Muscular system


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Muscular system

  1. 1. Muscular System<br />movement<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. The muscular system is the anatomical system of a species that allows it to move. The muscular system in vertebrates is controlled through the nervous system, although some muscles (such as the cardiac muscle) can be completely autonomous.<br />Muscle<br /> is the tissue that makes it possible for a person or animal to move from place to place.<br />makes the heartbeat; forces the blood to circulate; & pushes the food through the digestive system.<br /> is a contractile tissue of animals and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells.<br />
  4. 4. TYPES OF MUSCLES<br />Skeletal (striated / voluntary)<br /><ul><li>Muscles are attached to the skeletons, causing the bones to move. They make a large part of the arms, legs, chest, abdomen, neck and face.</li></ul>2. Smooth (non-striated / involuntary)<br /><ul><li> Muscles differ from the skeletal muscles in structure, location and the way to they contract.
  5. 5. the muscles contract slowly & rhythmically to move the food along for digestion.
  6. 6. in blood vessels can relax to make the vessels opening wide, or contract to make them narrow. </li></ul>3. Cardiac (heart) muscles<br /><ul><li> resemble both the skeletal and smooth muscles.
  7. 7. they have striations like the skeletal but they cannot be controlled voluntarily like the smooth muscle.</li></li></ul><li>Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Atrophy<br /><ul><li>Muscular Atrophy
  8. 8. refers to a decrease in size of muscles. Individual muscle fibers decrease in size, and there is a progressive loss of myofibrils.
  9. 9. Disuse Atrophy
  10. 10. is a muscular atrophy that results from lack of muscle use.
  11. 11. is temporary if a muscle is exercised after it is taken out of a cast.</li></ul>Disuse Atrophy<br />
  12. 12. Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Muscular dystrophy <br /><ul><li>(abbreviated MD)
  13. 13. is a crippling disease characterized by gradual wasting of skeletal muscle.
  14. 14. refers to a group of hereditary muscle diseases that weaken the muscles that move the human body.
  15. 15. are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.</li></ul>Main symptoms include:<br /><ul><li>Progressive muscular wasting
  16. 16. Poor balance
  17. 17. Drooping eyelids
  18. 18. Gonadal
  19. 19. Loss of bladder control
  20. 20. Scoliosis (curvature of the spine and the back)
  21. 21. Inability to walk
  22. 22. Frequent falls
  23. 23. Waddling gait
  24. 24. Calf deformation
  25. 25. Limited range of movement
  26. 26. Respiratory difficulty</li></ul>Few or none of these symptoms may be present before diagnosis. Some types of muscular dystrophy can affect the heart, causing cardiomyopathy or arrhythmias.<br />
  27. 27. Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Types of Muscular dystrophy <br /><ul><li>Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD)
  28. 28. symptoms usually are noted before age 5. the muscles first affected are those of the pelvis and trunk, resulting in spinal deformity and a waddling gait.
  29. 29. is the most common childhood form of muscular dystrophy, becoming clinically evident when a child begins walking.
  30. 30. Patients typically require a wheelchair by age 10 to 12 and die in their late teens to early 30s,though some people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are now living to age 40 and beyond.</li></ul>Histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle from patient who died of pseudo hypertrophic muscular dystrophy, Duchenne type. Cross section of muscle shows extensive replacement of muscle fibers by adipose cells.<br />
  31. 31. Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Types of Muscular dystrophy <br /><ul><li>Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy
  32. 32. FSHMD, FSHD or FSH
  33. 33. Form of the disease affects both sexes equally and results in weakness and wasting of the shoulder girdle and upper arms.
  34. 34. It is usually noted around the onset of puberty.
  35. 35. which is also known as Landouzy-Dejerine,is a usually autosomal dominant inherited form of muscular dystrophy (MD)that initially affects the skeletal muscles of the face (facio), scapula (scapulo) and upper arms (humeral).
  36. 36. occurs both in males and females.</li></ul>27-year-old female with faciohumeroscapular muscular dystrophy. Marked non-structural hyperlordosis. Upright position achieved only by forward pelvic tilt.<br />
  37. 37. Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Types of Muscular dystrophy <br /><ul><li>Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy or Erb's muscular dystrophy
  38. 38. is an autosomal class of muscular dystrophy that is similar but distinct from Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Becker's muscular dystrophy.
  39. 39. encompasses a large number of rare disorders.
  40. 40. The term "limb-girdle" is used to describe these disorders because the muscles most severely affected are generally those of the hips and shoulders.</li></li></ul><li>Diseases & Disorder of the Muscular System<br />Types of Muscular dystrophy <br /><ul><li> Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy
  41. 41. delayed relaxation of the muscles accompanies wasting and weakness.
  42. 42. affects both sexes, but children of affected mothers are more likely to inherit a severe form of the disease than children of affected fathers.
  43. 43. is a chronic, slowly progressing, highly variable inherited multisystemic disease.
  44. 44. It is characterized by wasting of the muscles (muscular dystrophy), cataracts, heart conduction defects, endocrine changes, and myotonia.
  45. 45. can occur in patients of any age.</li></li></ul><li>