Islam In Indonesian Politics (part2)

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These slides are part of the 2nd day teacher training course on Indonesia and Islam. They show that in the world\'s largest Muslim nation, voters consistently show lack of support for Islamic political parties. The inclusive nature of the secular parties seem to attract the support of the majority of Indonesian voters.

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  • Islam In Indonesian Politics (part2)

    1. 1. Islam in Indonesian By: Iwan Syahril 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 1
    2. 2. INDONESIA 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 2
    3. 3. Historical background Traders (Arabs, Indians, Chinese,  others).  Intermarriage.  Buddhist and Hindu elites and royalty were attracted to “sufism,” the mystical teachings of Islam.  Strategic relationships between rulers and merchants.  A ruler adopted, the whole 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 3
    4. 4. Religions in Indonesia Islam – 86.1%.   Protestant – 5.7%.  Roman Catholic – 3%.  Hindu – 1.8%.  Buddhism – 1%  Others – 1% (Indonesia is the 4th largest country in 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 4
    5. 5. Inclusive and compassionate Less severe/literal interpretation of  religion.  Religious tolerance.  Women have active societal roles.  Women are allowed to initiate divorce.  Women have emerged as leaders. Indonesia has had 6 presidents, one of them is a female president. 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 5
    6. 6. Islam in Indonesian Politics Three forms of state among  Muslims: ◦ A modern democratic state. ◦ An Islamic state. ◦ A universal Islamic political entity. Indonesia was founded in 1945 as  a modern secular/quasi secular democratic state. 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 6
    7. 7. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 7
    8. 8. INDONESIAN POLITICS OLD ORDER (1950-1965)  ◦ Parliamentary system. ◦ Guided Democracy (President Sukarno) NEW ORDER (1966-1998)  ◦ Pancasila Democracy (President Suharto) REFORM ORDER (1998-present)  ◦ Democracy 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 8
    9. 9. THE INDEONESIAN PRESIDENTS 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 9
    10. 10. Indonesian Major Political Parties (1) Sukarno’s era, election 1955.  ◦ PNI (Indonesian National Party) – 22.3%. ◦ Masyumi (Council of Indonesian Muslim Association) – 20.3%. ◦ NU (Nadhlatul Ulama – traditionalist Sunni) – 18.4%. ◦ PKI (Indonesian Communist Party) – 16.4%. 38.7% voters  05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 10
    11. 11. Indonesian Political Parties Suharto’s era, 1971elections  ◦ Golongan Karya (The Functional Group) – 62.80%. ◦ Nadhlatul Ulama (The traditionalist Sunni) – 18.67%. ◦ PNI (The Indonesian National Party) – 6.94%. 1977-1997 elections  ◦ Golongan Karya – 62%-74%. ◦ PPP (United Development Party) – 15%-29%. 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 11
    12. 12. Indonesian Political Parties Post Suharto Era, election 1999.  ◦ PDIP (Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle) – 33.76%. ◦ Golongan Karya (Functional Groups) – 22.46%. ◦ PKB (National Awakening Party) – 12.62%. ◦ PPP (United Development Party) – 10.72%. ◦ PAN (National Mandate Party) – 7.12%. (Total: 30.46%) Election 2004.  ◦ Golongan Karya – 21.6%. ◦ PDIP – 18.5%. ◦ PKB – 10.6%. ◦ PPP – 8.1%. ◦ Partai Demokrat (Democratic Party) – 7.5%. ◦ PKS (Prosperous Justice Party) – 7.3%. ◦ PAN – 6.4% (Total: 32.4%) Notes: Since 2004 Indonesia Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 adopted a direct 05/08/09 12
    13. 13. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 13
    14. 14. Pancasila Pancasila as the oficial state  ideology (1945), secular but religious.  Pancasila as the sole political ideology (1978) and organizational ideology (1989). – Led to strong oppositions from Muslim and Christian groups.  Forced adoption of Pancasila as the 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 14
    15. 15. Abdurrahman President (1999-2001).   A prominent Muslim cleric in Indonesia.  The leader of the largest Muslim organization in the world.  Grew up in Islamic boarding school environment - a madrasah-type.  A strong proponent of democracy, 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 15
    16. 16. The late Nurcholish Madjid / A very popular Indonesian Muslim  scholar.  Grew up in Islamic boarding school tradition - a madrasah-type.  Proposed the controversial jargon “Islam Yes, Islamic party No.”  Founder of a progressive modern university in Jakarta.  A strong advocate for democracy, 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 16
    17. 17. Conclusions (1) Islamic parties have never been  popular among Muslims. Belief and rituals is one thing, political behavior is something else. “Islam Yes, Islamic party/state No.”  No Islamic parties support the idea of formal Islamic politics, thus not subscribing to an Islamic state.  Despite having a poor image after Suharto era, Pancasila is still seen 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 17
    18. 18. Conclusions (2) Islamic formalism and symbolism  have become popular due to the absence of Pancasila in political and societal discourse.  Islamic formalism and symbolism have been motivated by the “struggle for power” by the Muslim political leaders. 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 18
    19. 19. Remaining crucial issues Good governance.   Better quality of law and order enforcement.  Education and economic prosperity.  Feudalistic culture. 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 19
    20. 20. “Thank you for listening” 05/08/09 Copyright@IwanSyahril2009 20

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