EU − − − EU − − − EU CP EU CP EU CP EU CP EU CP Apl CP − CP − CP Acs CP Acs CP − CP − CP
    35. 35. • 10% of Europe • 83 mil inhabitants • 19 countries Most international river basin in the world
    36. 36. Catchment levelCatchment level Convention on Co-operation for the ProtectionConvention on Co-operation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the River Danubeand Sustainable Use of the River Danube International Association for Danube Research (IAD)International Association for Danube Research (IAD) International Association of Waterworks in the Danube BasinInternational Association of Waterworks in the Danube Basin Danube CommissionDanube Commission Forum of the Danubian Hydrological ServicesForum of the Danubian Hydrological Services Regional Co-operation of the Danube Countries in the frameRegional Co-operation of the Danube Countries in the frame of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCOof the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO Co-ordination of researches in the field of Danube’s ecosystemsCo-ordination of researches in the field of Danube’s ecosystems (mapping, monitoring, investigation and modelling)(mapping, monitoring, investigation and modelling) Aiming to reduce risks of pollution of drinking waterAiming to reduce risks of pollution of drinking water To ensure the unrestricted navigationTo ensure the unrestricted navigation Discussion on the monitoring related tasks related toDiscussion on the monitoring related tasks related to international conventions, organisations and directivesinternational conventions, organisations and directives
    37. 37. •Important tool for the preparation of the Danube River Basin Management Plan •Generally improving trend along the main Danube River was confirmed •Specific problems were reinforced, especially at a number of tributaries and downstream large cities JDS2JDS2 General conclusionsGeneral conclusions

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