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Teacher Certification and       The Quest for Teacher        Quality in IndonesiaPresented at the Comparative and Internati...
Presentation Outline• Teacher Certification Policy in Indonesia• Teacher Professionalism Framework• Question & Data Collect...
17,501 islands; 240 million people; 350 ethnic groups; 745 languages;  55.8 million students; 3.8 million teachers; 314,00...
Government               Society                                                             TeachersFigure 2. Indonesia’s...
Teacher Law No. 14/2005                                Minimum bachelor’s degree +                                        ...
Figure 4. Teacher Certification Mechanism (SMERU, 2012)
A profession      (Hargreaves, 2000)•   A profession should have:    ✓ a shared culture, specialized knowledge base,      ...
Professional Capital    (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012)•   Being professional: quality &    standards of practice (e.g., all  ...
Human              Pedagogical                  Competencecapital              (teaching ability)                     Pers...
Professional                   Increased                              Being                              knowledge,       ...
Costing about $5.6 billion, the Indonesian teacher certificationprogram is perhaps the most expensive one in the(developing...
Data Collection• Search engine: Google Scholar.• Keywords: teacher certification,  Indonesia; sertifikasi guru.• Analyzed th...
Results• 43 full papers, 57 abstracts.• First filter: research-based, talking about  impacts of teacher certification: 13 pa...
Study                                    Findings                              NotesTeacher Certification and             ...
Study                                           Findings                                NotesThe Influence of the Certifie...
Lessons Learned• Unclear and inconclusive (3 positive/good, 3 no  impacts); notes.• Academic upgrading & welfare  improvem...
Teacher Certification does not make an impact on                student learning!Figure 6. The causal effects of teacher ce...
Academic upgrading does not make an impact on             teacher quality! (subject matter knowledge)A clear improvement i...
Past studies on      Indonesian teachers• More fundamental problems with Indonesian  teachers:  ✓ the institutional cultur...
A glimpse of hope?  •   Welfare improvement is a huge part of the program: 91%      of the program cost is for professiona...
A side but equally powerful note:Research on Indonesian Education        is in a deep crisis: more quantity & more quality...
Good policies are costly, bad    policies cost more!                         Iwan Syahril                       syahrili@m...
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Teacher certification policy in indonesia what do we know so far?

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These are the slides from my presentation in the Comparative and international Education Society Annual Meeting March 2013 in New Orleans, USA. It was about one of Indonesia's biggest education reform initiatives, the teacher certification program. My study was still a preliminary stage, and in here I attempted to unpack what we had known about the impact of the Indonesian certification program. The results were quite surprising.

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Teacher certification policy in indonesia what do we know so far?

  1. 1. Teacher Certification and The Quest for Teacher Quality in IndonesiaPresented at the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) Annual Conference, New Orleans, March 13, 2013 Iwan Syahril Michigan State University Special thanks to the Educational Policy Program at Michigan State University for its support in this presentation
  2. 2. Presentation Outline• Teacher Certification Policy in Indonesia• Teacher Professionalism Framework• Question & Data Collection• Findings• Lessons Learned• Final Notes
  3. 3. 17,501 islands; 240 million people; 350 ethnic groups; 745 languages; 55.8 million students; 3.8 million teachers; 314,000 schools; 34 provinces (ADB, 2010)Figure 1 : Indonesian Map (http://www.freeworldmaps.net/asia/indonesia/indonesia-map-political-big.jpg)
  4. 4. Government Society TeachersFigure 2. Indonesia’s Strategy for Teacher Quality Improvement ( Adapted from Jalal et al., 2009).
  5. 5. Teacher Law No. 14/2005 Minimum bachelor’s degree + Certification Exam Base salary doubledTeacher Certification Policy 2007 --> 37.5% teachers w/ min BA/BSc degree. 2015 --> all teachers certified! SocialPedagogical CompetenceCompetence (community(teaching participation)ability) Personal Professional Competence Competence (character & role model) (training & education) Figure 3. Teacher Certification Policy in Indonesia
  6. 6. Figure 4. Teacher Certification Mechanism (SMERU, 2012)
  7. 7. A profession (Hargreaves, 2000)• A profession should have: ✓ a shared culture, specialized knowledge base, and standards of practice developed and advanced by members of the profession; ✓ a monopoly over practice with a service ethic by being committed to client’s needs; ✓ a great degree of autonomy, controlling practice according to its own standards, norms and ethics.
  8. 8. Professional Capital (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012)• Being professional: quality & standards of practice (e.g., all teachers must have bachelor’s degree & pass certification exam).• Being a professional: status & standing. (e.g., doubling base salary, social standing).• Professional capital: human, social, decisional (Hargreaves & Fullan, 2012).
  9. 9. Human Pedagogical Competencecapital (teaching ability) PersonalSocial Competence (character, role model)Capital Professional CompetenceDecisional (training & education)Capital Social Competence (community engagement)
  10. 10. Professional Increased Being knowledge, professional, Training & skills; improved being aAssessment welfare professional Teacher Teacher TeacherCertification Quality Professionalism Figure 5. The Logic of The Indonesian Teacher Certification Policy.
  11. 11. Costing about $5.6 billion, the Indonesian teacher certificationprogram is perhaps the most expensive one in the(developing) world (Fahmi, Maulana,Yusuf, 2011). Question:Does the Indonesian teacher certification improve teacher and teaching quality? What do we know so far?
  12. 12. Data Collection• Search engine: Google Scholar.• Keywords: teacher certification, Indonesia; sertifikasi guru.• Analyzed the first 25 result pages.• Articles accessible through MSU services.
  13. 13. Results• 43 full papers, 57 abstracts.• First filter: research-based, talking about impacts of teacher certification: 13 papers.• Second filter: clear methodology, at least 10 references: 6 papers.
  14. 14. Study Findings NotesTeacher Certification and 1) Only the first 4 months ofStudent Test Scores: Evidence school year.from Indonesia No significant impact on 2) Should have been matchedAuthor: Prita N. Kusumawardhani. students’ test scores. with previous, not present teachers.Source: Master’s thesis, Tinbergen Institute. 3) Estimate, not actual scores.Improving Teacher 1) The certified teachers do not Unclear link between methods and results (no report on dataProfessionalism through show significant from interview data,Certification Program: An performance improvement. observation, FGD); thus theIndonesian Case Study conclusion is questionable.Author: Triyanto. 2) There are some serious issues Unclear definitions on key with the portfolio assessment: data terms: teacher performance,Source: World Academy of Science,Engineering and Technology, 67, 2012. discrepancies, bribery, and and significant/insignificant falsification of documents. teacher performance.The performance evaluation of 1)The evaluation instrument wasthe certified high school reliable.physics, biology, and chemistry No detailed description onteachers. 2) The majority of certified how the items in theAuthors: Yusrizal, Soewarno S., science (biology, physics, instruments wereZarlaida Fitri chemistry) teachers displayed constructed and validated.Source: Jurnal Penelitian dan EvaluasiPendidikan, Tahun 15, Nomor 2, 2011. good teaching performance.
  15. 15. Study Findings NotesThe Influence of the Certified The teachers usuallyVocational Teachers’ All independent variables (certified selected to be certified hadCompetence, Years of Service, teachers’ competence, years of already been good teachers,& Socioeconomic Background experience and socioeconomic incl. work discipline.towards Teachers’ Work background) have a positiveDiscipline in Pati Regency significant influence towards Unclear elements of teacherAuthor: Sutikno. work discipline. competence wereSource: Varia Pendidikan, Vol.22, No.1, Juni 2010. quantified.The performance assessment of Unclear how observationcertified teachers using instrument was constructed.professional teachers’ The certified teachers’competence written in Law No. competence in general is Unclear how the assessors were14/2005. selected, trained, & howAuthors: Arif Firdausi Ananda, good (the second top out of five observations were conducted levels of assessment criteria). (assessors were teachers’Amat Mukhadis, Andoko. supervisors, colleagues [certified orSource: Teknologi dan Kejuruan, Vol. 33, No. 1, Februari non-certified?], and students.)2010: 65-80.Teacher Certification in Teacher certification may have A solid paper!Indonesia: A Confusion of no impact on students’ Review the renumerationMeans and Ends achievement (education quality). mechanism if it is not working toAuthors: Mohamad Fahmi, improve quality.Achmad Maulana, & Arief Anshory Teacher certification may have The mechanism should be basedYusuf. improved teachers’ living on criteria on the performance inSource: Center for Economics and Development Studies,Padjadjaran University, July 2011 standard. improving quality (e.g., test scores)
  16. 16. Lessons Learned• Unclear and inconclusive (3 positive/good, 3 no impacts); notes.• Academic upgrading & welfare improvement do not show any clear impact on quality improvement: teacher knowledge, student learning outcomes (World Bank, 2012).
  17. 17. Teacher Certification does not make an impact on student learning!Figure 6. The causal effects of teacher certification on student learning (World Bank, 2012)
  18. 18. Academic upgrading does not make an impact on teacher quality! (subject matter knowledge)A clear improvement in academic qualifications Teachers with bachelor’s degree performed(World Bank, 2012). only marginally better in subject matter tests (World Bank, 2012).Figure 7. the growth of the number of Indonesian teachers with abachelor’s degree from 2006-2010 Figure 8. the growth of the number of Indonesian teachers with a bachelor’s degree from 2006-2010
  19. 19. Past studies on Indonesian teachers• More fundamental problems with Indonesian teachers: ✓ the institutional culture - the civil servant mentality (Bjork, 2005). ✓ the teacher-centered approach, rote learning as a common practice (Zulfikar, 2009).• Change is not easy (Lim, Pagram & Nastiti, 2009).• Question: How does the teacher certification policy tackle these problems?
  20. 20. A glimpse of hope? • Welfare improvement is a huge part of the program: 91% of the program cost is for professional allowance. Is it worth it? • The incentive structure embedded in the policy has attracted more students to enroll in teacher education programs and more university graduates to enter the teaching force (USAID, 2009; World Bank, 2010).
  21. 21. A side but equally powerful note:Research on Indonesian Education is in a deep crisis: more quantity & more quality! • More research and easier access (database, data management). • Scholarly work: better language use, improved methodology.
  22. 22. Good policies are costly, bad policies cost more! Iwan Syahril syahrili@msu.edu Special thanks to the Educational Policy Program at Michigan State University for its support in this presentation.

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